digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Epistemic modality is a sub-type of linguistic modality that deals with a speaker's evaluation/judgment of, degree of confidence in, or belief of the knowledge upon which a proposition is based. In other words, epistemic modality refers to the way speakers communicate their doubts, certainties, and guesses—their "modes of knowing". More technically, epistemic modality may be defined "...as (the linguistic expression of) an evaluation of the chances that a certain hypothetical state of affairs under consideration (or some aspect of it) will occur, is occurring, or has occurred in a possible world which serves as the universe of interpretation for the evaluation process… In other words, epistemic modality concerns an estimation of the likelihood that (some aspect of) a certain state of affairs is/has been/will be true (or false) in the context of the possible world under consideration. This estimation of likelihood is situated on a scale going from certainty that the state of affairs applies, via a neutral or agnostic stance towards its occurrence, to certainty that it does not apply, with intermediary positions on the positive and the negative sides of the scale".[1]

Being a sub-type of linguistic modality, epistemic modality can in its turn be classified into a number of sub-types according to various criteria. An original classification of epistemic modality based on the conception of alienated knowledge is given in the work of V. A. Yatsko.[2]

Realisation in speech[edit]

  • (a) grammatically: through
    • modal verbs (e.g., English: may, might, must; German: sollen: Er soll ein guter Schachspieler sein "He is said to be a good chess player"),
    • particular grammatical moods on verbs, the epistemic moods, or
    • a specific grammatical element, such as an affix (Tuyuca: -hīyi "reasonable to assume") or particle; or

Epistemic modality and evidentiality[edit]

Some linguists consider evidentiality (the indication of the source of the information upon which a proposition is based) to be a type of epistemic modality, and oppose it to judgement modality as epistemic modality based on the speaker's own judgement.[3] An English example follows:

I doubt that it rained yesterday. (judgement epistemic: judgement of information source)
I heard that it rained yesterday. (evidential: identification of information source)

However, other linguists feel that evidentiality is distinct from and not necessarily related to modality. Some languages mark evidentiality separately from epistemic modality.[4]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nuyts, 2001, pp. 21–22.
  2. ^ Yatsko, V.A. Logical-semantic aspects of the concept of alienated knowledge. In: Automatic Documentation and Mathematical Linguistics. 1993, VOL.27, N 4. ALLERTON PRESS INC.
  3. ^ Loos, Eugene E.; Susan Anderson; Dwight H. Day, Jr.; Paul C. Jordan; J. Douglas Wingate. "What is epistemic modality?". Glossary of linguistic terms. SIL International. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  4. ^ De Haan, pp. 56–59, and references therein.

References[edit]

  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. (2004). Evidentiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926388-4.
  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.; & Dixon, R. M. W. (Eds.). (2003). Studies in evidentiality. Typological studies in language (Vol. 54). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 90-272-2962-7; ISBN 1-58811-344-2.
  • Blakemore, D. (1994). Evidence and modality. In R. E. Asher (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 1183–1186). Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
  • De Haan, F. (2006). Typological approaches to modality. In W. Frawley (Ed.), The Expression of Modality (pp. 27–69). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Kiefer, Ferenc. (1986). Epistemic possibility and focus. In W. Abraham & S. de Meij (Eds.), Topic, focus, and configurationality. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Kiefer, Ferenc. (1994). Modality. In R. E. Asher (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 2515–2520). Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
  • Nuyts, J. (2001). Epistemic modality, language, and conceptualization: A cognitive-pragmatic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Palmer, F. R. (1979). Modality and the English modals. London: Longman.
  • Palmer, F. R. (1986). Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-26516-9, ISBN 0-521-31930-7.
  • Palmer, F. R. (2001). Mood and modality (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80035-8, ISBN 0-521-80479-5.
  • Palmer, F. R. (1994). Mood and modality. In R. E. Asher (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics (pp. 2535–2540). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  • Saeed, John I. (2003). Sentence semantics 1: Situations: Modality and evidentiality. In J. I Saeed, Semantics (2nd. ed) (Sec. 5.3, pp. 135–143). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-22692-3, ISBN 0-631-22693-1.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistemic_modality — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
5657 videos foundNext > 

Logic Lecture: Epistemic Modal Logic and Rumsfeld Known Knowns and Zizek's Unknown Knowns

Logic Playlist: http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=C88812FFE0F526B0.

On the Free Choice Potential of Epistemic and Deontic Modal

UPVEHU . Copyright: Reconocimiento - NoComercial (by-nc) Actores: Subido por: Ikusentzutezko zerbitzua.

Challenging the Unknown Unknown in Epistemic Modal Logic

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p6aPBMAT5xM&feature=plcp.

Syntax - The Function of the Verb, Part III - Mood and Modality

In this final E-Lecture of the series functional aspects of the verb, Prof. Handke discusses the notions of mood and modality. He exemplifies the rudimentary...

A Modal Epistemic Argument for the Existence of God

The argument is by Emanuel Rutten.

how to write simple sentence

Auxiliary verb Meaning contribution Example be1 copula (= linking verb) She is the boss. be2 progressive aspect He is sleeping. be3 passive voice They were s...

Alvin Plantinga and the Modal Argument

Alvin Plantinga is an American philosopher, currently the John A. O'Brien Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame. He is known for his work i...

Overview of the Epistemic Games Group

This video described the motives and goals of the Epistemic Games Group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The Epistemic Games group studies how digital...

InspiringPhilosophy's Top Down Modality

"The Introspective Argument" by InspiringPhilosophy (whom I call in short "IP"): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4l1lQMCOguw IP's video was a coproduction wit...

How to Pronounce Epistemically

Can we reach 1 Like? Watch video to the end :) World English Dictionary epistemic (ˌɛpɪˈstiːmɪk) adj 1.of or relating to knowledge or epistemology 2.See also...

5657 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Epistemic modality" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Epistemic modality

You can talk about Epistemic modality with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!