Energy balance may refer to:
- First law of thermodynamics, according to which energy cannot be created or destroyed, only modified in form
- Earth's energy imbalance (climate change), the difference between incoming solar radiation and outgoing long wave radiation.
- Energy balance (biology), a measurement of the biological homeostasis of energy in living systems
- Energy balance (energy economics), verification and analysis of emergence, transformation and use of energy sources within an economic zone
- Energy economics, where the energy balance of a country is an aggregate presentation of all human activities related to energy, except for natural and biological processes
- Groundwater energy balance, comparing a groundwater body in terms of incoming hydraulic energy associated with groundwater inflow and outflow
- Energy returned on energy invested (EROEI), ratio of the amount of usable energy acquired from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource
- Energy accounting, a system used within industry, where measuring and analyzing the energy consumption of different activities is done to improve energy efficiency
- Energy Economics (journal), a scientific journal published by Elsevier under its "North Holland" imprint
- A calculation used in designing industrial processes in which all energy flows and transformations, such as changes in temperature, heats of reaction, use of steam or other sources of heat, etc., are accounted for. Usually called a mass and energy balance because both are necessarily part of the calculation because of multiple materials involved, chemical reactions, phase changes, etc. and partial treatment of some of the materials. Energy balances are widely used in the chemical, petroleum and pulp and paper industries.
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