An endocast is the internal cast of a hollow object, often specifically used for an endocasts of the cranial vault. Endocasts can be man-made for examining the properties of a hollow, inaccessible space, or occur naturally through fossilisation.
Endocasts of the inside of the neurocranium (braincase) are often made in paleoanthropology to study brain structures and hemispheric specialization in extinct human ancestors. While an endocast can not directly reveal brain structure , it can allow scientists to gauge the size of areas of the brain situated close to the surface, notably Wernicke's and Broca's areas, responsible for interpreting and producing speech.
Traditionally, the casting material is some form of rubber or rubber-like material. The openings to the brain cavity, except for the foramen magnum, are closed, and the liquid rubber is slushed around in the empty cranial vault and then left to set. The resulting hollow sphere can then be drained of air like a balloon and pulled out through the foramen magnum. Rubber endocasts like these were the standard practice until the end of the 20th century and are still used in some fields. However, scientists are increasingly utilizing computerized tomography scanning technology to create digital endocasts in order to avoid risking damage to valuable specimens.
Natural cranial endocasts are also known. The famous Taung Child, the first Australopithecus found, consists of a natural endocast connected to the facial portion of the skull. It was the shape of the brain that allowed Raymond Dart to conclude that the fossil was that of a human relative rather than an extinct ape.
Mammal endocasts are particularly useful as they resemble the fresh brain with the dura mater in place. Such "fossil brains" are known from several hundred different mammal species. More than a hundred natural cast of the cranial vault of Bathygenys (a small merycodont) alone are known, some having identifiable features down to the major gyri. A natural cranial endocast of a Tyrannosaurus brain vault is also known, showing the animal had limited intelligence, but a well-developed sense of smell. The oldest known natural cranial endocast is a fossil fish brain from a Holocephalan, some 300 million years old.
Endocasts of other hollows
Endocast of the shell of an Ordovician
, showing the internal shell structure
Endocasts fossils from animals with shells that easily disintegrate or dissolve, like the aragonite shells of certain molluscs and the tests of sea urchins can often be encountered free from their mold fossil. A frequent form is the internal mold of brachiopods. In the quite symmetrical genus Pentamerus the endocast resembles a vulva, giving these fossils the name Schamsteine ("shame stones") in German. The "Venus of Svinesund", a early mesolithic Venus figurine from Norway is a re-worked brachiopod endocast. Endocasts are also known from snail shells and even from the stomach hollow of jellyfish, a group that rarely leave fossil traces.
Man-made endocasts are sometimes made from blood vessels for medical or anatomical reasons. The blood vessel of an organ (e.g. brain or liver) is injected with a resin. When it is set, the organ itself is dissolved, leaving a three-dimensional image of the blood supply to the organ.
- ^ a b Jerison, H.J. "Paleoneurology: The study of brain endocasts of extinct vertebrates". Comparative Mammalian Brain Collection. University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, National Museum of Health and Medicine, sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- ^ McGowan, Christopher (1991). Dinosaurs, spitfires, and sea dragons (Compl. rev. and updated version of "The successful dragons" ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-20769-6.
- ^ Brett-Surman, edited by M. K.; Buchholtz, E.; Jr., Thomas R. Holtz; director, James O. Farlow; Bob Walters, art. The complete dinosaur (2nd ed. ed.). Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. pp. 191–208. ISBN 978-0-253-00849-7.
- ^ Brain, C.K. Raymond Dart and our African Origins, in A Century of Nature: Twenty-One Discoveries that Changed Science and the World, Laura Garwin and Tim Lincoln, eds.
- ^ Wilson, J.A. (1971). "Early Tertiary vertebrate faunas, Vieja Group: Trans- Pecos Texas: Agriochoeridae and Merycoidodontidae". Texas Memorial Museum Bulletin (18): 1–83.
- ^ Australian museum: Tyrannosaurus rex brain
- ^ Oldest Fossil Brain Find Is 'Really Bizarre', LiveScience.com
- ^ Venus from Svinesund
Visible Interactive Moa - skull with brain endocast, paranasal sinuses, etc.
http://bit.ly/1wn3OuE Animation of the skull of an adult female of the extinct South Island giant moa (Dinornis robustus, FMNH PA 35), labeled to show the endocast of the brain cavity, labyrinth...
DJ Endo - Endocast #1 (August 2012)
Download on Soundcloud at: http://soundcloud.com/dj-endo/dj-endo-endocast-1-august-2012 Tracklisting: Soul Clap - EFUNK Intro (Original Mix) [Wolf + Lamb Records] Betoko - Raining Again...
Human skull with brain endocast, paranasal sinuses, & mastoid sinuses
Yaw animation of the skull of a human (OUVC 10503), revealing the brain, nasal cavity, paranasal air sinuses, and middle ear sinuses. Rendered in Amira, Maya,and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely,...
Braincase, endocast, and inner ear of a European titanosaur
Based on the 2013 PLOS ONE article (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054991) by F. Knoll, R. C. Ridgely, F. Ortega, J. L. Sanz and L. M. Witmer. CT scanning and 3D visualization of...
Sharp-shinned hawk: skull, brain endocast, & inner ear based on microCT scanning
Volume rendering of the skull and surface rendering of the brain endocast and endosseous labyrinth of the inner ear of a sharp-shinned hawk (Accipter striatus, OUVC 10650). Data segmentation...
Ostrich brain and inner ear endocast based on microCT scanning
Animation of the brain endocast and inner ear of an ostrich (Struthio camelus, OUVC 10630), based on microCT scanning. The briancase of OUVC 10630 was registered to the hospital CT dataset...
Visible Interactive Bobcat - skull with brain endocast, paranasal sinuses, etc.
http://bit.ly/1BnQN4r. Animation of the skull of an adult bobcat (Lynx rufus: OUVC 9576), labeled to show the endocast of the brain cavity, labyrinth of the inner ear, paranasal air sinuses,...
Spinophorosaurus -- braincase, endocast, and inner ear of a basal sauropod from Africa
Based on the 2012 PLoS ONE article (http://bit.ly/xSeKMr) by F. Knoll, L. M. Witmer, F. Ortega, R. C. Ridgely, and D. Schwarz-Wings . CT scanning and 3D visualization of the braincase of the...
Alligator skull with brain endocast & air spaces - roll
Skull of Alligator mississippiensis (OUVC 9761), revealing the brain endocast, nasal cavity and sinuses, and tympanic air sinuses. Rendered from CT scans using Amira and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely ...
Visible Interactive Iguana - skull with brain endocast & inner ear labyrinth
http://bit.ly/QzhLT2. Animation of the skull of an adult green iguana (Iguana iguana: OUVC 10677), with labeled images of the endocast of the brain cavity, labyrinth of the inner ear, and other...
Fri, 13 Mar 2015 15:34:45 -0700
A reconstructed Zhoukoudian skull (A) and endocast (B: superior view; C: left lateral view; D: anterior view; E: posterior view). Public Domain. The tooth, partial skulls, and many other ancient fossils and tools were excavated from a site at ...
PLoS Blogs (blog)
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 09:37:30 -0800
Digital endocast and interpretive drawing of the endocast from Rhinodipterus. The front of the brain is on the right, and the back (spinal cord) is at the left. The inner ear region is shown in orange, the hindbrain (including base of the spinal cord ...
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 12:04:56 -0700
The fossil, which is thought to be roughly 3 million to 4 million years old, is a well-preserved cast of the inside of the cranium, known as an endocast. It was the first known fossil of Australopithecus africanus, an extinct close hominid relative of ...
Thu, 22 Jan 2015 11:07:30 -0800
Researchers have come across ancient anatomical evidence that suggests that Australopithecus africanus, a hominin species thought to be an ancestor of humans, sported hands capable of making and using stone tools, a capability until now reserved only ...
Thu, 18 Sep 2014 03:52:30 -0700
A: Using the high resolution CT image data, we have reconstructed the endocast of the Taung Child. It is the first time a reconstruction has been made from high resolution images. We are comparing its surface morphology to the surface morphology of ...
The Guardian (blog)
The Guardian (blog)
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 02:54:37 -0700
“We were inspired by termite mounds,” says Jiashuang Sun, a student working on the project, showing me a plaster “endocast” of the negative space inside a computer-modelled termitarium. Just as the termites burrow a complex network of passages to keep ...
Fri, 25 Apr 2014 03:41:15 -0700
Estimated to be 2.5 million years old, the fossil consists of most of the face, a mandible with teeth and a natural limestone cast of the inside of the cranium (endocast). Anatomical studies of this and similar fossils show that the species regularly ...
Thu, 01 Aug 2013 11:20:53 -0700
This CT scan shows a modern woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons) with its brain cast rendered opaque and the skull transparent. The endocast is partitioned into the following neuroanatomical regions: brain stem (yellow), cerebellum (blue), optic lobes ...
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