digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















"Empirical" redirects here. For the jazz ensemble, see Empirical (jazz band).
"A posteriori" redirects here. For other uses, see A posteriori (disambiguation).

Empirical evidence (also empirical data, sense experience, empirical knowledge, or the a posteriori) is a source of knowledge acquired by means of observation or experimentation.[1] The term comes from the Greek word for experience, Εμπειρία (empeiría).

Empirical evidence is information that justifies a belief in the truth or falsity of a claim. In the empiricist view, one can claim to have knowledge only when one has a true belief based on empirical evidence. This stands in contrast to the rationalist view under which reason or reflection alone is considered to be evidence for the truth or falsity of some propositions.[2] The senses are the primary source of empirical evidence. Although other sources of evidence, such as memory, and the testimony of others ultimately trace back to some sensory experience, they are considered to be secondary, or indirect.[2]

In another sense, empirical evidence may be synonymous with the outcome of an experiment. In this sense, an empirical result is a unified confirmation. In this context, the term semi-empirical is used for qualifying theoretical methods which use in part basic axioms or postulated scientific laws and experimental results. Such methods are opposed to theoretical ab initio methods which are purely deductive and based on first principles.[citation needed]

In science, empirical evidence is required for a hypothesis to gain acceptance in the scientific community. Normally, this validation is achieved by the scientific method of hypothesis commitment, experimental design, peer review, adversarial review, reproduction of results, conference presentation and journal publication. This requires rigorous communication of hypothesis (usually expressed in mathematics), experimental constraints and controls (expressed necessarily in terms of standard experimental apparatus), and a common understanding of measurement.

Statements and arguments depending on empirical evidence are often referred to as a posteriori ("from the later") as distinguished from a priori ("from the earlier"). (See A priori and a posteriori). A priori knowledge or justification is independent of experience (for example "All bachelors are unmarried"); whereas a posteriori knowledge or justification is dependent on experience or empirical evidence (for example "Some bachelors are very happy"). The notion of the distinction between A priori and a posteriori as tantamount to the distinction between empirical and non-empirical knowledge comes from Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.[3]

The standard positivist view of empirically acquired information has been that observation, experience, and experiment serve as neutral arbiters between competing theories. However, since the 1960s, a persistent critique most associated with Thomas Kuhn,[4][page needed] has argued that these methods are influenced by prior beliefs and experiences. Consequently it cannot be expected that two scientists when observing, experiencing, or experimenting on the same event will make the same theory-neutral observations. The role of observation as a theory-neutral arbiter may not be possible. Theory-dependence of observation means that, even if there were agreed methods of inference and interpretation, scientists may still disagree on the nature of empirical data.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pickett 2006, p. 585
  2. ^ a b Feldman 2001, p. 293
  3. ^ Craig 2005, p. 1
  4. ^ Kuhn 1970
  5. ^ Bird 2013


External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empirical_evidence — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
53815 videos foundNext > 

What is Empirical Evidence?


Faith vs Empirical Evidence

This short film is from the series 'EXPANDING IMAGINATIONS'. Presented by Harry Dhaul & Devdutt Pattanaik.

The Empirical Evidence Against Big Government

Building on a previous mini-documentary that focused on theory, this video from the Center for Freedom and Prosperity Foundation presents real-world data and...

Wounded Buffalo Theory - Empirical Evidence

Live at the Delancey - NYC Visuals by Justin Wood Dancehall Media.

ID poster boy Behe ignores and dismisses empirical evidence

In this video, Ken Miller explains how Behe was presented with huge amounts of peer reviewed publications and books that prove him wrong on the evolution of ...

Domestic Violence: The Gap Between Empirical Evidence and Policies and Practice (1 de 3)

Tonia Nicholls.

Usnea - Empirical Evidence of a Deranged God

The Empirical Evidence for Testifycation

A comprehensive survey of the research procedures and methodology that serve as the foundation of the phenomenological framework of Testifycation and the inf...

Christopher answers ISAIAH 22:25 as Empirical Evidence at the 2013 MWAW Symposium

On 12/22/13 Christopher was asked to explain a scripture in Isaiah 22:25 Before answering this question he publicly challenged all the religious teachers and...

Hadith Contradicting Empirical Evidence & Ethics - Jonathan Brown

Hadith Contradicting Empirical Evidence & Ethics - Jonathan Brown Tags: Abdal Hakim Murad, Abdel Rahman Murphy, Abdul Nasir Jangda, Abdullah Hakim Quick, Abd...

53815 videos foundNext > 

909 news items

Boing Boing

Boing Boing
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 06:52:30 -0700

A paper from University of Kansas economist Koleman Strumpf (whose work we've featured here for years) empirically examines the impact of file-sharing on box-office revenues. The paper, Using Markets to Measure the Impact of File Sharing on Movie ...
The Nation
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 10:22:23 -0700

That's why, as with all religions, a little empirical evidence would be helpful. Stan maintains that if God is utterly transcendent and beyond sensory perception, any empirical proof of his existence would prove only that he is not God. But that's if ...

National Post

National Post
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 16:48:45 -0700

Interventional radiologists have also sparked controversy by providing a vein-widening treatment for people with multiple sclerosis, despite little empirical evidence it works. The CIRA report, though, suggests the endovascular fix for peripheral ...
MedPage Today
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 11:22:30 -0700

Current guidelines for treating stroke patients with brain bleeds caused by thrombolytic therapy are based on empirical evidence alone, and widely used treatments may not reverse coagulopathy early enough to improve outcomes from this deadly ...


Tue, 29 Jul 2014 10:43:11 -0700

Donovan has long argued that 70 percent of Milwaukee residents oppose the project, “but after questioning admitted it wasn't based on empirical evidence,” as Jeramey Jannene has reported. Donovan lives in a 1909 South Side bungalow in Burnham Park ...
Cato Institute (blog)
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 09:41:15 -0700

This ignores the major empirical evidence I and many others have brought against the Core, and national standards generally, showing that standards – much less the Core itself – have demonstrated no such power. But Core supporters have very rarely ...
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 11:00:33 -0700

We have extremely powerful microscopes and scanners and 150 years of medical studies, along with loads of empirical evidence, that have proved it true. Antibiotics work (at least until bacteria become resistant to them). Anti-fungal medication works.
Legally India
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 23:01:38 -0700

The three hour meeting, according to The Hindu, would now result in the government drafting a new version of the previous government's Judicial Accountability Commission (JAC) Bill. The former government's draft provided for three Supreme Court judges ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Empirical evidence

You can talk about Empirical evidence with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!