digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For use of the term in immunology, see Effector cell.

In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity. In this manner, effector molecules act as ligands that can increase or decrease enzyme activity, gene expression, or cell signalling. Effector molecules can also directly regulate the activity of some mRNA molecules (riboswitches).

In some cases, proteins can be considered to function as effector molecules, especially in cellular signal transduction cascades.

The term effector is used in other fields of biology. For instance, the effector end of a neuron is the terminus where an axon makes contact with the muscle or organ that it stimulates or suppresses.

Examples for effectors[edit]

Allosteric effectors can bind to regulatory proteins involved in RNA transcription in order to change its activity.[1] In this way activator proteins become active to bind to the DNA to promote RNA Polymerase and repressor proteins become inactive and RNA polymerase can bind to the DNA.

Bacterial effectors are injected by bacterial cells, usually pathogens, into the cells of their host. The injection is mediated by specialized secretion systems, e.g. the type III secretion system (TTSS or T3SS).[2]

Fungal effectors are secreted by pathogenic fungi into and around host cells by invasive hyphae to disable defense components and facilitate colonization. Protein secretion systems in fungi involve the Spitzenkörper.[3]

Plant pathogenic fungi use two distinct effector secretion systems[4] and each secretory pathway is specific to an effector family :

  • apoplastic effectors : proteins which stay into the apoplast, they are translocated and accumulated into a distinct compartment enclosing the growing hypha named the EIHM (extra-invasive hyphal membrane).
  • cytoplasmic effectors : proteins which enter the host cytoplasm, they are accumulated into a complex plant-derived structure named the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and they are later translocated across the EIHM inside the plant cell. It has been shown that cytoplasmic effectors can move through a few layers of plant cells, probably a way to prepare them for hyphal invasion.

Types of effectors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Introduction to genetic analysis (10. ed. ed.). New York, NY: Freeman. pp. 410–411. ISBN 1-4292-7634-7. 
  2. ^ Cambronne, E. D.; Roy, C. R. (2006). "Recognition and Delivery of Effector Proteins into Eukaryotic Cells by Bacterial Secretion Systems". Traffic 7 (8): 929–939. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2006.00446.x. PMID 16734660.  edit
  3. ^ Steinberg, G. (2007). "Hyphal growth: a tale of motors, lipids, and the spitzenkörper". Eukaryotic Cell 6 (3): 351–360. doi:10.1128/EC.00381-06. PMC 1828937. PMID 17259546. 
  4. ^ Giraldo MC, Dagdas YF, Gupta YK, Mentlak TA, Yi M, Martinez-Rocha AL, Saitoh H, Terauchi R, Talbot NJ & Valent B (2013). Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae 4. Nat Commun. doi:10.1038/ncomms2996. 



Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effector_(biology) — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
6670 videos foundNext > 

Elements of a Feedback Loop

Paul Andersen defines the major elements of feedback loops. The receptors and effectors both sense and respond to changes in their environment. The following...

【Kasane Teto】My Effector (自分エフェクター)【Original Song】

From Nico Nico Douga http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm14377761 Author: Gori Okami (ゴリ女将) Release: 07/05/2011 The effector are cells to execute responses. All ...

How to Pronounce Effector

Learn how to say Effector correctly with emmasaying's "how do you pronounce" free tutorials. Definition of effector (oxford dictionary): noun Biology an orga...

Method of the Year 2011: Gene-editing nucleases - by Nature Video

Gene-editing nucleases can make targeted and precise changes to an organism's genome. This has opened up new possibilities for the study of gene function, as...

How to Pronounce Effectors

Learn how to say Effectors correctly with emmasaying's "how do you pronounce" free tutorials. Definition of effector (oxford dictionary): noun Biology an org...

A2 Edexcel Biology Unit 4 - Bacteria, Viruses, Innate/Specific Immunity

The following points are covered in this video: 8 Distinguish between the structure of bacteria and viruses 10 Describe the major routes pathogens may take w...

bio effector

This installation is a large sonic space which affected by the environment. A membrane suspended in a gallery is vibrated like a drum by the sound of visitor...

PLANTS Opinon on Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens

Created by Bruce D.L. Fitt and colleagues (University of Hertfordshire). Read the related Opinion article in Trends in Plant Science here http://ow.ly/x9s9W.

6. IB SL Biology Past Paper 3 Question 1 - Option E [Reflexes & behaviour]

FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/ibblueprint TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/ibblueprint POWERPOINTS: http://www.slideshare.net/yangwang123 WEBSITE: http://...

Tutorial : Cinema 4D Building an Object with the Step Effector

Here is a tutorial on how you can build any kind of object in Cinema 4D using the step effector. Here is a tutorial on techniques you can use to animate came...

6670 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Effector (biology)" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!