digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

An effective microorganism refers to any of the predominantly anaerobic organisms blended in commercial agricultural amendments, medicines and nutritional supplements based on the trademarked[1] product originally marketed as EM-1 Microbial Inoculant, aka Effective Microorganisms and EM Technology. These blends include:[2]

EM Technology is purported to support sustainable practices in farming and to improve and support human health and hygiene, compost and waste management, disaster clean-up (the Bangkok floods of 2011,[3] the Southeast Asia tsunami of 2004, the Kobe earthquake, and Hurricane Katrina remediation projects).

EM has been employed in many agricultural applications, but is also used in the production of several health products in South Africa and the US.[citation needed]

Origins[edit]

The concept of "friendly microorganisms" was developed by Professor Teruo Higa, from the University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan. He reported in the 1980s that a combination of approximately 80 different microorganisms is capable of positively influencing decomposing organic matter such that it reverts into a "life promoting" process. Higa invoked a "dominance principle" to explain the effects of his "Effective Microorganisms". He claimed that three groups of microorganisms exist: "positive microorganisms" (regeneration), "negative microorganisms" (decomposition, degeneration), "opportunist microorganisms". In every medium (soil, water, air, the human intestine), the ratio of "positive" and "negative" microorganisms is critical, since the opportunist microorganisms follow the trend to regeneration or degeneration. Therefore, Higa claimed that it is possible to positively influence the given media by supplementing with "positive" microorganisms.

Validation[edit]

The concept has been challenged and no scientific studies support all of its claims. This was acknowledged by Higa in a 1994 paper co-authored by Higa and soil microbiologist James F Parr. They conclude "the main limitation...is the problem of reproducibility and lack of consistent results.".[4]

Parr and Higa mention soil pH, shading, soil temperature and flooding as factors affecting the interaction of EM with local microorganisms and with each other. The approach that Higa and Parr recommend is maintaining pH and soil temperature within conditions known to be detrimental to negative microorganisms as well as the addition of EM to tip the balance of positive and negative microorganisms in favor of the former.[citation needed]

They dismiss inoculants that include only a single microorganism as generally ineffective due to the uncertainty about the conditions in which a single microorganism would be effective.[4] They cite the acknowledgment by the scientific community that multiple microorganisms (as in the case of Bokashi, invented and marketed by Higa) in coordination with good soil management practices positively influence plant growth and yield.

Lwini and Ranamukhaarachchi published in 2006 a paper[5] that discusses biological controls of bacterial wilt disease and showed that EM and EM Bokashi were most-effective as bio-control agents. Yamada and Xu examined the use of EM in making organic fertilizers.[6] Hui-Lian Xu studied photosynthesis and yield of sweet corn,[7] physiological characteristics in peanuts,[8] and fruit yield and quality of tomato plants.[9] Daiss, et al., looked at pre-harvest[10] and post-harvest [11] applications of EM-1.

Many earlier papers were on EM-X Rice Bran Supplement, a product sold for human consumption. Chui, et al., studied the apoptotic potential of microorganisms.[12] Datla, et al.,[13] and Ke B.[14] examined antioxidant-related microorganisms.

The use of EM in the bokashi-intensive composting process for home kitchen waste has been in use in Christchurch, New Zealand for years, backed by the local city council.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Trademark Guidelines". emrojapan.com. 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  2. ^ Szymanski, N.; Patterson, R.A. (2003). R.A. and Jones, M.J. (Eds)., ed. "Proceedings of On-site '03 Conference" (PDF). Armidale, NSW, Australia: Lanfax Laboratories. pp. 347–354. ISBN 0-9579438-1-4. Retrieved 2006-11-14.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  3. ^ http://www.nationmultimedia.com/national/EM-balls-produced-by-royal-project-30169033.html
  4. ^ a b Higa, Dr. Teruo; Dr. James Parr (1994). "Beneficial and Effective Microorganisms for a Sustainable Agriculture and Environment." (PDF). Atami, Japan: International Nature Farming Research Center. p. 7. Retrieved 21 January 2008. 
  5. ^ MYINT LWIN1 AND S.L. RANAMUKHAARACHCHI. Development of Biological Control of Ralstonia solanacearum Through Antagonistic Microbial Populations. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology. 8(5), 2006. Pp 657–660.
  6. ^ Yamada, K.; Xu, H. L. (2001). "Properties and Applications of an Organic Fertilizer Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms". Journal of Crop Production 3: 255. doi:10.1300/J144v03n01_21.  edit
  7. ^ Xu, H. L. (2001). "Effects of a Microbial Inoculant and Organic Fertilizers on the Growth, Photosynthesis and Yield of Sweet Corn". Journal of Crop Production 3: 183. doi:10.1300/J144v03n01_16.  edit
  8. ^ Pei-Sheng, Y.; Hui-Lian, X. (2002). "Influence of EM Bokashi on Nodulation, Physiological Characters and Yield of Peanut in Nature Farming Fields". Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 19 (4): 105. doi:10.1300/J064v19n04_10.  edit
  9. ^ Xu, H. L.; Wang, R.; Mridha, M. A. U. (2001). "Effects of Organic Fertilizers and a Microbial Inoculant on Leaf Photosynthesis and Fruit Yield and Quality of Tomato Plants". Journal of Crop Production 3: 173. doi:10.1300/J144v03n01_15.  edit
  10. ^ Daiss, N.; Lobo, M. G.; Socorro, A. R.; Brückner, U.; Heller, J.; Gonzalez, M. (2007). "The effect of three organic pre-harvest treatments on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. Var. Cycla L.) quality". European Food Research and Technology 226 (3): 345. doi:10.1007/s00217-006-0543-2.  edit
  11. ^ Daiss, N; Lobo, M. G.; Gonzalez, M (2008). "Changes in postharvest quality of Swiss chard grown using 3 organic preharvest treatments". Journal of food science 73 (6): S314–20. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00842.x. PMID 19241576.  edit
  12. ^ Chui, C. H.; Hau, D. K.; Lau, F. Y.; Cheng, G. Y.; Wong, R. S.; Gambari, R; Kok, S. H.; Lai, K. B.; Teo, I. T.; Leung, T. W.; Higa, T; Ke, B; Tang, J. C.; Fong, D. W.; Chan, A. S. (2006). "Apoptotic potential of the concentrated effective microorganism fermentation extract on human cancer cells". International journal of molecular medicine 17 (2): 279–84. PMID 16391827.  edit
  13. ^ Datla, K. P.; Bennett, R. D.; Zbarsky, V; Ke, B; Liang, Y. F.; Higa, T; Bahorun, T; Aruoma, O. I.; Dexter, D. T. (2004). "The antioxidant drink effective microorganism-X (EM-X) pre-treatment attenuates the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 56 (5): 649–54. doi:10.1211/0022357023222. PMID 15142343.  edit
  14. ^ Ke, B; Xu, Z; Ling, Y; Qiu, W; Xu, Y; Higa, T; Aruoma, O. I. (2009). "Modulation of experimental osteoporosis in rats by the antioxidant beverage effective microorganism-X (EM-X)". Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 63 (2): 114–9. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2008.03.008. PMID 18930627.  edit

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effective_microorganism — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
24931 videos foundNext > 

Effective Microorganism

The effective Microorganism, Duang Prateep foundation and slum dwellers make the liquid effective micro organism to clarify stink water after flooding in tow...

EFFECTIVE MICRO ORGANISM - EM - DR. HIGA - YOU MUST SEE THIS

Effective Micro-organism Might be the cure & solution to our problems on this planet. 100% natural , it cleans everything. Invented in Japan, it has been use...

How to make effective microorganisms EM1

Tommy Cowett the Real Alien Tom from Outerspace Landscape shows you how to make a natural organic product that works in many ways to improve your garden your...

DIY: EM-1 inoculant (lactobacillus culture) effective microorganisms

How to make EM-1 inoculant (lactobacillus culture) effective microorganisms What you will need: 1/4 cup-62ml any type of rice 1 cup-250ml water (non chlorina...

EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS CALENDAR - EMRO Asia Cannes Lions 2014 Winner

www.brandbuffet.in.th.

Benefits of Effective Microorganisms (EM) for Water, Soils & Crops

Effective Microorganisms (EM) Developed by Dr. Teruo Higa of Okinawa, EM-1 Microbial Inoculant is a powerful microbial technology that is being used to solve...

EM-Effective Microorganism

Effective Microorganism Soap

Project Video of Effective Microorganism Soap made by my team for the entrepreneur project.

Effective Microorganisms Hawaii

microbes, EM , Effective Microorganisms, Effective micro-organisms, healthier lifestyle. etc..

Activating Effective Microorganisms (EM)

You can buy effective microorganisms in the U.S. from http://www.smilinggardener.com/sale/effective-microorganisms-and-scd-probiotics and in Canada from http...

24931 videos foundNext > 

94 news items

 
VietNamNet Bridge
Tue, 09 Dec 2014 15:15:00 -0800

All ORFARM fresh and cold meat products satisfy the guidelines set out by Japan's EMRO trademark using EM technology™ (Effective Microorganism). The technology is based on the idea of a coexistence with native and originally-dominant microorganisms, ...

GoRiau

GoRiau
Tue, 02 Dec 2014 20:30:00 -0800

Salah satunya dengan menggunakan teknologi effective microorganism (EM) yang merupakan hasil penelitian Prof. Teruo Higa dari Jepang. Sejak berdirinya KOMPPOS hingga tahun 2000, kami sering mengadakan pelatihan dan penerapan langsung.

Ahram Online

Ahram Online
Fri, 17 Oct 2014 00:41:15 -0700

The Environment Ministry's role in the project, said Fahmi, was to support the recycling programme by providing technical support and basic materials, including an effective microorganism (EM) solution, while the Ministry of Agriculture, which has ...
 
경기일보
Mon, 01 Dec 2014 04:35:17 -0800

광명시는 1일부터 내년 2월28일까지 악취 제거와 수질 개선에 효과가 있는 '유용미생물(EM, Effective Microorganism) 발효액' 보급을 중지한다고 밝혔다. 유용미생물 발효액 보급 중지는 겨울철 동파 방지와 안전사고 예방을 위한 것이다. 시는 내년 3월에 보급을 ...

The Nation

The Nation
Sun, 07 Sep 2014 10:15:00 -0700

Students learn how to make effective microorganism balls (EM balls) at the Poolcharoenwittayakhom School in Samut Prakan province as a part of an integrated class. While the activity focuses on science, their teacher includes an element of history, tellin.
 
Huffington Post
Wed, 23 Apr 2014 12:18:12 -0700

Wisconsin-based cheesemaker Landmark Creamery showed us that you don't need to have fancy facilities or expensive technology to contribute to the eco-friendly cause. And lastly, Spanish Santa Gadea taught us about the amazing effective microorganism ...
 
Namibia Economist
Thu, 25 Sep 2014 23:21:41 -0700

After almost 3 years of conducting studies on organic solutions and the use of effective microorganism, local company, Gen Tech finally became... Cheetah Conservation Fund hosts National Geographic students expedition (697 hits). Environment.

Rappler

Rappler
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:35:29 -0700

One of my officemates heard about what I wanted to do and introduced me to Rina Papio of Earthventure Inc, a local company that is using EM (effective microorganism) technology for naturally cleaning up polluted bodies of water. Another meeting was ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight