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Economy of Nicaragua
Managua Nicaragua.jpg
Rank 131st (2012, GDP-PPP)
Currency 1 cordoba = 0.0418 US dollar
Calendar year
Trade organisations
DR-CAFTA
Statistics
GDP Increase$19.89 billion (2012 est. PPP)
GDP growth
Increase3.7% (2012, Real)
GDP per capita
Steady $3,300 (2012 est.)
GDP by sector
agriculture: 17.5% industry: 25.8% services: 56.7% (2012)
Decrease 7.4%(2012 est.)
Population below poverty line
Decrease 44.7%[1]
Steady 52.3 (1992-2007)
Labour force
2.961 million (2012 est.)
Unemployment 7.4% underemployment of 46.5% (2008)
Main industries
food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, knit and woven apparel, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood (2012)
118th[2]
External
Exports $4.16 billion (2012 est.)
Export goods
coffee, beef, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, sugar, gold, peanuts, cigars, automobile wiring harnesses, textiles and apparel (2012)
Main export partners
 United States 54.0%
 Canada 8.4%
 Venezuela 7.4%
 El Salvador 4.5% (2012 est.)[3]
Imports $6.519 billion (2012 est.)
Import goods
consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products (2012)
Main import partners
 United States 18.8%
 Venezuela 14.4%
 Mexico 12.1%
 Costa Rica 8.8%
 China 7.8%
 Guatemala 7.6%
 El Salvador 5.1% (2012 est.)[4]
Public finances
Decrease 70.5 of GDP (2011 est.) Note: Official data - Central Gov & instruments issued by entities other than Treasury & borrowed from social funds. Debt % reduced by rebasing of 2012 GDP.
Revenues $2.619 billion (2012 est.)
Expenses $2.56 billion (2012 est.)
Foreign reserves
$1.9 billion (31 December 2012)

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

Nicaragua's economy is focused primarily on the agricultural sector. It is the least developed country in Central America, and the second poorest in the Americas by nominal GDP. In recent years, under the administrations of Daniel Ortega, the Nicaraguan economy has increased dramatically, although it has also been subject to the global recession. The country's economy actually contracted by 1.5% in 2009, due to decreased export demand in the US and Central American markets, lower commodity prices for key agricultural exports, and low remittance growth, but saw 4.5% growth in 2010 thanks to a recovery in export demand and growth in its tourism industry.[5] Nicaragua's economy continues to post growth, with preliminary indicators showing the Nicaraguan economy growing an additional 5% in 2011.[6] Consumer Price inflation have also curtailed since 2008, when Nicaragua's inflation rate hovered at 19.82%.[7] In 2009 and 2010, the country posted lower inflation rates, 3.68% and 5.45%, respectively.[7]

Remittances are a major source of income, equivalent to 15% of the country's GDP, which originate primarily from Costa Rica, the United States, and European Union member states. Approximately one million Nicaraguans contribute to the remittance sector of the economy.

In early 2004, Nicaragua secured some $4.5 billion in foreign debt reduction under the International Monetary Fund and World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative. In April 2006, the US-Central America Free Trade Agreement went into effect, expanding export opportunities for Nicaragua's agricultural and manufactured goods. Textiles and apparel account for nearly 60% of Nicaragua's exports. In October 2007, the IMF approved an additional poverty reduction and growth facility program in support of the government's economic plans. Nicaragua relies on international economic assistance to meet internal- and external-debt financing obligations, although foreign donors curtailed this funding in response to widespread allegations of electoral fraud in Nicaragua's November 2008 elections.

Economic history[edit]

Nicaragua's economy was devastated in the 1980s by the Contra War, which saw the destruction of much of the country's infrastructure. At the same time, the US staged an economic blockade from 1985 onward.

Following the war, and with the defeat of the Sandinistas in the 1990 general election, Nicaragua began free market reforms, privatizing more than 350 state companies and commencing a general trend of economic growth. Inflation has been reduced from a high of 33,603% during the early years of the Sandinista period to more normal levels, averaging an annual rate of 9.5% over the 2000-2010 decade (based on World Bank figures).

Growth was slow (3%) in 2001 due to a combination of factors (a global recession, a series of bank failures, low coffee prices, and a drought), and in 2009 the economy actually contracted 1.5% in reaction to the 2008–2012 global recession). But even with the recessions, growth has averaged 3.4% between 2001 and 2011 (again, based on World Bank figures).

Economy[edit]

Unemployment is officially 3.8% (2006 est.), although another 46.5% (2006 est.) are underemployed. Nicaragua suffers from persistent trade and budget deficits and a high debt-service burden, leaving it highly dependent on foreign assistance—which represented almost 25% of GDP in 2001.

One of the key engines of economic growth has been production for export. Although traditional products such as coffee, meat, and sugar continued to lead the list of Nicaraguan exports, the fastest growth is now in nontraditional exports: textile and apparel; gold; seafood; and new agricultural products such as peanuts, sesame, melons, and onions. In 2007, exports topped $1 billion US dollars for the first time in Nicaraguan history.[8]

Nicaragua is primarily an agricultural country, but construction, mining, fisheries, and general commerce also have been expanding during the last few years. Foreign private capital inflows topped $300 million in 1999 but, due to economic and political uncertainty, fell to less than $100 million in 2001. In the last 12 years, tourism has grown 394%,[9] the rapid growth has led it to become Nicaragua's second largest source of foreign capital. Less than three years ago, the nation’s tourism budget was U.S. $400,000; today, it is over $2 million.[9] Nicaragua's economy has also produced a construction boom,[10] the majority of which is in and around Managua.

Nicaragua faces a number of challenges in stimulating rapid economic growth. An International Monetary Fund (IMF) program is currently being followed, with the aim of attracting investment, creating jobs, and reducing poverty by opening the economy to foreign trade. This process was boosted in late 2000 when Nicaragua reached the decision point under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief initiative. However, HIPC benefits were delayed because Nicaragua subsequently fell "off track" from its IMF program. The country also has been grappling with a string of bank failures that began in August 2000. Moreover, Nicaragua continues to lose international reserves due to its growing fiscal deficits.

The country is still a recovering economy and it continues to implement further reforms, on which aid from the IMF is conditional. In 2005, finance ministers of the leading eight industrialized nations (G8) agreed to forgive some of Nicaragua's foreign debt, as part of the HIPC program. According to the World Bank Nicaragua's GDP was around $4.9 US billion dollars. Recently, in March 2007, Poland and Nicaragua signed an agreement to write off $30.6 million which was borrowed by the Nicaraguan government in the 1980s.[11]

The U.S. is the country's largest trading partner, providing 25% of Nicaragua's imports and receiving about 60% of its exports. About 25 wholly or partly owned subsidiaries of U.S. companies operate in Nicaragua. The largest of those investments are in the energy, communications, manufacturing, fisheries, and shrimp farming sectors. Good opportunities exist for further investments in those same sectors, as well as in tourism, mining, franchising, and the distribution of imported consumer, manufacturing, and agricultural goods. There also are copper mines in northeastern Nicaragua.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2012 was estimated at $20.04 billion USD, and GDP per capita in PPP at $3,300 USD, making Nicaragua the second poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.[12] The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 56.7%, followed by the industrial sector at 25.8%(2012). Agriculture represents 17.5% of GDP and it's the largest percentage in a Central American country. Nicaraguan labor force is estimated at 2.961 million of which 28% is occupied in agriculture, 19% in the industry sector and 53% in the service sector (2012).

Agriculture and food production[edit]

Food and agriculture
Product World rank1
Coffee, green 4
Beans, Dry 17
Groundnuts in Shell 30
Indigenous cattle meat 30
Plantains 32
Sesame Seed 32
Sugar Cane 32
Pineapples 33
Castor Beans 37
Cocoa beans 41
Cassava 48
Oranges 49
Soybeans 50
1Source: FAO (2005) Major Food and Agricultural Commodities and Producers

Coffee became Nicaragua's principal crop in the 1870s, a position it still held in 1992 despite the growing importance of other crops. Cotton gained importance in the late 1940s, and in 1992 was the second biggest export earner. In the early 20th century, Nicaraguan governments were reluctant to give concessions to the large United States banana companies, and bananas never attained the level of prominence in Nicaragua that they reached in Nicaragua's Central American neighbors; bananas were grown in the country, however, and were generally the third largest export earner in the post-World War II period. Beef and animal byproducts, the most important agricultural export for the three centuries before the coffee boom of the late 19th century, were still important commodities in 1992.

From the end of World War II to the early 1960s, the growth and diversification of the agricultural sector drove the nation's economic expansion. From the early 1960s until the increased fighting in 1977 caused by the Sandinista revolution, agriculture remained a robust and significant part of the economy, although its growth slowed somewhat in comparison with the previous postwar decades. Statistics for the next fifteen years, however, show stagnation and then a drop in agricultural production.

The agricultural sector declined precipitously in the 1980s. Until the late 1970s, Nicaragua's agricultural export system generated 40 percent of the country's GDP, 60 percent of national employment, and 80 percent of foreign exchange earnings. Throughout the 1980s, the Contras destroyed or disrupted coffee harvests as well as other key income-generating crops. Private industry stopped investing in agriculture because of uncertain returns. Land was taken out of production of export crops to expand plantings of basic grain. Many coffee plants succumbed to disease.

In 1989, the fifth successive year of decline, farm production declined by roughly 7 percent in comparison with the previous year. Production of basic grains fell as a result of Hurricane Joan in 1988 and a drought in 1989. By 1990 agricultural exports had declined to less than half the level of 1978. The only bright spot was the production of nontraditional export crops such as sesame, tobacco, and African palm oil.

Services[edit]

The service sector was estimated to account for 56.8% of the country's GDP, and employs 52% of the active population.[12] This section includes transportation, commerce, warehousing, restaurant and hotels, arts and entertainment, health, education, financial and banking services, telecommunications as well as public administration and defense.

Tourism in Nicaragua is one of the most important industries in the country. It is the second largest source of foreign exchange for the country and is predicted to become the first largest industry in 2007.[13] The growth in tourism has positively affected the agricultural, commercial, finance, and construction industries as well.

Current economic outlook[edit]

Nicaragua has transformed itself into one of the safest and fastest-growing countries in Latin America. A stable, multi-party democracy, Nicaragua has ratified Free Trade Agreements with major markets such as the United States, the Dominican Republic (DR-CAFTA), Taiwan and Mexico, among others. As evidence of continuous efforts in improving the business climate, Nicaragua has been ranked favorably in a variety of independent evaluations.

The 2011 Doing Business Report, published by The World Bank Group, a report that benchmarks various indicators of the investment climate in 183 nations, ranked Nicaragua as the top location in Central America in starting a business, investor protection, and closing a business. Additionally, the country improved in the following categories: ease of doing business, registering property, paying taxes, trading across borders and enforcing contracts.

The above text is not a neutral assessment of modern Nicaragua. The country is not a free multi-Party democracy. The country's elections have been question by international observers. President Ortega was reelected in clear violation of the Constitution. The 2014 Index of Economic Freedom found, "Since 2009, however, Nicaragua’s economy has fallen back to 'mostly unfree'. Anti–free market policies are bolstered by economic and political populism that drives class warfare. Institutional weaknesses persist in protection of property rights and combating corruption." Nicaragua continues to be the poorest country in Central America and the second poorest country in the Hemisphere despite massive Venezuelan and other international aid. The Nicaraguan Central Bank in recent years has been reporting high growth rates and relatively low inflation rates. The accuracy of the Central Bank data is largely unknown.

Other statistics[edit]

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%; highest 10%: 41.8 (2005)

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2005)

Electricity - production: 2.778 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 53.43%; hydro: 35.34%; nuclear: 0%; other: 11.23% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.929 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity - exports: 69.34 million kWh (2006)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2006)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products; shrimp, lobsters

Exports - commodities: coffee, beef, shrimp and lobster, cotton, tobacco, beef, peanuts, sugar, bananas; gold

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products

Currency: 1 gold Cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: gold Córdoba (C$) per US$1 – 17.582 (2006), 16.733 (2005), 15.937 (2004), 15.105 (2003), 14.251 (2002)

Price inflation:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://translate.google.com/translate?js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&layout=2&eotf=1&sl=auto&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kaosenlared.net%2Fnoticia%2Fpobreza-extrema-desigualdad-social-disminuyeron-nicaragua&act=url
  2. ^ "Doing Business in Nicaragua 2012". World Bank. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  3. ^ "Export Partners of Nicaragua". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-24. 
  4. ^ "Import Partners of Nicaragua". CIA World Factbook. 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-24. 
  5. ^ http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=nu&v=66 IndexMundi Real GDP Growth Rate Chart
  6. ^ http://en.centralamericadata.com/en/article/data/Nicaraguan_Economy_Grows_by_5 Nicaraguan Economy Grows by 5 Percent
  7. ^ a b http://www.indexmundi.com/nicaragua/inflation_rate_(consumer_prices).html Nicaragua Inflation Rates via Consumer Price Index, IndexMundi
  8. ^ Monstersandcritics.com Close scrutiny after President Ortega's first 100 days
  9. ^ a b Rcalvet.com Government Gets Tough on Environmental Scofflaws
  10. ^ CostaRicaPages.com Nicaragua Information
  11. ^ english.people.com.cn Poland forgives nearly 31 million dollars of debt owed by Nicaragua
  12. ^ a b CIA - The World Factbook - Nicaragua
  13. ^ Canal2tv.com Turismo en Nicaragua: aportes y desafios parte I
  14. ^ a b http://www.reuters.com/article/economicNews/idUSN0930941520090110

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Nicaragua — Please support Wikipedia.
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