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Dixie Mafia
Founded by Mike Gillich, Jr.
Founding location Biloxi, Mississippi
Years active Late 1960s – present
Territory Louisiana, Arkansas, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Texas, Oklahoma, Florida and Mississippi
Ethnicity Mostly white Southern American
Membership (est.) 100 +/-
Criminal activities Fraud, illegal gambling, bribery, drug trafficking, burglary, robbery, theft, money laundering, murder, fencing
Allies American Mafia, State Line Mob

The Dixie Mafia is a criminal organization based in Biloxi, Mississippi that operates primarily in the Southern United States (hence the name dixie). The group uses each member's talents in various crime categories to help move stolen merchandise, illegal alcohol, and illegal drugs. It is also known for violence.

Early days[edit]

Beginning in the late 1960s, the Dixie Mafia began working as a loosely knit group of traveling criminals performing residential burglary, robbery and theft. The gang did not function with a set chain of command, but was led by whomever had the most money. Despite the informal structure, the Dixie Mafia had one rule that members were expected to obey: "Thou shalt not snitch to the cops".[1]

Unlike members of the Sicilian Mafia, the members of the Dixie Mafia were not connected by family or country of origin. They were loosely connected individuals of many nationalities with a common goal: to make money and wield control over illegal moneymaking operations by any means, including influence peddling, bribery of public officials, and murder.[citation needed]

The gang became known for carrying out contract killings, particularly against former members. During its peak, from the early 1970s to the late 1980s, dozens of people were murdered (usually shot) by its members. Victims were most often murdered because they testified, or threatened to testify, against fellow members. One contract killer William Miller aka. "Blue Eyes" was said to have carried out many of the contract killings. This could never be proven due to lack of information or evidence[citation needed].

"The Strip" in Biloxi, Mississippi, was home base for the Dixie Mafia, and Mike Gillich, Jr. was the group's unofficial but de facto kingpin. Of Croatian descent and from a large, poor family, he had raised himself in the city's Point Cadet section to become a wealthy entrepreneur along "The Strip". He owned a string of motels, a bingo parlor, and nightclubs that doubled as strip joints and gambling dens. He was known and trusted by almost every member of the Dixie Mafia, especially those who trusted no one else.

Mike Gillich was also patron and protector of Kirksey McCord Nix, Jr., one of the gang's most notable members. In December, 1965, at the age of 22, Nix was caught carrying illegal automatic weapons in Ft. Smith, Arkansas. An old friend of his, Juanda Jones, ran a bordello there, and Nix became involved with Jones' adolescent daughter, Sheri LaRa. In later years, she would play a key role in his operations, including direct ties to the murders of Circuit Court Judge Vincent Sherry and his wife, Margaret, a former Biloxi councilwoman and mayoral candidate.[citation needed]

Edward Humes, in his 1994 book, Mississippi Mud: Southern Justice and the Dixie Mafia, chronicled the Sherry murders, and the subsequent investigation of Gillich, Kirksey Nix, Bobby Fabian and others that were involved either loosely or actively in the murders. Bobby Fabian began cooperating with the FBI on the Sherry murders and was pleading with any law enforcement officials to move him out of the Louisiana State Penitentiary (LSP) because he felt he would be murdered. Fabian was transferred out of Angola but not a moment too soon as Dixie Mafia member (Florida Boss) Jeffery Carter had managed to be assigned to Camp-D within the penitentiary, exactly where Fabian was being housed.[citation needed]

LSP security obtained information from a confidential informant that Jeffery Carter was armed with a knife and that Carter was going to kill Fabian on the prison yard. Angola security immediately reacted to the information and actually spotted Jeffery Carter walking towards Bobby Fabian at which time a correctional officer ran up on Carter who was only 50 yards from Bobby Fabian and took control of Carter. Upon searching Jeffery Carter, correctional officers found a Buck knife in the open position on Carter's person.[2]

With the aid of his father's connections in Oklahoma, Kirksey Nix beat the weapons charges in Ft. Smith and moved on to other crimes. He was suspected in the gangland-style murder of a gambler named Harry Bennett, who was about to turn state's evidence against several Dixie Mafia members. Although Nix's involvement in Bennett's murder was never proven, this incident precipitated a string of killings that left twenty-five people dead in six states over the next four years.

Nix was a suspect in the attempted assassination of McNairy County, Tennessee Sheriff Buford Pusser, and in the murder of Pusser's wife. Nix was also convicted of murdering wealthy New Orleans grocery owner Frank Corso. At the time of the murder, Kirksey Nix was believed to be employed by Darrel Ward in Clarksville, Texas. Mr. Ward was a noted associate of syndicate boss Sam "Momo" Giancana and is thought to have controlled organized crime and bootlegging throughout Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Mississippi. The Dixie Mafia was strongly connected to the State Line Mob and its leader Carl Douglas "Towhead" White.[3][4][5][6]

Mike Gillich, Jr. died at age 82 of cancer in his Biloxi home on April 28, 2012. He reportedly had a religious conversion to Christianity in the years prior to his death.[7]

Dixie Mafia's locales[edit]

The Dixie Mafia's origins were in the Appalachian states. The group operated in many large Southern cities and some of the group's criminal activities were in more obscure parts of their major areas of operation, making the group and their activities harder to pinpoint.[5][8] The Dixie Mafia committed most of their crimes in areas that lacked strong, coordinated law enforcement, particularly in small communities throughout the South. In doing so, murders, intimidation, or other criminal activities could take place with less risk of local law enforcement being able to directly link the crimes to the organization.[original research?] Small town and county law enforcement agencies, especially in poorer sections of the South up to the 1990s, were usually inadequately equipped, and rarely had officers with extensive experience in the investigation of homicide or organized crime.[citation needed]

The members of the Dixie Mafia usually created small, seemingly legitimate, businesses such as buying and selling junk or antiques. These businesses would provide fronts for the operators to buy and sell stolen items provided by others within the network. The businesses would usually operate until they aroused suspicion, then move to another location.[citation needed]

Many members of the Dixie Mafia were former state or federal prisoners. Members were usually recruited while in prison; a history of violent behavior was generally a prerequisite to becoming a member. According to an article in the Las Vegas Review Journal, the gang was well known for its violence in collecting debts owed to gambling houses and strip clubs.[citation needed]

The terms "Dixie Mafia" and "Southern Mafia" have been used interchangeably. Documented use of the two terms existed as early as 1993, when Scarfone wrote about the "Dixie Mafia" or the "Southern Mafia" working together with the "Italian Mafia" in the South. His accounts of the "Good Ol' Boy's Southern-Mafia" in Parts 3 and 4 of the article describe the group's indigenous nature.[9] It is unclear whether or not all journalistic and literary references to the "Dixie Mafia" and the "Southern Mafia" refer to the same group of individuals. Therefore, these terms have become terms of general reference to any illegal enterprise in the Southern states that, for cultural reasons, can expect a certain amount of support, both intended and unintended, from the local population[10]

Dixie Mafia at the Louisiana State Penitentiary[edit]

Louisiana State Penitentiary is home to many Dixie Mafia members. Most have life sentences without any chance of parole. Some mafia members have served a lengthy prison sentence and have been released from prison. One such Dixie Mafia member who is suspected of numerous murders around the United States (and Mexico) is Jeffery Carter. Jeffery Carter served a 20-year sentence in the Louisiana State Penitentiary (Angola) for the death and sexual assault of a New Orleans prostitute. Carter has since been released from custody and resides in or near Madison County, Florida.

Jeffery Carter is suspected to be the Florida boss of the mafia, taking orders only from members behind bars in Angola, Louisiana (Peter Mule) and Marion, Illinois (Kirksey Nix). Shortly after Jeffery Carter's release from the Louisiana State Penitentiary, Federal authorities were involved in an airplane chase over the Gulf of Mexico after authorities spotted a low flying Piper Cub flying at full speed just a few hundred yards off shore. The pilot of this aircraft ignored the Federal authorities attempt to communicate. The pilot made a dangerous belly landing just yards away from the shore and was seen swimming to shore by authorities using infrared night vision. Despite all efforts to have law enforcement on the ground to locate this pilot, the pilot was never caught. The airplane was later determined to be stolen, and there was nothing illegal on board. However, law enforcement authorities believe that this low flying pilot was Dixie Mafia member Jeffery Carter. There was never enough evidence to arrest Carter as the pilot.[11] Law enforcement agencies have confirmed that in 1981 Jeffery Carter was befriended by infamous pilot and drug smuggler Barry Seal, while Carter was a bartender at a French Quarter bar in New Orleans Louisiana.[12] Barry Seal, in 1982, compelled Carter to relocate to Mena Arkansas to work for Seal at Seal's new business called Rich Mountain Aviation, at the Mena Airport. It is unclear what Jeffery Carter's work responsibilities were, but it is widely believed that Jeffery Carter was a protege of Barry Seal, and learned his flying skills from Barry Seal.

A 2011 NPR report claimed some of the people associated with this group were imprisoned in a highly restrictive Communication Management Unit.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dixie Mafia: Prison Gang Profile Archived July 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ (LSP Classification Office 1987; Louisiana State Police Investigation Report, 1988; NPR 1988; Times-Picayune Newspaper, Section-C, Pg. 1)
  3. ^ Morris, W. R. (2001) The State Line Mob: A True Story of Murder and Intrigue, Rutledge Hill Press.
  4. ^ Morris, W. R. (1997) The Legacy of Buford Pusser: A Pictorial History of the "Walking Tall" Sheriff, Turner Pub. Co.
  5. ^ a b Humes, Edward (1995) Mississippi Mud: Southern Justice and the Dixie Mafia, Pocket Press.
  6. ^ Morris, W. R. (1971) The Twelfth of August: The Story of Buford Pusser, Aurora Publishers.
  7. ^ [1] Archived May 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose (1994) "Smugglers linked to Contra arms deals," The Telegraph plc.
  9. ^ "Scarfone, R. J., (1993) ''If I Had Wings I'd Help Them Fly? or "As Long As The Voices Sing"? (you make the choice) A Book Of Choices,'' M.A.G.I.C. Press, Lawrenceville, Georgia". Youthofamerica.com. 1995-11-13. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  10. ^ "Bruce Yandle, "Bootleggers and Baptists: The Education of a Regulatory Economist." ''Regulation 7'', no. 3 (1983): 12." (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  11. ^ Del Rio-Herald, 1984, pg.2
  12. ^ Louisiana State Police
  13. ^ DATA & GRAPHICS: Population Of The Communications Management Units, Margot Williams and Alyson Hurt, NPR, 3-3-11, retrieved 2011 03 04 from npr.org

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dixie_Mafia — Please support Wikipedia.
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Sun, 24 Apr 2016 13:18:43 -0700

We were unable to load Disqus. If you are a moderator please see our troubleshooting guide. Duard. This sounds like a contract hit, probably Dixie Mafia. With a Mexican cartel hit they kill EVERYONE, including the kids. The doer is long gone in any event.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (press release)

Federal Bureau of Investigation (press release)
Tue, 04 Sep 2012 10:47:57 -0700

This month marks the 25th anniversary of the murder of Judge Vincent Sherry and his wife, Margaret, whose deaths at the hands of the so-called Dixie Mafia exposed the lawlessness and corruption that had overtaken Mississippi's Gulf Coast in the 1980s.
Flagpole Magazine
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 21:09:05 -0800

JL: When I was working probably '73, '74 with the feds. They can hire local officers cheaper than they can use their own agents. So we worked some with the federal folks when they were working the Dixie Mafia, who were into theft of clothing, hijacking ...

New York Daily News

New York Daily News
Sun, 06 Jul 2008 01:17:43 -0700

Pete Halat was not exactly dumbstruck when his former law partner, Judge Vince Sherry, and Sherry's wife were found executed in their Biloxi, Miss., home. Halat, called upon to give the funeral eulogy, delivered a bizarre, long-winded speech that ...

Mississippi Press (blog)

Mississippi Press (blog)
Mon, 30 Apr 2012 19:00:43 -0700

BILOXI, Mississippi -- Mike Gillich Jr., a former Biloxi striptease lounge owner who helped plot the 1987 Dixie Mafia murders of a judge and the judge's wife, has died. Bradford O'Keefe Funeral Homes in Biloxi confirmed Gillich's death. His funeral ...


Fri, 25 Jan 2013 12:25:28 -0800

(Los Angeles, CA) – DIXIE MAFIA, airing Saturday, February 2 at 10PM ET/PT, is a one-hour special that tells the true story of Mississippi's battles with organized crime. Responsible for dozens of murders and countless other crimes, the Dixie Mafia ...

Mississippi Press (blog)

Mississippi Press (blog)
Mon, 24 Oct 2011 08:21:07 -0700

PASCAGOULA, Mississippi -- A Benndale man, who led police on a 40-minute car chase and was stopped in Wilmer, Ala., allegedly told authorities he was in the Dixie Mafia and tried to buy his way out of being arrested, authorities said today. Jackson ...

New York Times

New York Times
Fri, 05 Feb 2016 08:09:36 -0800

... for Hap and Leonard to figure out that something hotter than vintage autos is being peddled from this showroom, but the nature of the merchandise and the extent of the criminal enterprise involved in its distribution will have the boys facing the ...

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