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Diwas (Kalinga, Kankanai)
Diwas upce.jpg
A Diwas of UP Center of Ethnomusicology
Woodwind instrument
Other names Dad-ayu (Balangaw), Diwdiwas (Bontoc), Saggeypo (Kalinga), Dewdew-as (Tingguian)
Classification Wind instrument
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 412.112[1]
(Sets of end-blown flutes or panpipes)
Related instruments
Diwas sound sample. Each pipe in the Diwas was played.

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Diwas is a native bamboo wind instrument in the Philippines which is a variation of the well-known panflutes or panpipes. It is made of bamboo with one of its end closed via the node of the bamboo. It also does not have finger holes (or tone holes) which is unlike popular aerophones like flutes that have finger holes or tone holes to play different pitches on the instrument. But Diwas compensate on this by grouping pipes of graduated length together. So to produce sound with varying pitch, you shift from one pipe to another. In Kalinga, these individual pipes are known as Saggeypo which is why Diwas is sometimes called as Saggeypo. Usually, the number of Saggeypos strung together ranges from 5 to 8.[2]

Playing techniques[edit]

Simply, the instrument is played by blowing on the embouchure of the instrument. The embouchure has two distinct sides but both these sides can be used to play the instrument. However the big difference on these two sides, when you played on the side with shorter cutnstrument tend to produce higher pitch than when you played on the side with longer cut.

Science behind panpipes[edit]

How the instrument produce its sound can be traced by the concept of closed-end pipes/tubes. Basically, it is the very application of that concept. The starting point is at the time the person blows on the embouchure. As he blows, air jet enters the body of the instrument causing vibration inside the instrument. The slanted cut in the embouchure is responsible in controlling the air that will flow in the body. The time for this vibration to reach the end of the body and then get reflected back determines the frequency produced by the instrument. Thus the length of the tube is essential in determining the frequency produced by the instrument.[3]

Instrument variations[edit]

Most of the variations of the Philippine bamboo panpipes can be traced in Northern Luzon where the instrument is known by different names. In Balangaw, the instrument is called as Dad-ayu. In Bontoc, it is known as Diwdiw-as. In Tingguian, Dewdew-as. And in Kankanai it is still Diwas.[4] In these variations, the typical number of pipes consisted in the panpipes ranges from 5 to 8. The size, length and radius, of the instruments also varies from one ethnic group to another but there are no exact measurements for they do not depend highly on this. Also, the aesthetics of the instrument varies from one group to another.


In Kalinga, Saggeypo and Diwas are the same because Saggeypo is the individual pipes in Diwas. There is no significant difference in the physical features of Saggeypo and Diwas. However, since Diwas is a group of Saggeypo strung together, the lengths of the pipe are more fixed. Typically, Saggeypo has no fixed length.

Physical features[edit]

The production of Diwas do not depend highly on exact measurements. This affects the generality of the music in indigenous tribes of the Philippines. Thus unlike the western music who depend highly on musical notes in producing melody, indigenous music in the Philippines depend highly on rhythm. This is the very reason why sizes, length, radius, etc of the instruments have no fixed value where these values are important in producing the pitches.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ List of aerophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number
  2. ^ http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=155&igm=1
  3. ^ http://www.sarahtulga.com/panpipes.htm
  4. ^ C. Dioquinio. (2008) Philippine Bamboo Instruments. Humanities Diliman (January - December 2008), Vol. 5, No. 1 & 2, Pages 101-113. http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/humanitiesdiliman/article/view/1484, accessed 04 September 2011.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diwas — Please support Wikipedia.
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28492 news items

India Today

India Today
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 20:56:15 -0700

The families of the soldiers who made the supreme sacrifice for the country make it a point to visit the war memorial in Drass each year on the occasion of Vijay Diwas. They remember their loved ones with pride, but the feelings of sadness have not waned.

India Today

India Today
Sat, 26 Jul 2014 01:37:30 -0700

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Saturday remembered the "indomitable courage" of the Kargil war martyrs on the 15th Vijay Diwas (Victory Day) even as Defence Minister Arun Jaitley said the government will soon finalise the site for construction of a ...


Fri, 25 Jul 2014 09:07:30 -0700

The two-day event to mark Vijay Diwas and commemorate the martyrdom of the jawans was kicked off by Army Chief, Gen. Bikram Singh, who offered floral tributes at the Kargil War Memorial here. Many current and former top army officers also laid floral ...
Hindustan Times
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 10:37:30 -0700

Every year July 26 is observed as Kargil Vijay Diwas and today is the 15th anniversary of India's victory in a conflict forced upon it by the adventurism of Pakistan's generals. This victory came during Prime Minister AB Vajpayee's leadership ...

Zee News

Zee News
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 23:33:45 -0700

New Delhi: Defence Minsiter Arun Jaitley and armed forces chiefs paid tribute at the India Gate here to the martyrs who gallantly laid down their life for the nation in the 1999 Kargil conflict with Pakistan. Jaitley along with Army Chief General ...


Sat, 26 Jul 2014 03:18:45 -0700

Kargil, July 26: On the 15th anniversary of Kargil Vijay Diwas, India's highest gallantry award, Param Vir Chakra awardee Yogendra Singh Yadav visited Kargil and paid tributes to the slain soldiers. In an exclusive chat to OneIndia, PVC Yogendra ...

Daily News & Analysis

Daily News & Analysis
Sun, 27 Jul 2014 02:00:00 -0700

"This Kargil Vijay Diwas, I want to ask our youth to join the armed forces and serve the country. We have to continue our endeavor to encourage and support our soldiers who are protecting our country,'' the CM said. Union Minister for Railways DV ...


Sat, 26 Jul 2014 05:00:00 -0700

The country is celebrating 'Vijay Diwas' in remembrance of those soldiers who laid down their lives protecting India from the invaders in Kargil, Jammu & Kashmir. On the occasion of the 15th anniversary of Kargil Victory, whole nation is paying tribute ...

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