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Didiwas (Kalinga, Kankanai)
Diwas upce.jpg
A Diwas of UP Center of Ethnomusicology
Woodwind instrument
Other names Dad-ayu (Balangaw), Diwdiwas (Bontoc), Saggeypo (Kalinga), Dewdew-as (Tingguian)
Classification Wind instrument
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 412.112[1]
(Sets of end-blown flutes or panpipes)
Related instruments
Diwas sound sample. Each pipe in the Diwas was played.

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Diwas is a native bamboo wind instrument in the Philippines which is a variation of the well-known panflutes or panpipes. It is made of bamboo with one of its end closed via the node of the bamboo. It also does not have finger holes (or tone holes) which is unlike popular aerophones like flutes that have finger holes or tone holes to play different pitches on the instrument. But Diwas compensate on this by grouping pipes of graduated length together. So to produce sound with varying pitch, you shift from one pipe to another. In Kalinga, these individual pipes are known as Saggeypo which is why Diwas is sometimes called as Saggeypo. Usually, the number of Saggeypos strung together ranges from 5 to 8.[2]

Playing techniques[edit]

Simply, the instrument is played by blowing on the embouchure of the instrument. The embouchure has two distinct sides but both these sides can be used to play the instrument. However the big difference on these two sides, when you played on the side with shorter cutnstrument tend to produce higher pitch than when you played on the side with longer cut.

Science behind panpipes[edit]

How the instrument produce its sound can be traced by the concept of closed-end pipes/tubes. Basically, it is the very application of that concept. The starting point is at the time the person blows on the embouchure. As he blows, air jet enters the body of the instrument causing vibration inside the instrument. The slanted cut in the embouchure is responsible in controlling the air that will flow in the body. The time for this vibration to reach the end of the body and then get reflected back determines the frequency produced by the instrument. Thus the length of the tube is essential in determining the frequency produced by the instrument.[3]

Instrument variations[edit]

Most of the variations of the Philippine bamboo panpipes can be traced in Northern Luzon where the instrument is known by different names. In Balangaw, the instrument is called as Dad-ayu. In Bontoc, it is known as Diwdiw-as. In Tingguian, Dewdew-as. And in Kankanai it is still Diwas.[4] In these variations, the typical number of pipes consisted in the panpipes ranges from 5 to 8. The size, length and radius, of the instruments also varies from one ethnic group to another but there are no exact measurements for they do not depend highly on this. Also, the aesthetics of the instrument varies from one group to another.


In Kalinga, Saggeypo and Diwas are the same because Saggeypo is the individual pipes in Diwas. There is no significant difference in the physical features of Saggeypo and Diwas. However, since Diwas is a group of Saggeypo strung together, the lengths of the pipe are more fixed. Typically, Saggeypo has no fixed length.

Physical features[edit]

The production of Diwas do not depend highly on exact measurements. This affects the generality of the music in indigenous tribes of the Philippines. Thus unlike the Western music which depends largely on musical notes in producing melody, indigenous music in the Philippines depends highly on rhythm. This is the very reason why sizes, length, radius, etc of the instruments have no fixed value where these values are important in producing pitch.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ List of aerophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number
  2. ^ http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=155&igm=1
  3. ^ http://www.sarahtulga.com/panpipes.htm
  4. ^ C. Dioquinio. (2008) Philippine Bamboo Instruments. Humanities Diliman (January - December 2008), Vol. 5, No. 1 & 2, Pages 101-113. http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/humanitiesdiliman/article/view/1484, accessed 04 September 2011.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diwas — Please support Wikipedia.
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Zee News
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 19:56:15 -0800

New Delhi: As the nation remembers the martyrs today on Vijay Diwas, who laid down their lives during 1971 India-Pakistan war, Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar along with Army chief DS Suhag, Navy Chief R.K. Dhowan and Air Chief Arup Raha paid ...
Hindustan Times
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 11:13:16 -0800

A large number of civil dignitaries, ex-servicemen and service personnel participated in the Vijay Diwas celebrations at the Martyr Memorial in Dharamsala. Commandant 39th Mountain Division Major General Amar Pal Singh laid floral wreath at the memorial.
The Indian Express
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:23:39 -0800

Naib Subedar Azad Singh of 2 Signal Training Centre Goa broke the Guinness World Record for travelling the farthest distance balancing a football on the head, on Tuesday. The earlier record had seen set by Abdul Halim of Bangladesh, who travelled 15.2 ...

The Indian Express

The Indian Express
Sun, 14 Dec 2014 15:11:55 -0800

Volunteers of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) will show their “defence and attack” skills using the “dand” (cane) in the Shakhas across the country on December 16 when the organisation will observe Vijay Diwas to mark the anniversary of surrender of ...
Economic Times
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 02:18:45 -0800

On Dec 16, 1971, the largest military surrender after World War II took place at Dhaka when the General Officer-Commanding-in-Chief, Eastern Command, Lt Gen Jagjit Singh Arora accepted the surrender of 93,000 Pakistani troops from Lt Gen AAK Niazi of ...

I am in dna of India

I am in dna of India
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 05:52:30 -0800

Marking the 43rd anniversary of the 1971Bangladesh Liberation war on December 16, Poorv Sainik Seva Parishad organised an event for the army officials who fought in the war. School children performed to patriotic songs to honour the sacrifice made by ...
Economic Times
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 03:13:46 -0800

"On Vijay Diwas, we remember sacrifices & valour of our Armed Forces who fought courageously in 1971. We are extremely proud of them," Modi tweeted. Vijay Diwas (Victory Day) is commemorated every year on this day as it marks India's military victory ...
Times of India
Sat, 13 Dec 2014 07:13:34 -0800

KOLKATA: A cabinet minister and senior bureaucrat from Bangladesh are among those who will be visiting Kolkata next week to participate in the Vijay Diwas celebrations. While social welfare minister Syed Mohsin Ali will lead a delegation of Mukti ...

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