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Diwas (Kalinga, Kankanai)
Diwas upce.jpg
A Diwas of UP Center of Ethnomusicology
Woodwind instrument
Other names Dad-ayu (Balangaw), Diwdiwas (Bontoc), Saggeypo (Kalinga), Dewdew-as (Tingguian)
Classification Wind instrument
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 412.112[1]
(Sets of end-blown flutes or panpipes)
Related instruments
Diwas sound sample. Each pipe in the Diwas was played.

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Diwas is a native bamboo wind instrument in the Philippines which is a variation of the well-known panflutes or panpipes. It is made of bamboo with one of its end closed via the node of the bamboo. It also does not have finger holes (or tone holes) which is unlike popular aerophones like flutes that have finger holes or tone holes to play different pitches on the instrument. But Diwas compensate on this by grouping pipes of graduated length together. So to produce sound with varying pitch, you shift from one pipe to another. In Kalinga, these individual pipes are known as Saggeypo which is why Diwas is sometimes called as Saggeypo. Usually, the number of Saggeypos strung together ranges from 5 to 8.[2]

Playing techniques[edit]

Simply, the instrument is played by blowing on the embouchure of the instrument. The embouchure has two distinct sides but both these sides can be used to play the instrument. However the big difference on these two sides, when you played on the side with shorter cutnstrument tend to produce higher pitch than when you played on the side with longer cut.

Science behind panpipes[edit]

How the instrument produce its sound can be traced by the concept of closed-end pipes/tubes. Basically, it is the very application of that concept. The starting point is at the time the person blows on the embouchure. As he blows, air jet enters the body of the instrument causing vibration inside the instrument. The slanted cut in the embouchure is responsible in controlling the air that will flow in the body. The time for this vibration to reach the end of the body and then get reflected back determines the frequency produced by the instrument. Thus the length of the tube is essential in determining the frequency produced by the instrument.[3]

Instrument variations[edit]

Most of the variations of the Philippine bamboo panpipes can be traced in Northern Luzon where the instrument is known by different names. In Balangaw, the instrument is called as Dad-ayu. In Bontoc, it is known as Diwdiw-as. In Tingguian, Dewdew-as. And in Kankanai it is still Diwas.[4] In these variations, the typical number of pipes consisted in the panpipes ranges from 5 to 8. The size, length and radius, of the instruments also varies from one ethnic group to another but there are no exact measurements for they do not depend highly on this. Also, the aesthetics of the instrument varies from one group to another.


In Kalinga, Saggeypo and Diwas are the same because Saggeypo is the individual pipes in Diwas. There is no significant difference in the physical features of Saggeypo and Diwas. However, since Diwas is a group of Saggeypo strung together, the lengths of the pipe are more fixed. Typically, Saggeypo has no fixed length.

Physical features[edit]

The production of Diwas do not depend highly on exact measurements. This affects the generality of the music in indigenous tribes of the Philippines. Thus unlike the western music who depend highly on musical notes in producing melody, indigenous music in the Philippines depend highly on rhythm. This is the very reason why sizes, length, radius, etc of the instruments have no fixed value where these values are important in producing the pitches.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ List of aerophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number
  2. ^ http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=155&igm=1
  3. ^ http://www.sarahtulga.com/panpipes.htm
  4. ^ C. Dioquinio. (2008) Philippine Bamboo Instruments. Humanities Diliman (January - December 2008), Vol. 5, No. 1 & 2, Pages 101-113. http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/humanitiesdiliman/article/view/1484, accessed 04 September 2011.

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155 news items

South China Morning Post
Sat, 05 Apr 2014 14:45:00 -0700

What started as a small act of remembrance in Hong Kong a decade ago has grown into a major commemoration for Gurkhas across the world. Gurkha communities in Brunei, Britain and Nepal now observe Purkha Diwas, which translates to Ancestors' Day, ...


Mon, 21 Apr 2014 04:00:46 -0700

Report by Odisha Diary bureau, Muscat: It was a day that gave the members of the Odia community a home-away-from-home feel when around 300 members including kids and elderly people, gathered at the Majan Continental hotel here to celebrate Utkal ...
The Hindu
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 07:03:45 -0700

Ushering in the new month of the year, the Sikh community gathered at the venue to offer prayers as part of the 'Khalsa Sajana Diwas' as the day symbolises the birth of Khalsa Panth where Gobind Rai, the 10th Guru of Sikhs, became Guru Gobind Singh ...

Times of India

Times of India
Sat, 29 Mar 2014 00:38:52 -0700

The 102nd Bihar Diwas celebrations concluded recently with the promise of a bigger and better version of the festival next year. The three-day celebrations organized at SK Memorial Hall were inaugurated by Ashok Sinha, chief secretary of the state and ...

Sikh24 News & Updates

Sikh24 News & Updates
Fri, 11 Apr 2014 15:07:30 -0700

Sikh pilgrimage Amritsar Sahib, India (April 11, 2014)— Nearly 2,400 Sikh pilgrims, including an 824-member SGPC group, on Thursday, left for Pakistan in special trains to celebrate the foundation day of the Khalsa Panth (Vaisakhi) in the historic ...
Times of India
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 21:56:33 -0700

KANPUR: The members of Utkal Parishad of IIT-Kanpur the foundation day of Odisha (Utkal Diwas). On this day in 1936, Odisha was separated from Bihar and got its statehood. President of Utkal Parishad Debajyoti Pal addressed the gathering A cultural ...


Fri, 04 Apr 2014 21:32:44 -0700

Over 10,000 booth level BJP workers in Uttarakhand may get an opportunity to talk to Narendra Modi on Sunday. In a bid to motivate the workers for the upcoming Lok Sabha polls on the occasion of BJP's foundation day, Modi will connect with workers from ...

Jagran Post

Jagran Post
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 01:48:45 -0700

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