||This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2010)
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self. This is done through reducing or blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances. Some, which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine and/or opioid systems, may be capable of inducing euphoria. Many dissociatives have general depressant effects and can produce sedation, respiratory depression, analgesia, anesthesia, and ataxia, as well as cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.
Classes of dissociatives
NMDA receptor antagonists
κ-opioid receptor agonists
The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia. The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia. According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment." Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness." Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams") during and after anesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing.
At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual processes affected by other hallucinogenic drugs such as mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin; hence they are also considered hallucinogenic, and psychedelic. Perhaps the most significant subjective differences between dissociatives and the classical hallucinogens (such as LSD and mescaline) are the dissociative effects, including: depersonalization, the feeling of being unreal, disconnected from one's self, or unable to control one's actions; and derealization, the feeling that the outside world is unreal or that one is dreaming.
- ^ Tamminga, C. A.; Tanimoto, K.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T. N.; Contreras, P. C.; Rice, K. C.; Jackson, A. E.; O'Donohue, T. L. (1987). "PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: Blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent". Synapse 1 (5): 497–504. doi:10.1002/syn.890010514. PMID 2850626.
- ^ Snyder, Solomon H. (1980). "Phencyclidine". Nature 285 (5764): 355–6. doi:10.1038/285355a0. PMID 7189825.
- ^ Giannini, AJ; Eighan, MS; Loiselle, RH; Giannini, MC (1984). "Comparison of haloperidol and chlorpromazine in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis". Journal of clinical pharmacology 24 (4): 202–4. doi:10.1002/j.1552-4604.1984.tb01831.x. PMID 6725621.
- ^ Giannini, A. James; Nageotte, Catherine; Loiselle, Robert H.; Malone, Donald A.; Price, William A. (1984). "Comparison of Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol and Pimozide in the Treatment of Phencyclidine Psychosis: Da-2 Receptor Specificity". Clinical Toxicology 22 (6): 573–9. doi:10.3109/15563658408992586. PMID 6535849.
- ^ Giannini, A. James; Underwood, Ned A.; Condon, Maggie (2000). "Acute Ketamine Intoxication Treated by Haloperidol". American Journal of Therapeutics 7 (6): 389–91. doi:10.1097/00045391-200007060-00008. PMID 11304647.
- ^ Giannini, A. James; Giannini, Matthew C.; Price, William A. (1984). "Antidotal Strategies in Phencyclidine Intoxication". The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 14 (4): 315–21. doi:10.2190/KKAW-PWGF-W7RQ-23GN.
- ^ Giannini, A. James; Price, William A.; Loiselle, Robert H.; Malone, Donald W. (1985). "Treatment of Phenylcyclohexylpyrrolidine (Php) Psychosis with Haloperidol". Clinical Toxicology 23 (2-3): 185–9. doi:10.3109/15563658508990627. PMID 4057312.
- ^ Tarter, RE; Ammerman, RT; Ott, PJ (1998). Handbook of Substance Abuse: Neurobaehavioral Pharmacology. NY: Plenum Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-306-45884-5.
- ^ a b Pender, John W. (1970). "Dissociative Anesthesia". California Medicine 113 (5): 73. PMC 1501800. PMID 18730444.
- ^ Johnstone, M.; Evans, V.; Baigel, S. (1959). "SERNYL (C1−395) IN CLINICAL ANAESTHESIA". BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia 31: 433–9. doi:10.1093/bja/31.10.433.
- ^ Oduntan, S. A.; Gool, R. Y. (1970). "Clinical trial of ketamine (ci-581): A preliminary report". Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal 17: 411–6. doi:10.1007/BF03004705.
- ^ Pender, John W. (October 1972). "Dissociative Anesthesia". California Medicine 117 (4): 46–7. PMC 1518731. PMID 18730832.
- ^ Bonta, I (2004). "Schizophrenia, dissociative anaesthesia and near-death experience; three events meeting at the NMDA receptor". Medical Hypotheses 62 (1): 23–8. doi:10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00307-4. PMID 14729000.
- ^ Virtue, RW; Alanis, JM; Mori, M; Lafargue, RT; Vogel, JH; Metcalf, DR (1967). "An anesthetic agent: 2-orthochlorophenyl, 2-methylamino cyclohexanone HCl (CI-581).". Anesthesiology 28 (5): 823–33. doi:10.1097/00000542-196709000-00008. PMID 6035012.
- ^ Mason, Oliver J.; Morgan, Celia J.M.; Stefanovic, Ana; Curran, H Valerie (2008). "The Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI): Measuring psychotic-type experiences from ketamine and cannabis". Schizophrenia Research 103 (1-3): 138–42. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.02.020. PMID 18387788.
- ^ Lim, DK (2003). "Ketamine associated psychedelic effects and dependence.". Singapore medical journal 44 (1): 31–4. PMID 12762561.
- ^ Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Heekeren, K.; Neukirch, A.; Stoll, M.; Stock, C.; Obradovic, M.; Kovar, K.-A. (2005). "Psychological Effects of (S)-Ketamine and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study in Healthy Volunteers". Pharmacopsychiatry 38 (6): 301–11. doi:10.1055/s-2005-916185. PMID 16342002.
- ^ Krupitsky, EM; Grinenko, AY (1997). "Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): a review of the results of ten years of research.". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 29 (2): 165–83. doi:10.1080/02791072.1997.10400185. PMID 9250944.
- ^ Vollenweider, F; Geyer, MA (2001). "A systems model of altered consciousness: integrating natural and drug-induced psychoses". Brain Research Bulletin 56 (5): 495–507. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(01)00646-3. PMID 11750795.
dissociative marilyn manson
im back im own nothing.
Dissociation, what is it, how do we deal with it? Mental Heath Videos with Kati Morton
Dissociation, what is it, how do deal it? Mental Heath Videos with Kati Morton Dissociation is a term in psychology describing a wide array of experiences fr...
Schizophrenia & Dissociative Disorders: Crash Course Psychology #32
Subbable Message ••• To: Margarete From: Toni Your sister thinks you are the best! Here's hoping Crash Course does an Art History season just for you. :)...
Meet My Alters / Personalities | Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Meet my alters / personalities: Autumn, Iris, the Host, the Sexual Alter, and Unknown. Autumn and Iris are the protectors. The host is, well, the "real me." ...
Proof of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Is dissociative identity disorder (DID) / multiple personality disorder (MPD) real or fake? It is a real condition that stems from past trauma, denial, and/o...
What Is Depersonalization or Dissociative Disorder? - Lucinda Bassett
http://www.LucindaBassettCoaching.com What Is Depersonalization or Dissociative Disorder? Depersonalization disorder, like the dissociative disorders in gene...
Living with Dissociative Identity Disorder
Paula Hanson is fighting a daily battle from within, living with 90 different personalities that literally take over her mind and body in an instant.
Meet Nicholas, 23, Dissociative Identity Disorder
Nicholas is 23 years old, from the USA, and lives with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) which used to be known as multiple personality disorder. Watch hi...
DID - Dissociative Identity Disorder 1of2
Herschel Walker is widely regarded as one of football's greatest running backs. He led the University of Georgia to victory in the Sugar Bowl on the way to a...
What is Dissociative identity disorder? Or Multiple Personality Disorder? with Kati Morton
What is Dissociative identity disorder? Or Multiple Personality Disorder? Mental Health with Kati Morton Today I talk about dissociative identity disorder, w...
East Bay Express (blog)
East Bay Express (blog)
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 11:33:11 -0700
In this week's cover story, I profiled Elyse Winter-Volkova, a 21-year-old San Leandro woman who suffers from dissociative identity disorder, the condition formerly known as multiple personality disorder. Experts believe the disorder, also known as DID ...
Tue, 07 Oct 2014 18:07:22 -0700
Lucy has dissociative identity disorder - what used to be known as multiple personality disorder - which is triggered by complex trauma. She has suffered from various forms of abuse through her life and was sexually abused as a young child. "From that ...
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 05:00:52 -0700
There is a dissociative element to President Barack Obama. It occurs between what he says and what he does contemporaneously, between what he says in scripted remarks and unscripted responses made contemporaneously, between what he says is fact ...
7thSpace Interactive (press release)
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 02:00:00 -0700
Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative ...
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:56:15 -0700
No doubt about it, NCIS: New Orleans Season 1 Episode 6 had a lot going on: murders based off horror anthology moments, a character suffering from Dissociative Identity Disorder, plus our first real good look at Pride's relationship with his wife from ...
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 02:00:00 -0700
... as well as midbrain areas.18,24–26 Dividing PTSD into dissociative and hyperarousal subtypes may be a fruitful line of inquiry, as these subtype are thought to differ greatly in modulation of emotion (overmodulation versus undermodulation).27–29 ...
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 19:43:44 -0700
A psychologist later testified that he suffered from anxiety and depression, and may have been in a “dissociative state” when the shooting occurred. “Ernie was a victim of circumstance and I think Mr. Bruno is the victim of circumstance,” Matsuk told ...
East Bay Express
East Bay Express
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 19:03:45 -0700
At that point in our conversation, I already knew that Elyse suffers from dissociative identity disorder, the condition formerly known as multiple personality disorder. The alarming sound of the sirens had caused Mae — one of Elyse's main "alters ...
Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter
Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group.