digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

This article is about the class of hallucinogen. For the psychological state, see Dissociation (psychology). For the Australian band, see The Dissociatives. For other uses, see Dissociation.

Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self. This is done through reducing or blocking signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain.[1] Although many kinds of drugs are capable of such action, dissociatives are unique in that they do so in such a way that they produce hallucinogenic effects, which may include sensory deprivation, dissociation, hallucinations, and dream-like states or trances.[2] Some, which are nonselective in action and affect the dopamine[3] and/or opioid[4] systems, may be capable of inducing euphoria. Many dissociatives have general depressant effects and can produce sedation, respiratory depression[citation needed], analgesia, anesthesia, and ataxia, as well as cognitive and memory impairment and amnesia.[citation needed]

Classes of dissociatives[edit]

NMDA receptor antagonists[edit]

κ-opioid receptor agonists[edit]

Main article: Opioid

Effects[edit]

The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[9][10][11] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[9] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment."[12] Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness."[13] Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams"[14]) during and after anesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing.

At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual processes affected by other hallucinogenic drugs such as mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin; hence they are also considered hallucinogenic, and psychedelic.[15][16][17][18] Perhaps the most significant subjective differences between dissociatives and the classical hallucinogens (such as LSD and mescaline) are the dissociative effects, including: depersonalization, the feeling of being unreal, disconnected from one's self, or unable to control one's actions; and derealization, the feeling that the outside world is unreal or that one is dreaming.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tamminga, C. A.; Tanimoto, K.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T. N.; Contreras, P. C.; Rice, K. C.; Jackson, A. E.; O'Donohue, T. L. (1987). "PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: Blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent". Synapse 1 (5): 497–504. doi:10.1002/syn.890010514. PMID 2850626. 
  2. ^ Snyder, Solomon H. (1980). "Phencyclidine". Nature 285 (5764): 355–6. doi:10.1038/285355a0. PMID 7189825. 
  3. ^ Giannini, AJ; Eighan, MS; Loiselle, RH; Giannini, MC (1984). "Comparison of haloperidol and chlorpromazine in the treatment of phencyclidine psychosis". Journal of clinical pharmacology 24 (4): 202–4. doi:10.1002/j.1552-4604.1984.tb01831.x. PMID 6725621. 
  4. ^ Giannini, A. James; Nageotte, Catherine; Loiselle, Robert H.; Malone, Donald A.; Price, William A. (1984). "Comparison of Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol and Pimozide in the Treatment of Phencyclidine Psychosis: Da-2 Receptor Specificity". Clinical Toxicology 22 (6): 573–9. doi:10.3109/15563658408992586. PMID 6535849. 
  5. ^ Giannini, A. James; Underwood, Ned A.; Condon, Maggie (2000). "Acute Ketamine Intoxication Treated by Haloperidol". American Journal of Therapeutics 7 (6): 389–91. doi:10.1097/00045391-200007060-00008. PMID 11304647. 
  6. ^ Giannini, A. James; Giannini, Matthew C.; Price, William A. (1984). "Antidotal Strategies in Phencyclidine Intoxication". The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 14 (4): 315–21. doi:10.2190/KKAW-PWGF-W7RQ-23GN. 
  7. ^ Giannini, A. James; Price, William A.; Loiselle, Robert H.; Malone, Donald W. (1985). "Treatment of Phenylcyclohexylpyrrolidine (Php) Psychosis with Haloperidol". Clinical Toxicology 23 (2-3): 185–9. doi:10.3109/15563658508990627. PMID 4057312. 
  8. ^ Tarter, RE; Ammerman, RT; Ott, PJ (1998). Handbook of Substance Abuse: Neurobaehavioral Pharmacology. NY: Plenum Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-306-45884-5. 
  9. ^ a b Pender, John W. (1970). "Dissociative Anesthesia". California Medicine 113 (5): 73. PMC 1501800. PMID 18730444. 
  10. ^ Johnstone, M.; Evans, V.; Baigel, S. (1959). "SERNYL (C1−395) IN CLINICAL ANAESTHESIA". BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia 31: 433–9. doi:10.1093/bja/31.10.433. 
  11. ^ Oduntan, S. A.; Gool, R. Y. (1970). "Clinical trial of ketamine (ci-581): A preliminary report". Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal 17: 411–6. doi:10.1007/BF03004705. 
  12. ^ Pender, John W. (October 1972). "Dissociative Anesthesia". California Medicine 117 (4): 46–7. PMC 1518731. PMID 18730832. 
  13. ^ Bonta, I (2004). "Schizophrenia, dissociative anaesthesia and near-death experience; three events meeting at the NMDA receptor". Medical Hypotheses 62 (1): 23–8. doi:10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00307-4. PMID 14729000. 
  14. ^ Virtue, RW; Alanis, JM; Mori, M; Lafargue, RT; Vogel, JH; Metcalf, DR (1967). "An anesthetic agent: 2-orthochlorophenyl, 2-methylamino cyclohexanone HCl (CI-581).". Anesthesiology 28 (5): 823–33. doi:10.1097/00000542-196709000-00008. PMID 6035012. 
  15. ^ Mason, Oliver J.; Morgan, Celia J.M.; Stefanovic, Ana; Curran, H Valerie (2008). "The Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI): Measuring psychotic-type experiences from ketamine and cannabis". Schizophrenia Research 103 (1-3): 138–42. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.02.020. PMID 18387788. 
  16. ^ Lim, DK (2003). "Ketamine associated psychedelic effects and dependence.". Singapore medical journal 44 (1): 31–4. PMID 12762561. 
  17. ^ Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Heekeren, K.; Neukirch, A.; Stoll, M.; Stock, C.; Obradovic, M.; Kovar, K.-A. (2005). "Psychological Effects of (S)-Ketamine and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study in Healthy Volunteers". Pharmacopsychiatry 38 (6): 301–11. doi:10.1055/s-2005-916185. PMID 16342002. 
  18. ^ Krupitsky, EM; Grinenko, AY (1997). "Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): a review of the results of ten years of research.". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 29 (2): 165–83. doi:10.1080/02791072.1997.10400185. PMID 9250944. 
  19. ^ Vollenweider, F; Geyer, MA (2001). "A systems model of altered consciousness: integrating natural and drug-induced psychoses". Brain Research Bulletin 56 (5): 495–507. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(01)00646-3. PMID 11750795. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociative — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
37305 videos foundNext > 

Dissociation, what is it, how do we deal with it? Mental Heath Videos with Kati Morton

Dissociation, what is it, how do deal it? Mental Heath Videos with Kati Morton Dissociation is a term in psychology describing a wide array of experiences fr...

dissociative marilyn manson

im back im own nothing.

Schizophrenia & Dissociative Disorders: Crash Course Psychology #32

Subbable Message ••• To: Margarete From: Toni Your sister thinks you are the best! Here's hoping Crash Course does an Art History season just for you. :) ••• To get...

Proof of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Is dissociative identity disorder (DID) / multiple personality disorder (MPD) real or fake? It is a real condition that stems from past trauma, denial, and/o...

Meet My Alters / Personalities | Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Meet my alters / personalities: Autumn, Iris, the Host, the Sexual Alter, and Unknown. Autumn and Iris are the protectors. The host is, well, the "real me." ...

What Is Depersonalization or Dissociative Disorder? - Lucinda Bassett

http://www.LucindaBassettCoaching.com What Is Depersonalization or Dissociative Disorder? Depersonalization disorder, like the dissociative disorders in gene...

Living with Dissociative Identity Disorder

Paula Hanson is fighting a daily battle from within, living with 90 different personalities that literally take over her mind and body in an instant.

Can PTSD cause sufferers to break from reality? What is a dissociative state?

In this webcast, Dr. Frank Ochberg helps trauma survivors understand the term dissociation. Dissociation can be thought of as a defense against panic and ter...

Meet Nicholas, 23, Dissociative Identity Disorder

Nicholas is 23 years old, from the USA, and lives with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) which used to be known as multiple personality disorder. Watch hi...

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Man with DID.

37305 videos foundNext > 

300 news items

 
News24
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 02:33:45 -0700

Does Pistorius suffer a form of Dissociative Identity Disorder? [1] Patricia Taylor, the mother of his ex-girlfriend Sam Taylor, reveals how Oscar couldn't remember one pathological lie from another and his persona seems to go through radical changes ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 07:57:09 -0700

The daughter of two New York artists, she has been the focus of US media attention since she was a child, to a degree that most people would find bewildering – though she, according to her memoir, took a dissociative pleasure in it. When she was 11 ...

The Michigan Daily

The Michigan Daily
Mon, 29 Sep 2014 19:03:45 -0700

Due to her Dissociative Identity Disorder, even Rowan herself is unaware of her double identity. “The Blacklist” is great at shocking its audience, and the reveal of Reddington's wife in the premiere surely provided the series' signature twist that ...
 
Daily Democrat
Mon, 29 Sep 2014 15:07:30 -0700

During the guilt phase of the proceedings, Merikangas told jurors Marsh was in a "dissociative" or "dream-like" state when he committed the murders, resulting from Marsh's continued use of antidepressants. "It is like they are floating," he said. "They ...

Boston Globe

Boston Globe
Sat, 27 Sep 2014 15:07:30 -0700

The burning pain of stretching my hips in this yoga pose was so intense that I began to slip into a dissociative state — otherwise known as my happy place. I was dreaming I was in a Wes Anderson film on a swingset with Edward Norton and Tilda Swinton ...

Daily Democrat

Daily Democrat
Thu, 25 Sep 2014 17:18:10 -0700

The only evidence of a prior dissociative state for Marsh happened in 2012, when he disclosed to one of his many therapists feelings of not being in control of his thoughts, Cabral noted. The one other statement related to this phenomenon occurred when ...
 
Kansas.com
Sat, 27 Sep 2014 12:43:03 -0700

And there are around 125 over-the-counter products containing dextromethorphan, which when super-dosed produces hallucinations and dissociative episodes like the street drugs PCP or special K (ketamine). So, as you head into cold and flu season, here's ...
 
New York Times
Thu, 25 Sep 2014 15:40:06 -0700

It combines elements of “Lord of the Flies” with the Minotaur and Orpheus myths, but it plays as something closer to “The Hunger Games” experienced through a dissociative fog. (Kenigsberg). 'A Most Wanted Man' (R, 2:01) This smart, bluntly effective ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!