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Differential Thermal Analysis
Acronym DTA
Classification Thermal analysis
Other techniques
Related Differential scanning calorimetry
Isothermal microcalorimetry
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Thermomechanical analysis
Thermogravimetric analysis
Dielectric thermal analysis

Differential thermal analysis (or DTA) is a thermoanalytic technique, similar to differential scanning calorimetry. In DTA, the material under study and an inert reference are made to undergo identical thermal cycles, while recording any temperature difference between sample and reference.[1] This differential temperature is then plotted against time, or against temperature (DTA curve, or thermogram). Changes in the sample, either exothermic or endothermic, can be detected relative to the inert reference. Thus, a DTA curve provides data on the transformations that have occurred, such as glass transitions, crystallization, melting and sublimation. The area under a DTA peak is the enthalpy change and is not affected by the heat capacity of the sample.

Apparatus[edit]

A DTA consists of a sample holder comprising thermocouples, sample containers and a ceramic or metallic block; a furnace; a temperature programmer; and a recording system. The key feature is the existence of two thermocouples connected to a voltmeter. One thermocouple is placed in an inert material such as Al2O3, while the other is placed in a sample of the material under study. As the temperature is increased, there will be a brief deflection of the voltmeter if the sample is undergoing a phase transition. This occurs because the input of heat will raise the temperature of the inert substance, but be incorporated as latent heat in the material changing phase.[2]

Today's Instruments[edit]

In today’s market most manufacturers no longer make true DTA systems but rather have incorporated this technology into thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) systems, which provide both mass loss and thermal information. With today’s advancements in software, even these instruments are being replaced by true TGA-DSC instruments that can provide the temperature and heat flow of the sample, simultaneously with mass loss. These instruments are normally called SDT (simultaneous DSC/TGA).

Applications[edit]

A DTA curve can be used only as a finger print for identification purposes but usually the applications of this method are the determination of phase diagrams, heat change measurements and decomposition in various atmospheres.

DTA is widely used in the pharmaceutical[3] and food industries.[4][5][6][7]

DTA may be used in cement chemistry,[8] mineralogical research[9] and in environmental studies.[10]

DTA curves may also be used to date bone remains[11] or to study archaeological materials.[12][13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bhadeshia H.K.D.H. “Thermal analyses techniques. Differential thermal analysis”. University of Cambridge, Material Science and Metallurgy. www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2002/Thermal1.pdf
  2. ^ Robert Bud, Deborah Jean Warner. Instruments of Science. pp. 170–171. 
  3. ^ Ferrer S., Borrás J., Martín Gil J. and Martín Gil F.J. "Thermal studies on sulphonamide derivative complexes”. Thermochim. Acta, 1989, 147, 321 330; 1989, 153, 205 220; 1991, 185, 315 333.
  4. ^ Berger K.G., Akehurst E.E. “Some applications of differential thermal analysis to oils and fats”. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 1966, 1, 237–247.
  5. ^ Ramos Sánchez M.C., Rey F.J., Rodríguez M.L., Martín Gil F.J. and Martín Gil J. "DTG and DTA studies on typical sugars". Thermochim. Acta, 1988, 134, 55 60.
  6. ^ F.J. Rey, M.C. Ramos-Sánchez, M.L.Rodríguez, J. Martín-Gil, F.J. Martín-Gil. "DTG and DTA studies on sugar derivatives". Thermochim. Acta, 1988, 134, 67 72.
  7. ^ Rodríguez Méndez M.L., Rey F.J., Martín Gil J. and Martín Gil F.J. "DTG and DTA studies on amino acids". Thermochim. Acta, 1988, 134, 73 78.
  8. ^ Ramachandran V.S. “Applications of differential thermal analysis in cement chemistry”. Chap. V, Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., New York (1969), 92.
  9. ^ Smykatz-Kloss W. “Application of differential thermal analysis in mineralogy”. J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 1982, 23, 15-44.
  10. ^ Smykatz-Kloss W., Heil A, Kaeding L. and Roller E. “Thermal analysis in environmental studies”. In: Thermal analysis in Geosciences. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1991.
  11. ^ Villanueva, PrE, Girela F. y Castellanos M. “The application of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis to dating bone remains”. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1976, 21,
  12. ^ Misiego-Tejeda J.C., Marcos-Contreras G.J., Sarabia Herrero F.J., Martín Gil J. and Martín Gil F.J. "Un horno doméstico de la primera Edad del Hierro de "El Soto de Medinilla" (Valladolid) y su análisis por ATD". BSAA (University of Valladolid) 1993, LIX, 89 111.
  13. ^ Kingery W.D. “A note on the differential thermal analysis of archaeological ceramics”. Archaeometry, 1974, 16, 109–112.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_thermal_analysis — Please support Wikipedia.
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40 news items

 
Azom.com
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 02:17:00 -0700

NETZSCH's STA 449 F5 Jupiter is a top-loading system designed for thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The system ensures easy operation and sample change can be carried out using the motorized furnace hoist and top-loading principle of ...

Azom.com

Azom.com
Thu, 05 Feb 2015 06:16:28 -0800

NETZSCH's STA 449 F3 Jupiter is a simultaneous thermal analyzer that combines the benefits of a true differential scanning calorimeter and a high-sensitivity thermobalance. It is possible to integrate the STA 449 F3 Jupiter with many types of furnaces ...
 
Nature.com
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 23:53:15 -0700

Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis were carried out using a thermogravimetric analyzer (Perki Elimer Pyris 1, Waltham, MA, USA) from room temperature to 800 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C min−1 under a N2 atmosphere. The specific ...

Azom.com

Azom.com
Wed, 05 Nov 2014 03:43:16 -0800

Traditional thermal analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravi-metric analysis (TGA) cannot offer full information about the ...

TempSensorNEWS (press release)

TempSensorNEWS (press release)
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 03:30:00 -0700

Lyon, France – — Calorimetry and thermal analysis methods, alone or linked to other techniques, will be described and applied to the characterization of catalysts, oxides, metals, supports, adsorbents, polymers, composites, food, pharmaceuticals, ...
 
PR Web (press release)
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 11:56:15 -0700

Galbraith Laboratories, one of the largest independent analytical testing laboratories in the world, tested the lots using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential thermal analysis. TGA/DTA determines carbon black in a single analysis using ...
 
7thSpace Interactive (press release)
Thu, 23 Apr 2015 02:11:15 -0700

... Roman frescoes from Museo Nazionale Romano (Terme di Diocleziano, Rome, Italy) and Renaissance frescoes from Sistine Chapel and Old Vatican Rooms (Vatican City) were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA).

SPIE Newsroom

SPIE Newsroom
Tue, 06 May 2014 10:03:45 -0700

These images indicate that our microbolometer system can be used successfully to perform quantification of microscale thermal images (e.g., visual differential thermal analysis). Figure 4(b) shows the pseudo-accelerated frame rate that was applied to ...
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