digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















Diarchy (or dyarchy; from the Greek δι- / δύο meaning "two" and ἄρχω meaning "to rule") is a form of government in which two individuals ("diarchs") are joint heads of state. Most diarchs hold their position for life, passing the position to their children or other family members.

Diarchy is one of the oldest forms of government: examples include ancient Sparta, Rome, Carthage as well Germanic and Dacian tribes. Several ancient Polynesian societies also exhibited a diarchic political structure. Ranks in the Inca Empire were structured in moieties, with two occupants of each rank, but with different prestige, one hanan (upper) and one hurin (lower). In modern usage, diarchy means a system of dual rule, whether this be of a government or of an organization. Such 'diarchies' are not hereditary.

Modern examples of diarchies are the Principality of Andorra, whose heads of state are the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell; the Republic of San Marino, led by two collegial Captains Regent; and the Kingdom of Swaziland, where the joint heads of state are the king and his mother.

Current diarchies[edit]


Andorra is a parliamentary co-principality with the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell (Catalonia, Spain), as co-princes. This peculiarity makes the President of France, in his capacity as Prince of Andorra, an elected reigning monarch, even though he is not elected by a popular vote of the Andorran people.

San Marino[edit]

See Captain Regent


The Kingdom of Swaziland is a diarchy in which the king (Ngwenyama) rules in conjunction with his mother, the queen mother (Indlovukazi). In practice, however, most power is vested in the king, though it is often argued that the giving of authority wholesale to the royal male in this way is a neo-traditionalistic as opposed to truly traditional custom.[citation needed]

Former diarchies[edit]

Roman Republic[edit]

The Roman Republic was ruled by two consuls, elected each year and each holding a veto power over the other's actions.[citation needed]

Swedish monarchs[edit]

In England, Scotland, and Ireland[edit]

  • William III and Mary II held joint sovereignty over the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1688 to 1694.

Lithuanian monarchs[edit]

The Lithuanian Grand Dukes typically selected submonarchs from their families or loyal subjects to assist controlling the Grand Duchy. However, the Grand Dukes remained superior.

A slightly different system developed for a brief period after Vytautas became Grand Duke, where nominally Vytautas ruled together with Jogaila, who took the title of aukščiausiasis kunigaikštis (Supreme Duke), but he has not once used the title to take any action, and in general the powers invested in the title were not clearly stated in any documents, besides the Pact of Horodlo, which guaranteed that Jogaila would have to approve the selection of a Lithuanian Grand Duke. The title was not used by any other king of Poland after Jogaila.

Classical Sparta[edit]

Classical Sparta in ancient Greece was ruled for over 700 years by two kings at a time (q.v., List of Kings of Sparta) who could veto one another's actions, in addition Sparta had groups of officials known as Ephors and a council of elders.

Spiritual and temporal kings[edit]

Another common pattern of diarchy has one king in charge of spiritual matters and another, usually subordinate to the first, in charge of temporal or military matters. This pattern was followed in early Hungarian society by the spiritual kende and the military gyula. The Khazars were ruled by the spiritual khagan and the military bek. During the shogunate of Japan, the emperor held spiritual and nominal authority over the whole country, while the shogun held temporal authority.

Colonial Canada[edit]

From 1841 to 1867 the Province of Canada was usually governed jointly by two premiers, one from mostly English-speaking Canada West and one from mostly French-speaking Canada East.


See Dual system of government

Other usage[edit]

Australian Defence Organisation[edit]

The Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) is an Australian Government organisation which consists of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the civilian Department of Defence personnel supporting the ADF. The Chief of the Defence Force and the Secretary of the Department of Defence jointly manage the ADO under a "diarchy" wherein both report directly to the Minister for Defence. The ADO diarchy is a governance structure unique in the Australian Commonwealth public service.


On 20 August 1917 in the British House of Commons, the newly appointed Secretary of State, Edwin Samuel Montagu, made the "Grand Declaration", which said that British policy was "increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to progressive realization of responsible government in British India as an integral part of the British Empire".

In pursuance of the policy laid down in the announcements by Montagu, the Secretary of State and Frederic Thesiger, 1st Viscount Chelmsford, the Governor-General of India, made an extensive tour of India in 1917 and 1918 and produced the Montague - Chelmsford Report containing recommendations that paved the way for Government of India Act 1919.

That act of 1919 introduced diarchy, or dual government, in the provinces, where the executive was to be headed by a governor appointed by the Secretary of State, who could consult the Governor General. The governor was responsible to the Secretary of State for acts of omission and commission. He was to maintain law and order in the province and ensure that the provincial administration worked smoothly. In respect of transferred subjects, he was to be assisted by his ministers whereas reserved subjects were to be administered by the Governor General and his executive council.

The members of the Executive council were to be appointed by Secretary of State and were responsible to him in all matters. There were certain matters that he was to administer at his own discretion, in which he was responsible to the Secretary of State. Each councillor was to remain in office for a period of four years. Their salaries and service conditions were not subject to the vote of provincial legislature. All decisions in the council were to be taken by a majority of votes, the Governor being able to break ties.

Northern Ireland[edit]

The positions First Minister and deputy First Minister operate as a diarchy and have done so since 1998. The devolved government of Northern Ireland established after the Belfast Agreement in 1998 has a system whereby the Assembly elects two leaders, one from each of the two main communities (unionist and nationalist). These two leaders actually have identical powers even though they are called First Minister and deputy First Minister respectively and serve jointly.

See also[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarchy — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
2916 videos foundNext > 

DiArchy Code - Most Dangerous Trick 1

Rolled by 14 tones truck. Still alive, and in good standing. DiArchy (Diana & Arvydas) are most famous Lithuanian magicians. They have beat many Guiness Worl...

Magic Show

http://diarchy.lt http://diarchy.com.

DiArchy Kodas TV3 Hudinio triukas po vandeniu 1 dalis

DiArchy Arvydas ir Diana duetas atlieka, pakartoja ir pagerina žymiojo Hudinio triuką "Išsivadavimas po vandeniu". Skaitmeninės televizijos įrašas su USB tiu...

DiArchy Lithuanian Siblings Break Breath-Holding Record

Two Lithuanian illusionists have reportedly set three new world records for holding their breath underwater.New man breath holding record: 15min 58 sec. New ...

Valinskas-DiArchy. 2 minutes sloves. Hipnoze. Saviitaiga.

Arūnas Valinskas tiesioginiame LNK laidos "2 minutės šlovės" eteryje atliko ekstremalų triuką su vienu iš studijos savanorių. Jo paslaptingieji asistentai ma...

MAGIC show MIX. Illusion. DiArchy Magicians. Magic tricks. Entertainment.

Magic show. Magicians Diana and Arvydas. Magic theater DiArchy. Magic tricks. http://www.diarchy.com www.diarchy.lt.

DiArchy Kodas TV3 Hudinio triukas po vandeniu 3dalis

DiArchy Arvydas ir Diana duetas atlieka, pakartoja ir pagerina žymiojo Hudinio triukÄ "IÅ¡sivadavimas po vandeniu". SkaitmeninÄ—s televizijos įraÅ¡as su US...

Magijos teatro „DiArchy" dovana Druskininkams -- įspūdingas šou ant Druskonio ežero

Druskininkai 2014.

Diarchy Magic

For everyone i know and everyone i dont know!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Steamroller. Plentvolis. DiArchy kodas.

Iillusion, magic, extremely dangerous and unbelievable tricks. TV project. Magicians on TV show. DiArchy code. Escape magic. Escape magicians. Lithuanian bro...

2916 videos foundNext > 

35 news items

The Canberra Times

The Canberra Times
Mon, 04 Aug 2014 08:30:34 -0700

The Australian Defence Organisation is unusual in having co-heads: the diarchy, which comprises the secretary of the Defence Department and the chief of the Defence Force. From time to time, arguments against the diarchy are raised. Such advocates fail ...
Middle East Eye
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 05:45:00 -0700

In its early years, the AKP government looked rather like a Gul-Erdogan diarchy. Erdogan was the charismatic strongman, driving through major infrastructural projects, taking credit for high living standards, denouncing Israel for its actions in Gaza ...

Economic Times

Zee News
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 09:07:09 -0700

"Having lived through the diarchy of the UPA years, voters want power and responsibility to be vested in the same office," says the poll findings. If a Lok Sabha election was held again, 48 percent say they would vote for the BJP again. Support for the ...
Patheos (blog)
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 00:52:30 -0700

It is an article that will lead many readers into confusion and may lead some right out of the Church. And it's an article that suggests that “The Remnant” is heading over a cliff. The article is titled “In a Papal 'Diarchy' Which Half Is Infallible ...
Hindustan Times
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 10:40:16 -0700

This clear division of responsibility within the party will only strengthen the BJP unlike what happened in the Congress era when the persistent question of diarchy put a shadow on the normal functioning of the government. The presence of several RSS ...

vestnik kavkaza

vestnik kavkaza
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 01:36:19 -0700

Iraq has a diarchy. The formal prime minister has a post but no authority, no resources, no levers. The de facto prime minister has the whole army at his disposal, he has occupied all Baghdad and dictates his conditions. So speaking about Iraq as a ...


Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:15:20 -0700

However, if I were to change three things in the way the Congress ran the government, I would say a) there should be no corruption b) there should not be a diarchy, only one power centre c) the functioning of the government should be transparent and ...
Mon, 04 Aug 2014 07:48:45 -0700

What is happening in the Nigerian presidency is a kleptocratic diarchy: the military generals are stealing as much as their civilian counterparts. The judiciary has been whipped into line and the media is under heavy assault. And hapless Nigerians ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Diarchy

You can talk about Diarchy with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!