digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Top row left to right: 157 BC Roman Republic, A.D 73 Vespasian, A.D 161 Marcus Aurelius, A.D 194 Septimius Severus;
Second row left to right: A.D 199 Caracalla, A.D 200 Julia Domna, A.D 219 Elagabalus, A.D 236 Maximinus Thrax

In the Roman currency system, the denarius (/dɪˈnɛərɪəs/ di-NAIR-i-əs; plural: denarii /dɪˈnɛərɪ/ di-NAIR-i-eye) was a small silver coin first minted about 211 BC during the Second Punic War. It became the most common coin produced for circulation but was slowly debased in weight and silver content until its replacement by the double denarius, called the antoninianus, early in the 3rd century AD. The word denarius is derived from the Latin dēnī "containing ten", as its value was 10 asses, although in the middle of the 2nd century BC it was recalibrated so that it was now worth sixteen asses or four sestertii. It is the origin of several modern words such as the currency name dinar and the Italian common noun for money: denaro. It's symbol is 𐆖.

History[edit]

A predecessor of the denarius was first struck in 269 BC, five years before the first Punic War[1] with an average weight of 6.8 grams,or 148 of a Roman pound. Contact with the Greeks prompted a need for silver coinage in addition to the bronze currency that the Romans were using during that time. The predecessor of the denarius was a Greek-styled silver coin, very similar to the didrachm and drachma struck in Metapontion[citation needed] and other Greek cities in southern Italy. These coins were inscribed for Rome but closely resemble their Greek counterparts. They were most likely used for trade purposes and were seldom used in Rome.

Around 225 BC, the first distinctively Roman silver coin appears.[2] Classic historians sometimes called these coins denarii in the past, but they are classified by modern numismatists as quadrigati, which is derived from the quadriga, or four-horse chariot, on the reverse, and which with a two-horse chariot or biga was the prototype for the most common designs used on Roman silver coins for the next 150 years.[3][4][5]

Rome overhauled its coinage around 211 BC and introduced the denarius alongside a short-lived denomination called the victoriatus. This denarius contained an average 4.5 grams, or 172 of a Roman pound of silver. It formed the backbone of Roman currency throughout the Roman republic.[6]

The denarius began to undergo slow debasement toward the end of the republican period. Under the rule of Augustus, (63 BC-AD 14) its silver content fell to 3.9 grams (a theoretical weight of 184 of a Roman pound). It remained at nearly this weight until the time of Nero (AD 37-68), when it was reduced to 196 of a pound, or 3.4 grams. Debasement of the coin's silver content continued after Nero. Later Roman emperors reduced its content to 3 grams around the late third century.[7]

The value at its introduction was 10 asses, giving the denarius its name, which translates as "containing ten". In about 141 BC, it was re-tariffed at 16 asses, to reflect the decrease in weight of the as. The denarius continued to be the main coin of the Roman Empire until it was replaced by the antoninianus in the middle of the third century. The last issuance of this coin occurred in bronze form by Aurelian, between AD 270 and 275, and in the first years of the reign of Diocletian. For more details, see 'Denarius', in A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins, by John R. Melville-Jones (1990).[8][9]

Comparisons and silver content[edit]

Flavia Domitilla, wife of Vespasian and mother of Titus and Domitian.

It is problematic to give even rough comparative values for money from before the 20th century, as the range of products and services available for purchase was very different. Classical historians often say that in the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire (~27BC) the daily wage for an unskilled laborer and common soldier was 1 denarius (with no tax deductions) or about US$20 in bread.[10] Legionary pay was 112.5 denarii per year,[when?] later doubled by Julius Caesar to 225 denarii, with soldiers having to pay for their own food and arms.[citation needed] In contrast, centurions received considerably higher pay; under Augustus, the lowest ranking centurion was paid 3,750 denarii and the highest ranking, 15,000 denarii.[citation needed]

The silver content of the denarius under the Roman Empire (After Nero) was about 50 grains, 3.24 grams, or 110 (0.105ozt) troy ounce. In June 6, 2011, this corresponded to approximately US$3.62 in value if the silver were 0.999 pure.

The fineness of the silver content varied with political and economic circumstances. From a purity of greater than 90% silver in the first century A.D., the denarius fell to under 60% purity by the end of the second century A.D., and plummeted to 5% purity by the end of the third century A.D.[11] By the reign of Gallienus, the antoninianus was a copper coin with a thin silver wash.[12] F

By comparison, a laborer earning the minimum wage in the United States in January 2014 made US$58 for an 8-hour day, before taxes (utilizing the mode value of $7.25 per hour, which was true then in 20 states).[13]

Influence[edit]

Even after the denarius was no longer regularly issued, it continued to be used as a unit of account, and the name was applied to later Roman coins in a way that is not understood. The Arabs who conquered large parts of the land that once belonged to the Eastern Roman Empire issued their own gold dinar. The lasting legacy of the denarius can be seen in the use of "d" as the abbreviation for the British penny prior to 1971.[14] It survived in France as the name of a coin, the denier. The denarius also survives in the common Arabic name for a currency unit, the dinar used from pre-Islamic times, and still used in several modern Arabic-speaking nations. The major currency unit in former Principality of Serbia, Kingdom of Serbia and former Yugoslavia was dinar, and it is still used in present-day Serbia. The Macedonian currency denar is also derived from the Roman denarius. The Italian word denaro, the Spanish word dinero, the Portuguese word dinheiro, and the Slovene word denar, all meaning money, are also derived from Latin denarius.

Value[edit]

The gold aureus seems to have been a "currency of account," a denomination not commonly seen in daily transactions due to its high value. Numismatists think that the aureus was used to pay bonuses to the legions at the accession of new emperors. It was valued at 25 denarii.[citation needed]

1 gold aureus = 2 gold quinarii = 25 silver denarii = 50 silver quinarii = 100 bronze sestertii = 200 bronze dupondii = 400 copper asses = 800 copper semisses = 1600 copper quadrantes

The Bible refers to the denarius as a day's wage for a common laborer (Matthew 20:2,[15] John 12:5).[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, William Smith, D.C.l., LL, D., John Murray, London 1875 Pg 393, 394
  2. ^ The Numismatic Circular, Volume 8-9, Spink & Son, 1899-1900 Piccadilly West, London
  3. ^ Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins. Oxford University Press, New York 1994.
  4. ^ As the Romans Did, Jo-Ann Shelton. Oxford University Press, New York 1998
  5. ^ Plutarch's Lives, Vol 2, John Langhorne, DD, William Langhorne, AM, London 1813
  6. ^ The New Deal in Old Rome, HJ Haskell, Alfred K Knoff New York 1939
  7. ^ Ancient coin collection 3Wayne G Sayles Pg 21-22
  8. ^ "Aurelian, Roman Imperial Coinage reference, Thumbnail Index". Wildwinds.com. Retrieved 24 August 2006. 
  9. ^ "Aurelian Æ Denarius. Rome mint. IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right". Wildwinds.com. Retrieved 24 August 2006. 
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ http://www.tulane.edu/~august/handouts/601cprin.htm
  12. ^ Katsari, Constantina (2002). "The Concept of Inflation in the Roman Empire". Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  13. ^ "United States Department of Labor--Wage and Hour Division (WHD)". www.dol.gov. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  14. ^ English Coinage 600–1900 by C.H.V. Sutherland 1973 ISBN 0-7134-0731-X p.10
  15. ^ "Matthew 20:2 NIV - He agreed to pay them a denarius for". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  16. ^ "Jn 12:5; NIV - “Why wasn’t this perfume sold and". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denarius — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
7426 videos foundNext > 

The Roman Denarius and the Euro: A precedent for monetary union? - Dr Andrew Burnett FBA CBE

A look at the way the Roman Empire has sometimes been used as an historical precedent for the European Union, and specifically the way that the integration o...

AAYN Episode 28: Ancient Roman Silver Denarius Coins--1800 Years Old!

The American Association of Young Numismatists (AAYN) is an association dedicated to educating and impassioning young people about the hobby of coin collecti...

proof Silver Denarius debased by Nero

this is a proof that Nero debased the silver denarius to help rebuild the city of Rome editing and upload done December 26th, 2010.

Denarius Moore: Speed Kills

A highlight film of Oakland Raiders Wide Reciever Denarius Moore. Twitter: https://twitter.com/RaiderTroyVids Instagram: http://instagram.com/raidertroyvids.

Denarius Moore - Rookie Highlights #17 Oakland Raiders

These are highlights from Raiders rookie Denarius Moore:) Created By: NationRaider408 Shout out to NoClapsFilmRoom!!!

Denarius Moore #17 TD Highlights 2012-2013

Denarius Moore touchdown highlights with raiders 2012-2013. Follow me on twitter @LameIsKenzel.

Denarius McGhee Pro Day

Montana State University Quarterback Denarius McGhee's NFL Pro Day in Bozeman, Montana.

Denarius Moore Ultimate Highlights

Denarius Moore, WR, Oakland Raiders - All game film belongs to NFL and its broadcasters - Music: Three 6 Mafia - "Stay Fly" - Subscribe! - More videos comi...

Denarius Moore 50 Yard Touchdown Catch

Disclaimer: I DO NOT OWN THIS FOOTAGE. ALL MEDIA IS PROPERTY OF ITS RESPECTIVE OWNERS.

Rookie denarius Moore highlights

Best D.Moore highlights.

7426 videos foundNext > 

2963 news items

Bleacher Report

Bleacher Report
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 17:00:00 -0700

As the 2014 NFL regular season swiftly approaches, the fantasy football world continues to be shaken up by roster moves and depth-chart alterations. One significant change took place on Monday when the Oakland Raiders announced rookie Derek Carr ...

SFGate

Silver and Black Pride
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 05:56:15 -0700

Remember when Denarius Moore was a possible bubble player that had fallen way down on the Oakland Raiders initial depth chart? That feels so long ago already. Denarius has played well all preseason long, no matter who was at quarterback. He has ...

FanSided

FanSided
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 19:43:42 -0700

August 15, 2014; Oakland, CA, USA; Oakland Raiders wide receiver Denarius Moore (17) during the second quarter against the Detroit Lions at O.co Coliseum. The Raiders defeated the Lions 27-26. Mandatory Credit: Kyle Terada-USA TODAY Sports. NFL ...

Rant Sports

Rant Sports
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 12:07:30 -0700

Over his first three seasons in the NFL, Oakland Raiders' wide receiver Denarius Moore has put up decent numbers, catching for an average of just around 700 yards and five touchdowns a season, but has struggled with inconsistencies. Despite finishing ...

Sports World Report

ESPN (blog)
Tue, 05 Aug 2014 11:17:03 -0700

NAPA, Calif. – Perhaps the biggest surprise on the Oakland Raiders initial depth chart on Monday was where receiver Denarius Moore was listed. Third. Behind Andre Holmes and James Jones. Rod Streater, Greg Little and Juron Criner are the top three at ...
 
SB Nation
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 14:31:52 -0700

Oakland Raiders wide receiver Denarius Moore was one of the most promising receivers in the league, but he's struggled more recently and hasn't been particularly impressive in training camp, either. When the Raiders released their depth chart prior to ...

Sports World Report

Sports World Report
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:07:54 -0700

Sam Shields #37 of the Green Bay Packers breaks up a pass intended for Denarius Moore #17 of the Oakland Raiders during the second quarter of a preseason game at Lambeau Field on August 22, 2014 in Green Bay, Wisconsin. (Photo : Getty Images) ".

Sports World Report

Sports World Report
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 12:07:30 -0700

Oakland Raiders wide receiver Denarius Moore (17) rushes with the football after catching a pass as Green Bay Packers cornerback Davon House (31) defends during the second quarter at Lambeau Field. (Photo : Rueters) ". The Oakland Raiders are getting ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Denarius

You can talk about Denarius with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!