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Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.[1][2]

Aspects of the subject include

Other subfields include measuring value of life[52][53] and the economics of the elderly[54][55][56] and the handicapped[57][58][59] and of gender,[60][61][62] race, minorities, and non-labor discrimination.[63][64] In coverage and subfields, it complements labor economics[65][66] and implicates a variety of other economics subjects.[67][68][69]


The Journal of Economic Literature classification codes are a way of categorizing subjects in economics. There, Demographic Economics is paired with Labor Economics as one of 19 primary classifications at JEL: J.[70] It has 8 subareas, which are listed below with JEL-code links to corresponding available article-preview links of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008) Online:

JEL: J10 (all) – General
JEL: J11 – Demographic Trends and Forecasts
JEL: J12Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
JEL: J13Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
JEL: J14 – Economics of the Elderly; Economics of the Handicapped
JEL: J15 – Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
JEL: J16 – Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
JEL: J17Value of life; Foregone Income
JEL: J18 – Public Policy.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c d Kelley, Allen C.; Schmidt, Robert M. (2008). "economic demography". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 655. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0428. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  2. ^ van Praag, Bernard M. S. (1988). "The notion of population economics". Journal of Population Economics 1 (1): 5–16. doi:10.1007/bf00171507. JSTOR 20007247. PMID 12342564. 
  3. ^ a b Foster, Andrew (2008). "marriage markets". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 356. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1044. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  4. ^ Schultz, T. Paul (2008). "fertility in developing countries". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 291. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0560. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  5. ^ Galor, Oded (2008). "economic growth in the very long run". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 685. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0434. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  6. ^ Adsera, Alicia (2008). "fertility in developed countries". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 286. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0559. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  7. ^ Montgomery, Mark; Trussell, James (1986). Models of marital status and childbearing. Handbook of Labor Economics 1. pp. 205–71. doi:10.1016/S1573-4463(86)01006-4. ISBN 978-0-444-87856-4. 
  8. ^ Galor, Oded (2005). "The Demographic Transition and the Emergence of Sustained Economic Growth". Journal of the European Economic Association 3 (2–3): 494–504. doi:10.1162/jeea.2005.3.2-3.494. JSTOR 40004992. 
  9. ^ Hanushek, Eric A (1992). "The Trade-Off between Child Quantity and Quality". Journal of Political Economy 100 (1): 84–117. doi:10.1086/261808. JSTOR 2138807. 
  10. ^ Lehrer, Evelyn L. (1996). "Religion as a determinant of marital fertility". Journal of Population Economics 9 (2): 173–96. doi:10.1007/s001480050013. JSTOR 20007500. PMID 12320501. 
  11. ^ Ermisch, John (2008). "family economics". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 260. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0550. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  12. ^ Ermisch, John (2003). An Economic Analysis of the Family. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09667-4. [page needed]
  13. ^ Becker, Gary S. (2008). "family". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 1. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.2528. ISBN 9780333786765. 
  14. ^ Becker, Gary S. (1991) [1981]. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-90698-5. [page needed]
  15. ^ Becker, Gary S. (1988). "Family Economics and Macro Behavior". American Economic Review 78 (1): 1–13. 
  16. ^ Lehrer, Evelyn (2007). Religion, Economics and Demography: The Effects of Religion on Education, Work, and the Family. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-70194-5. [page needed]
  17. ^ Lehrer, Evelyn L. (2004). "Religion as a Determinant of Economic and Demographic Behavior in the United States". Population and Development Review 30 (4): 707. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2004.00038.x. JSTOR 3657335. 
  18. ^ Weiss, Yoram (2008). "marriage and divorce". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 347. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1043. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  19. ^ Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Chiswick, Carmel U. (August 1993). "Religion as a Determinant of Marital Stability". Demography 30 (3): 385–404. doi:10.2307/2061647. JSTOR 2061647. PMID 8405605. 
  20. ^ Canning, David; Bloom, David E. (2008). "population health, economic implications of". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 516. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1310. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  21. ^ Vaupel, James W.; Von Kistowski, Kristín G.; Rau, Roland (2008). "mortality". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 781. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1141. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  22. ^ Preston, Samuel H. (1975). "The Changing Relation between Mortality and level of Economic Development". Population Studies 29 (2): 231. doi:10.1080/00324728.1975.10410201. 
  23. ^ Bloom, D. E; Canning, D. (2007). "Commentary: The Preston Curve 30 years on: Still sparking fires". International Journal of Epidemiology 36 (3): 498–9; discussion 502–3. doi:10.1093/ije/dym079. PMID 17550948. 
  24. ^ Kelley, AC; Schmidt, RM (1996). "Saving, dependency and development". Journal of population economics 9 (4): 365–86. doi:10.1007/BF00573070. PMID 12292225. 
  25. ^ Weil, David N. (May 1999). "Population Growth, Dependency, and Consumption". The American Economic Review 89 (2): 251–5. doi:10.1257/aer.89.2.251. JSTOR 117115. 
  26. ^ Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. (2010). "Population Aging and Its Economic Costs: A Survey of the Issues and Evidence". Canadian Journal on Aging 19: 1. doi:10.1017/S071498080001463X. 
  27. ^ Ioannides, Yannis M.; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban (2008). "urban growth". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 544. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1772. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  28. ^ Walker, James R. (2008). "internal migration". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 421. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0824. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  29. ^ Borjas, George J. (2008). "international migration". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 453. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0830. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  30. ^ Lee, Ronald D. (2008). "population dynamics". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 512. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1309. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  31. ^ Galor, Oded (2008). "human capital, fertility and growth". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 109. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0755. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  32. ^ Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. (September 2000). "Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and beyond". The American Economic Review 90 (4): 806–28. doi:10.1257/aer.90.4.806. JSTOR 117309. 
  33. ^ Johnson, David Gale; Lee, Ronald Demos, eds. (1987). Population Growth and Economic Development: Issues and Evidence. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-11130-4. [page needed]
  34. ^ Kelley, Allen C. (1988). "Economic Consequences of Population Change in the Third World". Journal of Economic Literature. December (4): 1685–728. JSTOR 2726858. 
  35. ^ Brander, James A.; Dowrick, Steve (1994). "The role of fertility and population in economic growth". Journal of Population Economics 7 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1007/BF00160435. PMID 12287546. 
  36. ^ Kremer, Michael (August 1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990". The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108 (3): 681–716. doi:10.2307/2118405. JSTOR 2118405. 
  37. ^ Dasgupta, Partha (December 1995). "The Population Problem: Theory and Evidence". Journal of Economic Literature 33 (4): 1879–902. JSTOR 2729316. 
  38. ^ Arrow, K.; Bolin, B.; Costanza, R.; Dasgupta, P.; Folke, C.; Holling, C. S.; Jansson, B.-O.; Levin, S.; Mäler, K.-G.; Perrings, C.; Pimentel, D. (1995). "Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment". Science 268 (5210): 520–1. doi:10.1126/science.268.5210.520. PMID 17756719. 
  39. ^ Cohen, J. (1995). "Population growth and earth's human carrying capacity". Science 269 (5222): 341–6. doi:10.1126/science.7618100. PMID 7618100. 
  40. ^ Cohen, Joel E. (1995). How Many People Can the Earth Support?. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31495-3. [page needed]
  41. ^ a b Currie, Janet (2008). "child health and mortality". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 769. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0228. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  42. ^ National Research Council (1986). Population Growth and Economic Development: Policy Questions. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-03641-2. [page needed]
  43. ^ Theodore W. Schultz, 1981. Investing in People: The Economics of Population Quality, University of California Press. Description and chapter-preview links.
  44. ^ Sen, Amartya (1995). "Authoritarianism versus Cooperation". International Lecture Series on Population Issues. John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  Republished as Sen, Amartya (1997). "Population policy: Authoritarianism versus cooperation". Journal of Population Economics 10: 3. doi:10.1007/s001480050029. JSTOR 20007525. 
  45. ^ Birdsall, Nancy; Kelley, Allen C.; Sinding, Steven W., eds. (2001). Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-152953-5. [page needed]
  46. ^ Samuelson, Paul A. (December 1958). "An Exact Consumption-Loan Model of Interest with or without the Social Contrivance of Money". Journal of Political Economy 66 (6): 467–82. doi:10.1086/258100. JSTOR 1826989. 
  47. ^ Gokhale, Jagadeesh (2008). "generational accounting". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 630. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0627. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  48. ^ Tuljapurkar, Shripad (2008). "stable population theory". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 826. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1602. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  49. ^ Greenwood, Jeremy; Seshadri, Ananth; Vandenbroucke, Guillaume (2005). "The Baby Boom and Baby Bust". American Economic Review 95: 183. doi:10.1257/0002828053828680. 
  50. ^ Mosk, Carl (2008). "historical demography". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 38. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0738. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  51. ^ Lee, Ronald D. (2008). "demographic transition". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 433. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0374. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  52. ^ Kip Viscusi, W. (2008). "value of life". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 586. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1784. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  53. ^ Becker, Gary S; Philipson, Tomas J; Soares, Rodrigo R (2005). "The Quantity and Quality of Life and the Evolution of World Inequality". American Economic Review 95: 277. doi:10.1257/0002828053828563. 
  54. ^ Hurd, Michael (2008). "retirement". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 130. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1431. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  55. ^ Weil, David N. (2008). "population ageing". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 499. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1307. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  56. ^ Clark, Robert Louis; Spengler, Joseph John (1998). The Economics of Individual and Population Aging. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-22883-1. [page needed]
  57. ^ Blanchet, Didier; Fleurbaey, Marc (2006). "Chapter 24 Selfishness, altruism and normative principles in the economic analysis of social transfers". Applications. Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity 2. p. 1465. doi:10.1016/S1574-0714(06)02024-0. ISBN 9780444521453. 
  58. ^ Tomlinson, Sally (1985). "The Expansion of Special Education". Oxford Review of Education 11 (2): 157. doi:10.1080/0305498850110203. JSTOR 1050498. 
  59. ^ Bubolz, Margaret M.; Whiren, Alice P. (January 1984). "The Family of the Handicapped: An Ecological Model for Policy and Practice". Family Relations 33 (1): 5–12. doi:10.2307/584584. JSTOR 584584. 
  60. ^ Galor, Oded; Weil, David N. (June 1996). "The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth". The American Economic Review 86 (3): 374–87. JSTOR 2118202. 
  61. ^ Jacobsen, Joyce P. (2008). "gender roles and division of labour". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 582. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0622. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. 
  62. ^ Jacobsen, Joyce P. (1998). Economics of Gender. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-20727-6. [page needed]
  63. ^ Sowell, Thomas (1975). Race and Economics. McKay. [page needed]
  64. ^ Sowell, Thomas (1995). Race and Culture: A World View. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-06797-8. 
  65. ^ JEL classification codes#Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories.
  66. ^ Labor and Demographic Economics: Demographic Economics, NBER Working Paper abstract links from the National Bureau of Economic Research.
  67. ^ Assaf Razin and Efraim Sadka, 1996. Population Economics. MIT Press. Description & chapter previews.
  68. ^ Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Stark, Oded (1997). "Chapter 1 Introduction: Population and family economics". Handbook of Population and Family Economics Volume 1. Handbook of Population and Family Economics 1. p. 1. doi:10.1016/S1574-003X(97)80018-9. ISBN 9780444826459. 
  69. ^ Search of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online, "population OR demography".
  70. ^ Of which a complete list for JEL: J with corresponding Wikipedia links is at JEL classification codes#Labor and demographic economics JEL: J Subcategories.


  • John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman, ed. ([1987] 1989. Social Economics: The New Palgrave, pp. v-vi. Arrow-page searchable links to entries for:
"Ageing Populations," pp. 1-3, by Robert L. Clark
"Declining Population," pp. 10-15, by Robin Barlow
"Demographic Transition," pp. 16-23, by Ansley J. Coale
"Extended Family," pp. 58-63, by Oliva Harris
"Family," pp. 65-76, by Gary S. Becker
"Fertility," pp.77-89, by Richard A. Easterlin
"Gender," pp. 95-108, by Francine D. Blau
"Race and Economics," pp. 215-218, by H. Stanback
"Value of Life," pp.289-76, by Thomas C. Schelling
  • Nathan Keyfitz, 1987. "demography," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 1, pp. 796–802.
  • T. Paul Schultz, 1981. Economics of Population. Addison-Wesley. Book review.
  • John B. Shoven, ed., 2011. Demography and the Economy, University of Chicago Press. Scroll-down description and preview.
  • Julian L. Simon, 1977. The Economics of Population Growth. Princeton,
  • _____, [1981] 1996. The Ultimate Resource 2, rev. and expanded. Princeton. Description and preview links.
    • Dennis A. Ahlburg, 1998. "Julian Simon and the Population Growth Debate," Population and Development Review, 24(2), pp. 317-327.
    • M. Perlman, 1982. [Untitled review of Simon, 1977 & 1981], Population Studies, 36(3), pp. 490-494.
  • Julian L. Simon, ed., 1997. The Economics Of Population: Key Modern Writings. Description.
  • _____, ed., 1998. The Economics of Population: Classic Writings. Description and scroll to chapter-preview links.
  • Joseph J. Spengler 1951. "The Population Obstacle to Economic Betterment," American Economic Review, 41(2), pp. 343-354.
  • _____, 1966. "The Economist and the Population Question," American Economic Review, 56(1/2), pp. 1–24.


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