|— Sub-provincial city —|
|Lüshun Station, Zhongshan Square Xinghai Square, and Laodong Park|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|– Transfer of sovereignty to Japan (Treaty of Shimonoseki)||17 April 1895|
|– Russian occupation
- Japanese occupation
|3 March 1898 – 2 January 1905
1905 – 15 August 1945
|– Transfer of sovereignty to China||16 April 1955|
|Municipal seat||Xigang District|
6 districts, 4 counties(citys)
|• Mayor||Li Wancai|
|• Sub-provincial city||13,237 km2 (5,111 sq mi)|
|• Land||12,574 km2 (4,855 sq mi)|
|Elevation||29 m (95 ft)|
|• Sub-provincial city||6,170,000|
|• Density||470/km2 ( 1,200/sq mi)|
|• Major ethnic groups||Han|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|- Total||CNY 515.82 billion
USD 76.20 billion
|- Per capita||CNY 69,165
|HDI (2008)||0.834 – High|
|Coastline||1,906 km (excluding islands)|
|License plate prefixes||辽B|
|Administrative division code||210200|
Dalian (simplified Chinese: 大连; traditional Chinese: 大連; pinyin: Dàlián; Mandarin pronunciation: [tâljɛ̌n]) is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It is surrounded by the waters of the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Across the Bohai Sea to the south lies the Shandong peninsula. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's northernmost warm water port. The second largest city in Liaoning province, next only to the capital (Shenyang), the city has a significant history of being used by foreign powers for its ports (Dalian's port and Lüshun's port). Today it serves as a regional financial base and an important international shipping centre and logistics hub in Northeast Asia.
Modern Dalian originated as Qingniwa (Chinese: 青泥窪; pinyin: Qīngníwā; literally "blue mud swamp") or Qingniwaqiao (Chinese: 青泥窪橋; pinyin: Qīngníwāqiáo; literally "bridge over the blue mud swamp") was a small fishing village near where the Russians chose to build their commercial town for the Kwantung Leased Territory after assuming control in 1898.
During the period of Russian control (1898–1905), the city of Dalny (Russian: Дальний Dal'nij, literally "faraway" or "remote", rendered as 達里尼 Dálǐní in Chinese) was founded and built on the site of Qingniwaqiao. Under Japanese rule (1905–1945) during the Kwantung Leased Territory, the city was renamed Dairen (大連 / だいれん) after the Chinese name for Dalian Bay (大連灣). During this period, the city was also called Dairen in English from the Japanese.
In 1950, Dalian was merged with nearby Lüshun (Port Arthur) to form the city of Lüda (Chinese: 旅大; pinyin: Lǚdà), a name formed from the first character of each constituent's name and usually rendered as Lü-ta in English during that time. The city's name was changed from Lüda to Dalian (大連, the same Chinese characters as Japanese Dairen) on 5 March 1981, after the State Council approved it on 9 February.
In the Qin and Han periods (221 B.C.-A.D. 220), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong county, becoming a strategic point from which the Han Dynasty colonized northern Korea. During the 3rd century through 5th century, when China was split into Sixteen Kingdoms, the neighboring kingdom of Goguryeo maintained control of this region. In the early Tang Dynasty (618–907), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Andong Prefecture in Jili state, and during the Liao Dynasty (916–1125), it was under the jurisdiction of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of Wei Jin (220–420), San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), and Qingniwakou in the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).
Qing Dynasty 
In the 1880s, the Qing government constructed loading bridges and fortifications with built-in cannons, and set up mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Bay near what would become the center of Dalian, and it became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao. At that time, Jinzhou, north of downtown Dalian, now Jinzhou District, was a walled town and the center of political and economic activities of this area.
British, Russian, and Japanese occupations 
|Literal meaning||Great Connection|
|Russian||Далянь or Дальний|
|Romanization||Dalian or Dalny|
The settlement of Qingniwa was occupied by the British in 1858, returned to the Chinese in the 1880s, and then occupied by Japan in 1895 during the first Sino-Japanese War. Nearby Port Arthur took its name from a Royal Navy Lieutenant named William C. Arthur, but was known to the Chinese as Lüshun.
While Japan's intention to lease Port Arthur and its surrounding areas, based on the Treaty of Shimonoseki, met with the Tripartite Intervention by France, Germany and Russia, the Russian Empire in 1898 succeeded in leasing the peninsula from the Qing Dynasty, and a modern city was laid out with the name of Dalny (Дальний). Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railway's branch line, Dalny became Russia's primary port-city in Asia. The Russian government contributed more than 10 million golden rubles (equivalent to 11.5 billion of today's[clarification needed] rubles) into the city foundation and building.
Both Dalny (Qingniwaqiao of Zhongshan District, Dalian) and Port Arthur (Lüshunkou) were developed and heavily fortified by the Russians in the period prior to 1904. Dalny was the main battlefield of the Russo-Japanese War (1905). Consequently, some historians blame Admiral Eugene Alexeyeff for the fall of Port Arthur during the siege of Port Arthur on 2 January 1905 due to his failure to concentrate on the naval base and its fortifications, instead splitting precious resources shipped 5,000 miles across the single tracked Trans-Siberian Railway and Manchurian railways.
After the Russo-Japanese war in 1905, Port Arthur was yielded to Japan (Treaty of Portsmouth), who set up the Kwantung Leased Territory or Guandongzhou, which was roughly the southern half (Jinzhou District and south) of the present-day Dalian. During this time the Japanese invested heavily in the region and served as the main trading port between Manchuria and Japan. After the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932, the sovereignty of the territory moved from China to Manchukuo. Japan still leased it from Manchukuo. In 1937, the current area of Dalian was enlarged and modernized by the Japanese as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun (Port Arthur or Lüshun).
Post-World War II 
With the unconditional surrender of Japan in August 1945, Dairen passed to the Soviets, who had liberated the city in advance of the end of hostilities and governed the city until 1950. During this period the Soviets and Chinese Communists cooperated in the further development of the city, its industrial infrastructure, and especially the port, which remained as the freeport rented by the Soviet government. The city had been relatively undamaged during the war.
In 1950, the USSR presented the city to the Chinese Communist government without any compensation and, on 1 December 1950, the city was amalgamated with Lüshun (Port Arthur) as Lüda in 1950 although the first Chinese Communist mayor of the new Lüda Administrative Office (旅大行政公署) had been appointed in 1945. From 12 March 1953 to 1 August 1954 it was a direct-controlled municipality and not part of Liaoning. Soviet troops left the city in 1955. After the departure of the Soviets, the PRC converted Lüda into a major shipbuilding center and, in 1981, the name Dalian was given to the city with Lüshun becoming a constituent district.
Post 1990 
The city was upgraded from a prefecture-level city to a sub-provincial city in May 1994, with no change in its administrative subdivisions. In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of Bo Xilai (later Communist Party head of Chongqing) who was both mayor of the city and provincial party official, who, among other things, banned motorcycles and planted large, lush parks in the city's many traffic circles. He also preserved much of Dalian's Japanese and Russian architectural heritage. He is the former Minister of Commerce of the PRC.
In 2010, the worst recorded oil spill in China's history occurred in Dalian.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian City today consists of Dalian proper and the smaller Lüshunkou (formerly Lüshun city, known in western and Russian historic references as Port Arthur), about forty nautical miles farther along the Liaodong Peninsula. Historical references note that the Russian designed city of Dalny (Alt. Dalney), on the south side of Dalian Bay was 40 km (25 mi) from Port Arthur/Lüshun (known today as Lüshunkou or literally, Lüshun Port).
Dalian is located west of the Yellow Sea and east of Bohai Sea roughly in the middle of the Liaodong peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus. With a coastline of 1,906 km (1,184 mi), it governs the majority of the Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River, and its harbour entrance forms a sub-bay known as Dalian Bay.
Dalian has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), characterised by humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Except for winter, the city experiences a one-month seasonal lag due to its position on the Liaodong Peninsula. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in August. Annual precipitation averages 602 millimetres (23.7 in) but is heavily concentrated in the summer months and can vary greatly from year to year. Due to the coastal location, the mean diurnal temperature variation annually is small, at 6.75 °C (12.2 °F). The city is quite sunny, with 2,740 hours of bright sunshine annually and most months receiving at least 60% of possible sunshine. The annual mean temperature is 10.90 °C (51.6 °F).
|Climate data for Dalian (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||8.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.3||2.9||3.7||5.4||7.0||9.3||11.8||9.2||6.0||5.2||5.3||3.4||72.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||198.0||200.2||238.8||256.9||277.6||254.7||220.7||240.8||251.5||234.6||182.1||183.9||2,739.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||66||66||65||65||63||57||49||57||68||68||60||63||62.3|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration |
Environmental issues 
In 2001, The United Nations Environment Programme awarded the Dalian Municipal Government for its outstanding contributions to the protection of the environment.
The average content of the four pollutants in the air reached Class Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and there were 353 days with air pollution index (API) over Class Ⅱ (Good), including 108 excellent days with Class Ⅰ(Superior). Dalian frequently ranks Grade 2 for air pollution according to SEPA. However, the environmental effects of economic growth are of concern, according to Dalian Environmental Protection Agency, during the first half of 2011, respirable particles in the air increased significantly, with an average 40% higher than 2010.
The water quality of offshore marine space remained stable overall. The annual average content of monitoring indicators for water quality met Class-II of the national seawater quality standard, with the exception of Inorganic Nitrogen in Dalian Bay and the city's southern coast. The water quality of drinking water sources is considered good and complies with Class-III of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.
Recent events have had a major environmental impact on the city. In July 2010, the explosion of two petroleum pipelines released 11,000 barrels of oil into the Yellow Sea, according to official statements. Rick Steiner, an American marine conservationist working with Greenpeace, says that the figure could be upwards of 400,000. It was reported as the largest oil spill to occur in China, and involved 2,000 firefighters. The oil spill stretched for at least 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). 800 fishing boats were mobilised for the cleanup. The incident caused President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao to intervene, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang moved in to help direct the rescue work  A researcher with the China Environmental Science Research Institute, said that "the impact on marine life and on humans – as the pollution enters the food chain – could last 10 years." This has compounded aquatic pollution, affecting the city's fishing industry.
In August 2011, a dike protecting the petrochemical Fujia Factory in Jinzhou District was breached due to a typhoon. Authorities have ordered the plant to be shut down. Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move leaving taxpayers to foot the cost of relocation. Around 12,000 residents protested as the factory, which originally was intended to be based in Xiamen, did not receive official approval to operate in Dalian. Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move, leaving taxpayers to pay the expensive cost of relocation.
Concerns have been raised over mounting traffic due to "bad urban design" and that the growing rate of car ownership is affecting air quality. The United States National Academy of Engineering have raised concern about rising traffic in Dalian stating that "rapid growth of traffic in Dalian and in similar Chinese cities will repeat the air quality and energy consumption mistakes of Los Angeles and other U.S. cities, if not better managed." 
Dalian is the second largest city of Liaoning province, after Shenyang, the provincial capital. Dalian City is governed by the Mayor and its Dalian Municipal People's Government.
Municipal government 
The municipal government is located in the main building on the north side of People's Square on Zhongshan Road, originally built as the Administrative Office of Kwantung Leased Territory, and other buildings in downtown Dalian. There are the Commerce, Foreign Economy & Trade, Hygiene, Information Industry, Police, Religion, Science & Technology, Transportation and other city-level bureaus, which work closely with the corresponding agencies at the district level.
There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones (对外开放先导区):
- The Development Zone (开发区)
- The Free Trade Zone (保税区)
- The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区)
- The Golden Pebble Beach National Holiday Resort (金石滩国家旅游度假区)
Administrative divisions 
- There are 92 sub-districts and 69 towns and townships.
- Ganjingzi, Zhongshan, Xigang, and Shahekou Districts make up the urban centre. Changhai County is made up entirely of islands east of the peninsula.
|1||Xigang District||西岗区||Xīgǎng Qū||307,000||26||11,808|
|2||Zhongshan District||中山区||Zhōngshān Qū||354,000||43||8,233|
|3||Shahekou District||沙河口区||Shāhékǒu Qū||643,000||49||13,122|
|4||Ganjingzi District||甘井子区||Gānjǐngzi Qū||704,000||491||1,434|
|5||Lüshunkou District||旅顺口区||Lǚshùnkǒu Qū||209,000||506||413|
|6||Jinzhou District||金州区||Jīnzhōu Qū||717,000||1,390||516|
|10||Changhai County||长海县||Chánghǎi Xiàn||74,000||119||622|
The population of Dalian at the end of 2008 totaled 6.13 million. The total registered population on household was 5,833,700, with a net increase of 51,800 over the previous year, of which, non-farming population was 3,478,300, accounting for 59.6%; farming population 2,355,400, accounting for 40.4%.
The city has had a continuous annual double-digit percentage increase in GDP since 1992. In 2009, the city's GDP registered a 15% increase, reaching RMB441.77 billion, while per capita GDP hit RMB71,833. According to a nationwide appraisal by the National Bureau of Statistics, Dalian ranks eighth among Chinese cities in terms of overall strength. The city’s main industries include machine manufacturing, petrochemicals and oil refining, and electronics.
Agriculture and aquaculture 
Dalian was originally an agriculture and aquaculture-based area, which, after the opening of the ferry between Yantai and Lüshun during the early 20th century, began to be populated by the farmers and fishers of Shandong, across the Yellow Sea during the Chuang Guandong era. Corn, vegetables, fruit such as apples, cherries and pears are Dalian's typical agricultural products.
Heavy, light and distribution industries 
Even before and during the Sino-Japanese War, the shipbuilding and locomotives industries were located in the city such as the companies which later became Dalian Shipbuilding Co. and Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Works (DLoco). After the War, Dalian became an important center of the heavy and light industries, including companies such as Dalian Heavy Industry Co., Dalian Chemical Group, and Wafangdian Bearing Co.; and of the distribution industry, including such as Dashang Group. Overseas retailing giants, such as Wal-Mart from the US., Carrefour from France and Metro from Germany have recently opened stores in Dalian. Mycal, the Japanese retailing chain store, was bought out by its Chinese partner, Dashang Group, and is operated as Mykal.
Dalian Port is emerging as a very important port for international trade. A new harbor for oil tankers, at the terminus of an oil pipeline from the Daqing oilfields, was completed in 1976. Dalian is the 6th largest port in China. Accordingly, Dalian is a major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical production.
Also completed recently is a newer port on Dagushan Peninsula on the northern suburbs, specializing in import/export of mining and oil products. Together with its Dalian Railroad Station, Dalian International Airport and two major express roads to Shenyang (Shenda Expressway)-Changchun(Changda Expressway)-Harbin (Hada Expressway) in the north and to Dandong to the east, Dalian has become an important distribution center.
Industrial zones 
Dalian has been given many benefits by the PRC government, including the title of "open-city" (1984), which allows it to receive considerable foreign investment (see Special Economic Zone). The Development Zone was established in Jinzhou District, to which many Japanese manufacturing companies, such as Canon, Mitsubishi Electric, Nidec, Sanyo Electric and Toshiba, followed by Korean, American and European companies (such as Pfizer). In 2007, Intel announced plans to build a semiconductor fabrication facility (commonly known as a fab) in the Development Zone, Dalian. It is Intel's first fab to be built at an entirely new site since 1992 The facility began operation in October 2010.
Other zones in the city include the Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone, Dalian Export Processing Zone, Dalian Free Trade Zone, and Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.
Financial and IT industry 
Dalian is the financial center of Northeast China. There are the Dalian branches of China's five major banks: Bank of China, Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China. Dalian Commercial Bank is now called Bank of China, which among other things handles processing of the Dalian Mingzhu IC Card for public transportation.Bank of Dalian opened three branches in Shenyang, Chengdu and Yingkou.
Dalian Commodity Exchange is the only one of its kind in China, expanding the futures market beyond soybeans. The futures industry leaped forward in its development. Dalian Commodity Exchange listed newly developed PVC futures, the varieties of futures trade reached 8 in total. Also Dalian Commodity Exchange has become the largest plastics futures market, and the second largest agricultural futures market, its comprehensive strength ranked ninth in the world.
Since the 1990s, Dalian City has emphasized the development of the IT industry, especially in Dalian Hi-tech Zone and Dalian Software Park in the western suburbs near Dalian University of Technology. Not only Chinese IT companies, such as DHC, Hisoft and Neusoft Group, but also American, European, Indian and Japanese IT companies are located there. Currently, the "Lushun South Road Software Industry Belt" Plan is proceeding, including Dalian Software Park Phase 2.
Dalian is a popular destination among domestic tourists and foreign visitors, especially from Japan, South Korea and Russia. Its mild climate and multiple beaches as well as its importance in the modern history of China have attracted tourists. Some of the most famous beaches are Tiger beach, Xinghai beach, Jinshitan beach and Fujiazhuang beach. In 2007, it was one of the three cities named "China's best tourist city", along with Hangzhou and Chengdu, recognized by the National Tourism Administration and the United Nations World Tourism Organization.
Four inner-city districts 
- ZhongShan District: Zhongshan Square (including the Modern Buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian) and Friendship Square. It is also the economics center. Zhongshan Park is also part of this district.
- Laohutan, Fujiazhuang Beach and Discovery Land: Laohutan is noted for its natural scenery. There is the Underwater World, the Bird Park and the recently completed Polar Region Zoo. The dolphin show is a major attraction for the Polar Region Zoo. Discovery Land is a theme park which contains six different major scenic spots.
- Shahekou District: Xinghai Square, Xingghai Park and Heishijiao. Xinghai Square was built at the centennial of the City of Dalian (1998) and is slated to be East Asia's largest square. Xinghai beach is inside Xinghai Park. It is about 800m long and is an excellent place for swimming.
- Victory Square, an underground shopping mall which is 4 floors underground.
Jinzhou District and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs) 
- Dahei Mountain
- Jinshitan Sightseeing Area
- Jinshitan beach, the Golden Pebble Beach is a tourist attraction with splendid coves and rock formations. There is also a golf course (Jinshitan International Golf Course), cross country motorcycling, a theme park (Dalian Discoveryland) and a game forest.
Lüshunkou District (in the western suburbs) 
The fiercest battle site and the signing site of the ceasefire treaty, of the Battle of Lüshun during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05).
Three Northern Cities of Greater Dalian 
- Anbo Hotspring and Ski Course, in Pulandian City
- Zhangxing Island International Golf Course, in Wafangdian City
- Binyugou Scenic Area and Buyun Mountain Hotspring, in Zhuanghe City
Zoo and museums 
Dalian is the home of three zoological parks: Dalian Forest Zoo, Sun Asia Ocean World, and Polar World. The Forest Zoo has a free-range animal section as well as a more traditional zoo. Polar World is the only park devoted to polar animals in China. Dalian is also home to a number of public squares, including Xinghai Square.and it also famous for beer festivals.
Local transportation 
Dalian is one of the many cities in China where there are no longer many bicycles, and where there are few motorcycles, because their sale is prohibited. The city has a comprehensive bus system and an efficient Dalian Metro system, usually called Qinggui (轻轨), which connects Dalian Development Zone and Jinshitan with downtown Dalian. The Dalian Tram system is the second oldest in China.
Domestic and international 
Dalian has a recently (2006) expanded international airport, Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport, with direct flights to the most major cities in China, and to some cities in Japan and South Korea.
The city's location means that train trips to most Chinese cities outside China's northeastern region require changing trains in Shanghai or Beijing. Most of the direct city to city express trains are overnight trips. In August 2007 construction started on a Harbin-Dalian high speed passenger railway, which is expected to be completed in 2013, connecting Harbin, Dalian, Changchun, and Shenyang.
In addition to local and express bus service to Beijing and other areas in the northeast, Dalian is connected by passenger ship service to neighbouring coastal cities, such as Tianjin and Yantai, as well as Incheon, South Korea.
Dalian dialect 
Standard Mandarin is usually spoken in Dalian because it is a city with people from various locations. Among the Dalianites, however, the Dalian dialect is used, which belongs to the Jiao Liao Mandarin subgroup spoken in parts of Shandong and Liaoning provinces. The majority of the original Dalianites were the poor farmers and fishermen who had come from Shandong Province in a large population move called "Chuang Guandong" during the Manchukuo era. Among the Dalian dialect's features are a few loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting its history of foreign occupation, which is a very rare case in the Chinese language.
Sports play a big role in the local culture. The local football team have been caught out several times though and the heyday of the Super Team has passed. The city's football team has dominated the sport in China and Asia by winning 7 titles out of the past 9 years of Chinese professional football league. The Dalian's football club is Dalian Shide (大连实德), one of fifteen teams in the Chinese Super League. Prior to 2000, they were known as Dalian Wanda (大连万达).
Some other popular sports played in Dalian are golf, cycling, bowling and billiards.
City-wide festivals 
Xinghai Square(星海广场), the Xinghai Conference Center, the Dalian World Expo Center and the hotels on Renmin Rd. are the places where Dalian's major annual events are held: Fireworks Displays (Chinese New Year, 1 May and 1 October), Dalian International Walking Festival (May), Dalian Locust Flower Festival (May), Dalian International Marathon (June), China International Software & Information Service Fair (June), Dalian International Beer Festival (July–August), Dalian International Auto Show (August) and Dalian International Fashion Week (September).
Every September Dalian hosts the Dalian International Fashion Festival (大连国际服装节).
Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry has about 700 corporate members. Those Japanese who had lived in Dalian before the War have organized the Dalian Society.
Daoist temples can be found in various districts including downtown Dalian (Hua Temple in Zhong Shan Park), in Lushunkou District (Longwang Temple), and in Jinzhou District (Jinlong Temple in Daweijia, Xiangshui Temple at the foot of Dahei Mountain, and Zhenwu Temple in Liangjiadian).
Buddhist temples are in downtown Dalian (Songshan Temple on Tangshan Street), on the northern side of Anzi Mountain (Anshan Temple), at Daheishi (Thousand-Hand Buddha & 500 Luohan Statues), in Lushunkou District (Hengshan Temple at Longwangtan), and in Jinzhou District (Guanyinge-Shengshui Temple on Dahei Mountain).
Dalian Catholic Church (built in 1926) is in downtown Dalian, west of Dalian Railway Station. Protestant churches are near Zhongshan Square (Yuguang Street Church, the former Dalian Anglican Church, built in 1928 in the British Consulate General's premises by the Church of England and Anglican Church of Japan jointly), on Changjiang Road (Beijing Street Church, now called Cheng-en Church, originally built in 1914 by the Danish Lutheran Church), on Xi'an Road (Christian Church for the Korean Chinese), east of the airport (the newly built Harvest Church, which can seat 4000 people), in Jinzhou (the newly built Jinzhou Church) and in Lüshunkou District (Lüshun Church, a former Danish Lutheran church). Dalian Mosque is on Beijing Street.
Notable people 
- Bo Xilai, former mayor, removed from Politburo under corruption charges.
- Qiao Fen, scientist.
- Dong Jie, actress.
- Toshiro Mifune (三船 敏郎 Mifune Toshirō ), (1 April 1920 – 24 December 1997), Japanese actor who appeared in almost 170 feature films; raised in Dalian with his parents and two siblings.
- Harry Triguboff, Dalian born Australian property developer.
- Yu Nan, actress.
- Wei Son, Japanese fashion model who claims to have been born in Dalian.
- Xia Deren, a former mayor from October 2006 to May 2009.
- Xue Jiye, Dalian born painter and sculptor.
There were 23 general institutions of higher education (and another 7 privately run colleges), 108 secondary vocational schools, 80 ordinary middle high schools, 1,049 schools for nine-year compulsory education and 1,432 kindergartens in Dalian. The students on campus of all levels (including kindergartens) totaled 1108 thousand.
There are the following schools of higher education and research centers:
Colleges and universities 
- Dalian Jiaotong University (大连交通大学) (Founded in 1956)
- Dalian Maritime University (大连海事大学)（Project 211）
- Dalian Medical University (大连医科大学) (Founded in 1947)
- Dalian Nationalities University (大连民族学院) (Founded in 1997)
- Dalian Naval Academy of the PLA（中国人民解放军海军大连舰艇学院）
- Dalian Ocean University (大连海洋大学) (Founded in 1952)
- Dalian Polytechnic University (大连工业大学)
- Dalian University of Foreign Languages (大连外国语学院)
- Dalian University of Technology (大连理工大学)（Project 985、Project 211）
- Dalian University (大连大学)
- Dongbei University of Finance and Economics (东北财经大学)
- Liaoning Normal University (辽宁师范大学)
- Neusoft Institute of Information (东北大学东软信息学院)
Some universities are undergoing relocations from the metropolitan area to the suburban districts. In 2007, Dalian University of Foreign Languages (except for its Schools of Chinese Studies 汉学院 and Continuous Education 培训部) and Dalian Medical University (except its Hospital) were moved to Lüshunkou District, just east of Baiyin Mountain Tunnel (白银山).
Missouri State University Branch Campus Dalian is a dual management private school with a western director.
Research centers 
High schools 
Notable high schools include:
- Dalian No. 24 High School（大连市第二十四中学）
- Dalian Yuming High School（大连育明高级中学）
- Dalian No. 8 High School（大连市第八中学）
Twin towns and sister cities 
Dalian is twinned with:
- Zaragoza, Spain
- Szczecin, Poland
- Glasgow, United Kingdom
- Kitakyūshū, Fukuoka, Japan
- Le Havre, France
- Rijeka, Croatia
- Ohrid, Macedonia
- Bremen, Germany
- Incheon, South Korea
- Oakland, California, United States
- Rostock, Germany
- Maizuru, Kyoto, Japan
- Vladivostok, Russia
- Bahía Blanca, Argentina
- Surabaya, Indonesia
- Enschede, Netherlands
See also 
- Population and Employment. Dalian China. english.dl.gov.cn (2010-03-23).
- GDP figure of Liaoning cities is from Liaoning Statisticlal Yearbook 2011 ISBN 978-7-89468-219-2/F.419
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). "The Major Cities of Northern China". The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 165–168. ISBN 978-1-61530-182-9.
- Dairen had been an insignificant fishing village called Chingniwa when Great Britain took the Bay of Dalyan from China. The British renamed the bay Victoria Bay after their queen., Kuramoto p. 19.
- Czarist Russia brought in their finest architects to this insignificant fishing village to build their dream city, a "Paris in the Far East", copying the layout and architecture of Paris. Nicholas II named the city "Dal'nii" – the faraway place – and declared it a tax-free commercial port., Kuramoto p. 20.
- China widens doors for foreign capital. Ottawa Citizen (1984-10-03)
- "Anti-Western Protests Flare in Several Chinese Cities – Fox News". Fox News. 2011-10-20.
- Protests continue; restraint urged. China Daily (2008-04-21)
- Chinese premier calls for confidence in world economic recovery. News.xinhuanet.com (2011-09-14). Retrieved on 2013-01-02.
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Further reading 
- Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895—1955." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.
- Matz, Leigh. Blue Sky Red Tears, 1st edition. DigitalKu. 30 November 2004. ISBN 0-9763168-1-1, ISBN 978-0-9763168-1-7.
- McKnight, Tom, (ed.). Geographica: The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the World, 3rd revision. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7607-5974-X, ISBN 978-0-7607-2714-0.
- Perrins, Robert John (1998). "'Great connections': The creation of a city, Dalian, 1905–1931. China and Japan on the Liaodong Peninsula." Ph.D. dissertation, York University (Canada).
- Song Li. Everyday Dalian: Life In Modern Manchuria (Photography Book), Foreword by Phil Borges. 1st edition. DigitalKu. 8 February 2008. ISBN 0-9763168-5-4, ISBN 978-0-9763168-5-5.
- Theiss, Frank. The Voyage of Forgotten Men, 1st Ed. Indianapolis & New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1937.
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