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Cell biology
The animal cell
Animal Cell.svg
Components of a typical animal cell:
  1. Nucleolus
  2. Nucleus
  3. Ribosome (little dots)
  4. Vesicle
  5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  6. Golgi apparatus (or "Golgi body")
  7. Cytoskeleton
  8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  9. Mitochondrion
  10. Vacuole
  11. Cytosol (fluid that contains organelles)
  12. Lysosome
  13. Centrosome
  14. Cell membrane

The cytoplasm comprises cytosol – the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.[1]

It is within the cytoplasm that most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways including glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. The inner, granular mass is called the endoplasm and the outer, clear and glassy layer is called the cell cortex or the ectoplasm.

Movement of calcium ions in and out of the cytoplasm is thought to be a signaling activity for metabolic processes.[2]

In plants, movements of the cytoplasm around vacuoles are known as cytoplasmic streaming.

Constituents[edit]

The cytoplasm has three major elements; the cytosol, organelles and inclusions.

Cytosol[edit]

Main article: Cytosol

The cytosol is the portion of the cytoplasm not contained within membrane-bound organelles. Cytosol makes up about 70% of the cell volume and is composed of water, salts and organic molecules.[3]

The cytosol is a complex mixture of cytoskeleton filaments, dissolved molecules, and water that fills much of the volume of a cell. The cytosol also contains the protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton, as well as soluble proteins and small structures such as ribosomes, proteasomes, and the mysterious vault complexes.[4] The inner, granular and more fluid portion of the cytoplasm is referred to as endoplasm.

Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein

Due to this network of fibres and high concentrations of dissolved macromolecules, such as proteins, an effect called macromolecular crowding occurs and the cytosol does not act as an ideal solution. This crowding effect alters how the components of the cytosol interact with each other.

Organelles[edit]

Main article: Organelles

Organelles (literally "little organs"), are usually membrane-bound, and are structures inside the cell that have specific functions. Some major organelles that are suspended in the cytosol are the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, and in plant cells chloroplasts.

Cytoplasmic inclusions[edit]

Main article: Cytoplasmic inclusion

The inclusions are small particles of insoluble substances suspended in the cytosol. A huge range of inclusions exist in different cell types, and range from crystals of calcium oxalate or silicon dioxide in plants,[5][6] to granules of energy-storage materials such as starch,[7] glycogen,[8] or polyhydroxybutyrate.[9] A particularly widespread example are lipid droplets, which are spherical droplets composed of lipids and proteins that are used in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes as a way of storing lipids such as fatty acids and sterols.[10] Lipid droplets make up much of the volume of adipocytes, which are specialized lipid-storage cells, but they are also found in a range of other cell types.

Controversy and research[edit]

The cytoplasm, mitochondria and most organelles are contributions to the cell from the maternal gamete. There is considerably less research and understanding on cytoplasmic inheritance/maternal inheritance and mitochondrial DNA compared to the cell nucleus and genomic DNA. Historically, there has been neglect of researching whatever has been labeled female. The cytoplasm is one organelle that has been labeled feminine.[11] The cytoplasm/nucleus being labeled as feminine/masculine follows the example of egg/sperm being gendered; both cytoplasm and egg are considered nonresistant to the efforts and pursuits of the active nucleus and sperm. The "passivity of the egg becomes the passivity of the cytoplasm."[12] Contrary to the older information that disregards any notion of the cytoplasm being active, new research has shown it to be in control of movement and flow of nutrients in and out of the cell by "viscoplastic behavior and... a measure of the reciprocal rate of bond breakage within the cytoplasmic network."[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Franklin Institute (November 23, 2013). "Cytoplasm". fi.edu. 
  2. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2010. Calcium. eds. A.Jorgensen, C. Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.
  3. ^ Cytoplasm Composition. menloschool.org
  4. ^ van Zon A, Mossink MH, Scheper RJ, Sonneveld P, Wiemer EA (September 2003). "The vault complex". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60 (9): 1828–37. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3030-y. PMID 14523546. 
  5. ^ Prychid, Christina J.; Rudall, Paula J. (1999). "Calcium Oxalate Crystals in Monocotyledons: A Review of their Structure and Systematics". Annals of Botany 84 (6): 725. doi:10.1006/anbo.1999.0975. 
  6. ^ Prychid, C. J.; Rudall, P. J.; Gregory, M. (2004). "Systematics and Biology of Silica Bodies in Monocotyledons". The Botanical Review 69 (4): 377–440. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2004)069[0377:SABOSB]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 4354467. 
  7. ^ Ball SG, Morell MK (2003). "From bacterial glycogen to starch: understanding the biogenesis of the plant starch granule". Annu Rev Plant Biol 54: 207–33. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134927. PMID 14502990. 
  8. ^ Shearer J, Graham TE (April 2002). "New perspectives on the storage and organization of muscle glycogen". Can J Appl Physiol 27 (2): 179–203. doi:10.1139/h02-012. PMID 12179957. 
  9. ^ Anderson AJ, Dawes EA (1 December 1990). "Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates". Microbiol. Rev. 54 (4): 450–72. PMC 372789. PMID 2087222. 
  10. ^ Murphy DJ (September 2001). "The biogenesis and functions of lipid bodies in animals, growth and microorganisms". Prog. Lipid Res. 40 (5): 325–438. doi:10.1016/S0163-7827(01)00013-3. PMID 11470496. 
  11. ^ Schiebinger, Londa (1999). Has feminism changed science?. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 147. ISBN 0674005449. 
  12. ^ Hess, David J. (1995). Science and Technology in a Multicultural World. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 30. ISBN 023110197X. 
  13. ^ Feneberg, Wolfgang; Sackmann, Erich, Westphal, Monika (21). "Dictyostelium cells' cytoplasm as an active viscoplastic body". European Biophysics Journal 30 (4): 284–94. doi:10.1007/s002490100135. PMID 11548131. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoplasm — Please support Wikipedia.
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Fri, 19 Sep 2014 13:48:45 -0700

Olena Shtanko, a postdoctoral scientist at Texas Biomed, demonstrated through her research that the virus penetrates cells by passing through endosomes and through a cell's cytoplasm. From there, the virus begins to replicate and take over the cell.
 
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Analogous to a leech, which attaches itself to its host and depletes its energy, HIV can cause dysfunction in human immune response by delivering its genome into the cells' cytoplasm, a gel-like substance that holds cell contents. The viral component ...
 
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Once attached, Ebola is endocytosed (engulfed by the host cell) and subsequently released into the cytoplasm where the replication process begins. How is it contracted? It is believed that bats carry Ebola virus. The virus infects nonhuman primates and ...

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Thu, 18 Sep 2014 23:56:15 -0700

Dr Thornalley's team found that sulforaphane from broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, and quercetin, which occurs in onions, apples and other plant foods, increase Nrf2's speed of oscillation between the cell's nucleus and cytoplasm to once ...
 
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Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:57:21 -0700

In the plant-cell cytoplasm, CA can also convert CO2 to HCO3. Full size image (338 KB). Lin et al. engineered tobacco plants to express a functional cyanobacterial form of Rubisco. This enzyme usually consists of a complex of eight large subunits and ...
 
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Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:37:42 -0700

The authors found that YAP1 is phosphorylated and sequestered in the cytoplasm of tetraploid cells. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that LATS2 binds to MDM2, a negative regulator of p53, in tetraploid, but not diploid cells ...
 
Nature.com
Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:27:29 -0700

Instead, 18A seems to block progression of the HIV-1 protein into a fusion-competent form, preventing the virus from depositing its genetic material and replicating in the host cytoplasm (Fig. 1). Because the assay was designed to focus on a core ...
 
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Findings suggested that these multivesicular bodies are critical for infection by CCHFV, being the sites where the virus first penetrates into the cytoplasm to start replicating and taking over the cell. "The next step in the process is to now identify ...
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