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Old Name: Koodalur (Koodal= confluence)
|— city —|
|Elevation||1 m (3 ft)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Cuddalore /kʌdəˈlɔər/ ( listen), is a city in Tamil Nadu, southern India. It lies 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Pondicherry on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Cuddalore has two parts: the "Old Town" and the "New Town" (Thirupathiripuliyur), separated by the Gedilam River. From 1748 to 1752, Cuddalore was the capital of the English Possessions on the Coromandal Coast.
The Cuddalore district historically consisted of "Chola Naadu" and "Nadu Naadu". The name Nadu Naadu meaning "middle country", may originate from its location between Chola Nadu and "Thondai Mandalam"; or between the "Pallava Kingdom" and the "Chola Kingdom"; or between central territories and the ocean.
European occupation 
Through the centuries, Cuddalore has been subject to a number of foreign powers including the Netherlands, Portugal, France and more recently, the British. In the 1600s, the French and English came to Cuddalore for trade and business. The French established a settlement at Pondicherry and the British at Cuddalore. The French and English, while engaged in the Seven Years' War, fought the naval "Battle of Cuddalore" on 29 April 1758. It was an indecisive battle between a British squadron, under Vice-Admiral George Pocock and a French squadron, under Comte d'Aché. British casualties were 29 killed and 89 wounded, while France lost about 600 men. From 1789 to 1794, there was further unrest in Cuddalore due to the War of American Independence and the Second Anglo-Mysore War culminating in the siege of Cuddalore after which the town was returned to Britain as part of a peace treaty. Some streets in Cuddalore retain British names such as Clive street, Wellington street, Lawrence road and Imperial road.
The 2001 census of India recorded 158569 inhabitants in Cuddalore. 51% of inhabitants were male. Cuddalore's average literacy rate of 76% is higher than the national average (59.5%). Male literacy is 81% and female literacy, 70%. In Cuddalore, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Places of Interest 
Cuddalore has both Shiva and Vaishnava temples. Ancient texts about Cuddalore refer to sacred sites and notable people in the area.
- "Padaleeshwarar" is a Saiva (Shiva) Hindu temple in "Thiruppadirippuliyur" ("Padaliputhiram" in the Samanas period) in central Cuddalore.
- "Perumal" is a temple in Thiruvandhipuram, 7 km from Thirupathiripuliyur.
- "Tirumanikuzhi a paadal petra stalas" (familiar place for Saiva) is a shiva temple 9 km from Cuddalore.
- Thiruvadhigai Veerattaneswarar Temple and the Thirunavalur Shiva temple are 15 km from Cuddalore near the Jumma Mosque bus stand.
- Thiruvanthipuram, the Sacred Abode of Lord Devanatha, 7 km west of Thirupathiripuliyur Railway Station is one of the ancient Vaishnavite temples. It is one of two Nadunattu Tirupathis. There are 108 Vaishnavite shrines sanctified by the visit of the great Alwars and Acharyas.
- The temple of "Sri Natarajan" has a representation of its deity which is noted for its design depicting the figure in a dancing form.
- " Jamia Pallivasal, Cuddalore.
- "Thowheeth mosque, Cuddalore.
- "Ahle hadees Pallivasal, Cuddalore.
- "Tntj Mosque, Cuddalore.
Temples in Chozha Naadu (North of the River Kaveri) 
- Aadhinath Jain Temple at Cuddalore Old Town
- Natarajar Temple at Chidambaram
- Pasupateswarar Temple at Thiruvetkalam
- Uchinathar Temple at Thirunelvayil
- Paalvanna Naathar Temple at Thirukkazhippalai
- Patanjali Nathar Temple at Omampuliyur
- Tuyartheerthanathar Temple at Thirukkaanaattumulloor
- Soundareswarar Temple at Thirunaarayur
- Amritaghateswarar Temple at Kadambur
- Natarajar Temple at Neyveli (Cuddalore)
Temples of Nadu Naadu 
- Theerthapureeswarar Temple at Thiruvattaturai
- Sudarkozhuntheesar Temple at Pennaagadam
- Nerikkattunayakar Temple at Goodalaiyatrur
- Swetargavaneswarar Temple at Erukkattampuliyur
- Sivakkozhuntheeswarar Temple at Tiruttinai Nagar
- Mangalapureeswarar Temple at Tiruchopuram
- Veerateswarar Temple at Thiruvathikai
- Vridhagireeswarar Temple at Vriddhachalam
- Pasupateeswarar Temple at Thirutturaiyur
- Vaamaneswarar Temple at Thirumaanikkuzhi
- Paataleeswarar Temple at Thiruppaatirippuliyur
- Devanathaswamy Temple at Thiruvanthipuram
- Muniswarar Temple at Nannikuppam
Silver Beach 
Cuddalore's beaches are becoming a tourist destination. Silver Beach is the second longest beach in Tamil Nadu. It lies 2 km from Cuddalore on India's south east Coromandel coast.
Cuddalore Old Town 
During the Mughal period, Cuddalore Old Town was called "Islamabad". It remains a predominantly Islamic area. It hosts one of the oldest and biggest mosques in south India. The mosque and housing in Cuddalore Old Town are built in the Persian style. In 1866, the Cuddalore municipal offices moved to Manjai Nagar. After this, the terms "Old Town" and "New Town" were coined.
Fort St David 
Fort St David is situated on the river Gadilam near Devanampattinam. It was built in 1653 A.D. by Elihu Yale, a Hindu merchant. In 1677, when Shivaji captured Gingee, the fort fell into the hands of the Marathas. In 1690, the British East India Company purchased the fort and the adjacent villages (within "ye randome shott of a piece of ordnance".) A great gun was fired to different points of the compass and all the country within its range, including the town of Cuddalore, passed into the possession of the English. The villages thus obtained are called "cannon ball villages". The fortifications were strengthened in 1693, 1698, 1702, 1725, 1740 and 1745. In 1746 Fort St. David became the British headquarters for British India. The British ruled a greater part of south India (Tamil Nadu, parts of present day Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka) from Fort St. David. An attack by Dupleix was successfully repulsed. In 1756, Clive was appointed governor. The French captured the fort in 1758 but in 1760 relinquished it to Sir Eyre Coote of the British East India Company. The French recaptured the fort in 1782 and held it in 1783 during the "Battle of Cuddalore". In 1785 the fort passed into British possession. By this time, however, the centre of British rule was Fort St George. The stamp of the post office at Silver Beach depicts Fort St David.
The Garden House 
The "Garden House" was the official residence of the Cuddalore District Collector, Robert Clive. It is typical of later medieval architecture. The roof of the Garden House was built using only bricks and slaked lime with no steel and wood. There was an esplanade ("Chevalier Shivaji Arangam" or "Manjai Nagar", now known as Manjakuppam) beyond the residence.
Places of interest in the Cuddalore surrounds 
- Pichavaram mangrove forest is located near Chidambaram in Cuddalore District (about 200 km south of Chennai) Tamil Nadu . This mangrove is actually sandwiched between two prominent estuaries, the Vellar estuary in the north and Coleroon estuary in the south. The Vellar - Coleroon estuarine complex forms the Killai backwater and Pichavaram mangroves.
- Brookes Pet is half a kilometre from Vandipalayam. It was named for Henry Brookes (governor 1767 - 1769).
- Cumming Pet is the area to north of Thriupathiripuliyur. It was named for William Cumming (governor from 1778). Cumming Pet was once a place meant for washermen. In 1798, Tipu Sultan (King of Mysore) invaded Cumming Pet and the settlement was cleared.
- Gadilam Castle was built in the 1700s by Nawab Umdat-ul-Umara. It was located at the site of the Brindhavan Hotel, north of the Gadilam river.
- Capper Hills was named for Francis Capper (captain till 1796) who lived in a palace in the area. The British built a prison in the Capper Hills which held Barathiar (an insurgent) and others.
Notable people from Cuddalore 
- Thirunaukkarasu, Saivaite religious figure.
- Sundarar, Saivaite religious figure.
- Maikaudar, a sithas.
- Raghavendra Swami, (1595–1671 CE) from Bhuvanagiri (Cuddalore District).
- Jothi Ramalinga Swamigal, Vallalar Ramalingar (October 5, 1823 - January 23, 1873) from a village near Chidambaram.
- Angavai and Sangavai, the daughters of a Tamil poetess, were given in marriage by their father, King Pari (the great vallal, one who gives great gifts and never says no) to King Deiviekan in Tirukoilur.
- A. Subbarayalu Reddiar, first Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
- Cuddalore Subramaniam Iyer, a popular Carnatic music vocalist and a classical composer who composed krithis in all 72 melakartha raga
- Vethathiri Maharishi
- Vetrimaaran, director of the movies Pollathavan and Aadukalam. Winner of two national awards: National Film Award for Best Direction and National Film Award for Best Screenplay.
- Vani Jairam, popular playback singer, winner of three National Awards for Best Female Playback Singer (1975, 1980, 1991). She moved to Cuddalore in a very early to learn carnatic music from Cuddalore Srinivasa Iyengar.
- N. S. Ramaswami, journalist.
- K. Veeramani
- Jayakanthan, born April 24, 1934, Tamil writer, essayist, journalist, pamphleteer, film-maker and critic.
- Kavignar Arivumathi, lyrics writer from Virudhachalam
- Famous Indian Twins also known as "Arcot twins Brothers" Sir Arcot RamaSwamy Mudaliar and Sir Arcot Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar were born and resided in this town. Legendary twins
- Aswath Damodaran, Professor of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York, grandson of Sir Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar.
- Cuddalore Janani is a singer. She won the "National Award for Exceptional Achievement In Classical Music (Vocal) - 2001" from the Central Government and the "Ilam Kalaimani Award" from the Tamil Nadu Government in 2003.
- Kriya Babaji, born 30 November 203, Kriya Babaji Nagaraj was born on the night before the new moon during the Tamil month Karthigai. There is a temple constructed for him in his place of birth.
- C.K. Ranganathan of founder of Chik Shampoo was born and raised in Cuddalore.
- Shri Kannayan Ramalingam, Chairman of Airport Authority of India (AAI).
- Shri Kannayan Ramalingam, Chairman of Airport Authority of India (AAI).
- R.Datchana Moorthy,Tamilnadu General Secretary -International Human Rights Council(IHRC) & Cuddalore District President -Youth For Human Rights International (YHRI).
- V. Vaithilingam, born 5 October 1950, Chief Minister of Puducherry (1991 to 1996 and 2008 to 2011).
- Justice K. Kannan, Madras high court judge, author and editor Madras Law Journal.
- Justice Mala, Tamil Nadu high court judge
- Panduranga Leela Bhajans
- Peter Tranchell, 14 July 1922 - September 1993, British composer.
- Suresh Sambandam, OrangeScape CEO
- Haji Mastan, "Under World Don".
Notable sportsmen and sportswomen from Cuddalore 
- Abraham Rajan, Asian Games Gold Medalist, trained in Cuddalore during the late 70s and early 80s.
- Balambal Balasubramaiyam, 1970s national athlete, Railways team and World Masters team for Spain.
- R. Ramkumar
- Bill Greswell, First Class Cricket Player who played for Somerset.
- Krish Srikanth, Indian Captain, Cricket Commentator and Current(2010) Indian Team Selection Committee Chairman.
- S. Balaji, Railways Ranji Player was born in Cuddalore
- Cuddalore District (South Arcot) won the PR Thevar U-19 Trophy in 1979 and Runners-up in 1980. Senior Team won the SS Rajan Trophy in 1969.V.Nandakumar was the captain of the U19 team. R.Ramnath was awarded best batman award while S.Suresh was awarded the best wicket keeper award.
- St David School (1717) - Founded by missionaries for children of employees of the British East India Company.
- St Joseph (1886) - at the same site. One of the earliest schools in India which follows a Western education system.
- Sri Pataleeswarar higher secondary school, Thirupathirippuliyur
- Government higher secondary school, Cuddalore
- Aristo Public School, Thirupadhiripuliyur
- P R S Memorial Matriculation School
- CK School Of Practical Knowledge
- Government Municipal Boys Higher Secondary School
- St. Mary's Matriculation Higher Secondary School
- A.R.L.M. Matriculation Higher Secondary School
- Sri Valliammal Matriculation higher secondary school (formerly, Valliammal Vidyalaya matriculation higher secondary school), Thirupadhiripuliyur, Cuddalore
- St. Joseph's higher secondary school, Koothapakkam
- Krishnasamy Memorial Matriculation and Higher Secondary School
- St. Joseph's Higher Secondary School New Town, Manjakuppam
- St. Joseph's Higher Secondary School New Town, Thirupadhiripuliyur
- Sri Saraswathi Vidhyaalaya Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Cuddalore-Port
- St. David's Matriculation school
- St. Anne's Girls Higher Secondary School, Pudupalayam
- Lakshmi Chordia Memorial Matriculation School, Thirupadhiripuliyur
- Akshara vidyaashram (CBSE School)
- Isha Vidhya (ICSE)
- Periyar Government College of Arts and Science
- St. Joseph's College of Arts and Science
St. Joseph's College is a legacy of the 19th century, handed down to us by the venerable fathers of the Society of the Foreign Mission of Paris. Its nucleus was the St. Joseph's High School which was started in 1868 A.D. This School was elevated into a college in 1884 A.D., through the efforts of Father Tarbes and was affiliated to the University of Madras. The District - Gazetteer, South Arcot District has recorded that the prime educational institution and the only college in the District in the 19th century was the St. Joseph's College. It once again became a High School in 1909 due to the financial and other constraints. Since then there have been several attempts to revitalize the college. The dream became a reality when the college was reborn as the St. Joseph's College of Arts and Science in 1991. The college was inaugurated on 11th October 1991, at a stately function presided over by His Excellency Bhishma Narain Singh, the then Governor of Tamil Nadu through the efforts of Rev Fr R Ratchagar, the then secretary of the college. The college obtained Permanent Affiliation on 08.02.2008 the Autonomous status on 09.06.2008 and the reaccreditation status 'A' Grade on 16. 09.2011 by the NAAC under able and stable governance of Rev Fr Dr I Ratchagar, the present secretary of the college. The college obtained Minority Status in 2012 from the Minority Commission.
- Kandhaswami Naidu College of Arts & Science for Women
- Krishnaswamy College of Engineering & Technology
- CK College of Engineering Technology
- J.S.J.V Teacher Training Institute
- Jayavignesh Teacher Training Institute
- Anna University of technology Trichy branch
Cuddalore is connected with other parts of Tamil Nadu through a rail and road network.
Buses run to nearby towns such as Pondicherry, Chidambaram, Panruti, Virudhachalam, Tindivanam and Villupuram. Buses to major cities of Tamil Nadu such as Chennai, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Salem, Tiruvannamalai are also available.
Cuddalore has two railway stations, Thirupadirippuliyur and Cuddalore Port Junction, with station codes TDPR and CUPJ respectively. The station code for Cuddalore Port Junction was previously COT, as the station is located in Cuddalore Old Town. Thirupadirippuliyur railway station is located in the Cuddalore new town and is at a walkable distance from the Cuddalore bus stand.
- National Highway NH-45A (the Villupuram—Pondicherry—Cuddalore—Chidambaram—Nagapattinam Highway) passes through Cuddalore.
Chennai airport (International & Domestic terminals). The nearest airport is in Puducherry, approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Cuddalore. (Commercial flights will start operations in the near future).
Medical Facilities 
Cuddalore is serviced by private clinics and nursing homes. Cuddalore is a centre for public health care in the district.
In the past, Cuddalore's main industry was fishing. Although Cuddalore was once a port city, the shipping trade has now moved to larger centres. The Indian government promotes small to medium sized industries in and around Cuddalore. Government projects include, SIDCO, SIPCOT, Regional Palm Products Manufacturing Society and the Regional Sugarcane Research Foundation. A new harbour for a ship building industry is under construction. Cuddalore also hosts the heavy chemical, pharmacological and energy industries.
- The Neyveli Lignite Corporation - a public sector company in Neyveli. Of the total quantum of thermal electricity generated in Tamil Nadu, a large percentage—more than 2500 megawatts—comes from the power plants in Neyveli.
- The Nellikuppam Integrated Sugar Complex - India's first sugar plant, owned by EID Parry of Murugappa Group
- Asian Paints
- SPIC Pharma
- Clariant Chemicals
- TANFAC Industries
- Vardhman Life Sciences
Port-Based Industries 
- Nagarjuna Oil Corporation Limited, petroleum refinery
- Goodearth Shipbuilding Pvt Ltd shipyard
- Hardy Exploration and Production India Inc oil field
- SRM Energy India thermal power plant
- Chemplast Sanmar PVC Plant
- APT Global Marine Engineering PVT LTD (APT group, .Dubai)
Pollution in the SIPCOT Area 
Industrial development in Cuddalore's recent past has coasued pollution. One industrial area, SIPCOT is a "global toxic hotspot" Local communities have voiced concern about industrialization and pollution. The SIPCOT chemical industry estate in Cuddalore was investigated in November 2002 by a team from the Indian People's Tribunal headed by J. Kanakaraj. The team reported "a noticeable stench of chemicals in the air". Their report was published in July 2003. It found that,
- "Villages like Kudikadu, Thaikal, Eachangadu and Sonnanchavadi lie in a virtual 'gas chamber' surrounded on three sides by chemical factories and bounded on the fourth by the river". There are reports of illegal dumping of toxic waste.
On 22 March 2008, a report for the "Tamil Nadu Pollution Board" prepared by the Nagpur-based "National Environmental Engineering Research Institute" found that residents of the SIPCOT area of Cuddalore were at least 2000 times more likely than their counterparts to contract cancer in their lifetimes due to exposure to high levels of toxic gases from chemical industries in the region.
Media and Communication 
Leading Tamil, English and other regional languages newspapers are available in Cuddalore. English dailies include the Deccan Chronicle, The New Indian Express and The Hindu. The Tamil daily, Dinathanthi has a separate edition for Cuddalore. Other Tamil dailies such as Dinamalar, Dinakaran, Dinamani and Maalaimalar are also availabl. Cuddalore falls under the "Tamil Nadu Telecom" circle. A station of "All India Radio" is located in nearby Puducherry. The town also has several Local TV Channels. List of leading Mobile networks in Cuddalore:
Cuddalore Central Prison 
The Cuddalore Central Prison, opened in 1865, is an historically important landmark. Subramanya Bharathi and other political leaders served prison terms there.
Cuddalore Port 
The Cuddalore Port (Lat. 110 43 N. Long. 79049’ East) operates at the confluence of the Gadilam river and the Paravanar river. The ships anchor in mid stream at a distance of about a mile from the shore and cargo is loaded and discharged through lighters. There is a bar at the mouth of the combined river, which maintains a depth of 5 to 6 feet at low water. During the months of July to September, the depth over the bar is reduced to about 3 to 4 feet. Other ports under construction in the area are:
- Thiruchopuram port
- Silambimangalam port
- Parangipettai port
- PY-03 Oil Field (Operational).
2004 Asian tsunami disaster 
Tsunami waves that followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake near Sumatra hit the eastern coast of India on 26 December 2004 at 0832h. 572 bodies were recovered. Many are missing. Several fishing hamlets disappeared. Silver Beach and the historically important Cuddalore Port were devastated. Fort St. David survived without damage. Cuddalore was accessible from major cities like Chennai and Bangalore and so received relief supplies relatively early. The management of relief operations in the district was handled by the local authorities and villagers themselves. Some remote villages became inaccessible due to damage to bridges. This meant that could not return to their homes.
Non Governmental Organizations like Association for India's Development were among the firs to arrive in the affected villages to help with short term and long term relief efforts. http://AIDIndia.org
2012 Cyclone Thane disaster 
Cyclone Thane caused widespread damage to crops and buildings.
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- "Our vibrant culture lies in folk songs". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 March 2007.
- http://hindu.com/2008/08/01/stories/2008080153520400.htm (Justice K. Kannan)
- "Additional Judges to be sworn in on March 31". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 29 March 2009.
- http://www.lakshmansruthi.com/profilesmusic/Cudaloore%20Gopi%20Bhagavathar.asp (Sri Gopi Bhagavathar)
- http://www.rediff.com/business/slide-show/slide-show-1-inspiring-story-of-a-million-dollar-company/20120821.htm (Suresh Sambandam)
- "Villages in Cuddalore industrial estate "toxic hot spot"". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 10September 2004. Retrieved 28 October, 2006.
- "Take Action". SIPCOT Area Community Environmental Monitors. Retrieved 23 April, 2012.
- Shrivastava, A.k. (2007). Environment Trafficking. APH Publishing. pp. 181–182. ISBN 8131300307.
- "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
- "List of Captive Ports in Tamilnadu" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. TN MARITIME BOARD India. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
http://www.aidindia.info/ http://aidindia.org/main/index.php?searchword=tsunami&option=com_search&Itemid=27 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cuddalore|
- Villages in Cuddalore District
- A website on industrial pollution in Cuddalore
- Cuddalore District web site
- Cuddalore's weather forecast from BBC
- SIPCOT, Cuddalore, A Global Toxic Hotspot for Air Pollution
See also 
Cuddalore travel guide from Wikivoyage