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Cryptodira
Temporal range: Early Jurassic—Present, 190–0Ma [citation needed]
Tortoise.aldabra.750pix.jpg
Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Cope, 1868[1]
Subgroups

Eucryptodira
Paracryptodira

Synonyms[1][2]

Cryptoderes Duméril and Bibron, 1834
Cryptodera Lichtenstein, 1856
Cryptodira Cope, 1868
Cryptodiramorpha Lee, 1995
Pancryptodira Joyce, Parham, and Gauthier, 2004

Cryptodira is the taxonomic suborder of Testudines that includes most living tortoises and turtles. Cryptodira differ from Pleurodira (side-neck turtles) in that they lower their necks and pull the heads straight back into the shells; instead of folding their necks sideways along the body under the shells' margins. They include among their species freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft shell turtles, and sea turtles.

Systematics and evolution[edit]

Cryptodires evolved during the Jurassic period, and by the end of the Jurassic had almost completely replaced Pleurodires in the lakes and rivers, while beginning to develop land-based species.

Cryptodira has three living superfamilies, the Chelonioidea (sea turtles), Testudinoidea (tortoises and pond turtles) and Trionychoidea (softshell turtles and relatives). The Kinosternoidea are now recognized as a paraphyletic assemblage of mostly primitive Trionychoidea; they do not form a natural group.[3]

Two circumscriptions of the Cryptodira are commonly found. One is used here; it includes a number of primitive extinct lineages known only from fossils, as well as the Eucryptodira. These are, in turn, made up from some very basal groups, and the Centrocryptodira contains the prehistoric relatives of the living cryptodires, as well as the latter, which are collectively called Polycryptodira.[3]

The alternate concept restricts the use of the term "Cryptodira" to the crown clade (i.e. Polycryptodira). The Cryptodira as understood here are called Cryptodiramorpha in this view. Under this approach, the pleurodires and cryptodires are not sister taxa.[3]

As per the system used here, the Cryptodira can be classified as:[4]

The Indian flapshell turtle (Lissemys punctata) from the Trionychidae is a highly advanced eucryptodire

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rhodin 2011, p. 000.171
  2. ^ Rhodin 2008, p. 000.3
  3. ^ a b c See references in Haaramo (2008)
  4. ^ Anquetin, J. R. M. (2012). "Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10: 3. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.558928.  edit

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptodira — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
460 videos foundNext > 

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Cryptodira - Descent

DESCENT Evolve and survive We evolve past survival Egotistically stunted We won't get anywhere if we are such narcissists Ego ends collective growth Evolve past evolving Why should...

Cryptodira @ Amityville Music Hall 1/4/14

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Cryptodira - An Unmarked Grave

AN UNMARKED GRAVE The chills running down my spine Must be a reminder from you I'm alive Return, readjust Filled with urgency Suddenly and violently I know you're important to me Precious...

Cryptodira - An Unmarked Grave (Acoustic Version ft. Samantha Marie Raia)

A performance of an acoustic rendition of "An Unmarked Grave" featuring Samantha Marie Raia.

Cryptodira - Descent (Drum Play Through)

Our drummer Matthew Taibi playing along to "Descent," a new track off our upcoming EP, "An Unmarked Grave," out 1/4/14!

Cryptodira - On Sleepwalking

On Sleepwalking is the third track on Recursions. 'Recursions' will be streaming online as of 1/5 & physical copies will be available to purchase/order as of 1/20/13. 1. The Birth of a King...

CRYPTODIRA live at Saint Vitus Bar, Sep. 17th, 2013

Pit Full of Shit http://pitfullofshit.blogspot.com/ https://www.facebook.com/PitFullOfShit http://pitfullofshit.tumblr.com/ http://www.metalinjection.net/channels/pit-full-of-shit.

LIVE: Cryptodira - "Either Fly or Fall Faster"

Cryptodira perform "Either Fly or Fall Faster" off of their album 'Recursions' at Saint Vitus in Brooklyn March 31, 2014. SUBSCRIBE to Heavy Blog Is Heavy on Youtube: http://bit.ly/1fJKHp9...

Cryptodira - Allies to Ignorance

Allies to Ignorance is the fourth track on Recursions. 'Recursions' will be streaming online as of 1/5 & physical copies will be available to purchase/order as of 1/20/13. 1. The Birth of...

460 videos foundNext > 

54 news items

Under the Gun Review

Under the Gun Review
Wed, 03 Dec 2014 11:03:48 -0800

Hey, prog-metal heads: Washington D.C. based prog-metal band Wings Denied just announced a co-headlining tour in January with New York's Cryptodira. The bands will be making 13 stops, primarily on the East Coast, ending back in Wings Denied's ...

Free Times (blog)

Free Times (blog)
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 13:00:40 -0700

The local prog-rockers in Trees on Mars take their craft seriously, delivering tangled instrumentals that lean confidently on familiar genre tropes. Long Island-based tourmates Johnny Booth and Cryptodira explore their own progressive impulses through ...
 
Daily Dischord (blog)
Tue, 26 Mar 2013 07:03:45 -0700

Sat drinking endless cups of tea whilst chain-smoking Marlboro lights at 1 am on a Sunday morning, with this kicking the shit out of my Sennheiser's is very agreeable. These four Long-Islanders are a progressive Death Metal/Post Metal band who have so ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Tue, 03 Feb 2015 03:03:45 -0800

Jonathan, of the species testudinidae cryptodira, was brought to the British territory of St Helena, a tiny island in the South Atlantic, in 1882, when he was already mature, meaning that he was at least 50 years old. He is thought to have been shipped ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Wed, 25 Feb 2015 23:00:12 -0800

They left in small groups, through the narrow lanes of the city, on to the ferry across the glassy blue sea and then, past the tourists waiting for connections to luxury resorts, to the airport. Their ultimate destination: Syria, and the “caliphate” of ...
 
Aquarian Weekly
Sat, 07 Feb 2015 18:03:45 -0800

Unlike the post-hardcore/emo movement of the early 2000s, Cryptodira are part of the growing progressive death metal wave, playing dynamic multi-sectioned pieces lasting well over four minutes each. They have done extremely well for themselves, sharing ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Wed, 10 Dec 2014 18:10:20 -0800

The scene of a bomb blast at a bus station in Nigeria that killed 23 people Locals inspect the site of a bomb blast at a bus station in Gombe, north-eastern Nigeria. At least 23 people were reported killed in the explosion, which was suspected to be ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Thu, 25 Dec 2014 10:00:12 -0800

Refugees from Kobani watch the Syrian town during fighting between Isis and peshmerga forces. Photograph: Yannis Behrakis/Reuters. Constanze Letsch in Istanbul, Reyhanli and Kilis. Thursday 25 December 2014 13.00 EST Last modified on Thursday 25 ...
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