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Cryptodira
Temporal range: Early Jurassic—Present, 190–0Ma
[citation needed]
Tortoise.aldabra.750pix.jpg
Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines (=Chelonii)
Suborder: Cryptodira
Cope, 1868[1]
Subgroups

Eucryptodira
Kayentachelys
Indochelys
Paracryptodira

Synonyms[1][2]

Cryptoderes Duméril and Bibron, 1834
Cryptodera Lichtenstein, 1856
Cryptodira Cope, 1868
Cryptodiramorpha Lee, 1995
Pancryptodira Joyce, Parham, and Gauthier, 2004

Cryptodira is the taxonomic suborder of Testudines that includes most living tortoises and turtles. Cryptodira differ from Pleurodira (side-neck turtles) in that they lower their necks and pull the heads straight back into the shells; instead of folding their necks sideways along the body under the shells' margins. They include among their species freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft shell turtles, and sea turtles.

Systematics and evolution[edit]

The earliest known cryptodire fossils belong to the species Kayentachelys aprix, from the early Jurassic period of Arizona (around 190 million years ago).[3] Cryptodires evolved primarily through the Jurassic period, and by the end of the Jurassic had almost completely replaced Pleurodires in the lakes and rivers, while beginning to develop land-based species.

Cryptodira has three living superfamilies, the Chelonioidea (sea turtles), Testudinoidea (tortoises and pond turtles) and Trionychoidea (softshell turtles and relatives). The Kinosternoidea are now recognized as a paraphyletic assemblage of mostly primitive Trionychoidea; they do not form a natural group.[4]

Two circumscriptions of the Cryptodira are commonly found. One is used here; it includes a number of primitive extinct lineages known only from fossils, as well as the Eucryptodira. These are, in turn, made up from some very basal groups, and the Centrocryptodira contains the prehistoric relatives of the living cryptodires, as well as the latter, which are collectively called Polycryptodira.[4]

The alternate concept restricts the use of the term "Cryptodira" to the crown clade (i.e. Polycryptodira). The Cryptodira as understood here are called Cryptodiramorpha in this view. Under this approach, the pleurodires and cryptodires are not sister taxa.[4]

As per the system used here, the Cryptodira can be classified as:[4]

SUBORDER CRYPTODIRA

The Indian flapshell turtle (Lissemys punctata) from the Trionychidae is a highly advanced eucryptodire


Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rhodin 2011, p. 000.171
  2. ^ Rhodin 2008, p. 000.3
  3. ^ Gafney, E., Hutchinson, H., Jenkins, F., and Meeker, L. 1987. Modern turtle origins; the oldest known cryptodire. Science 237: p. 289-291.
  4. ^ a b c d See references in Haaramo (2008)

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptodira — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
487 videos foundNext > 

Cryptodira - Descent

DESCENT Evolve and survive We evolve past survival Egotistically stunted We won't get anywhere if we are such narcissists Ego ends collective growth Evolve p...

Cryptodira - An Unmarked Grave (Acoustic Version ft. Samantha Marie Raia)

A performance of an acoustic rendition of "An Unmarked Grave" featuring Samantha Marie Raia.

Cryptodira - Descent (Drum Play Through)

Our drummer Matthew Taibi playing along to "Descent," a new track off our upcoming EP, "An Unmarked Grave," out 1/4/14!

Cryptodira - An Unmarked Grave

AN UNMARKED GRAVE The chills running down my spine Must be a reminder from you I'm alive Return, readjust Filled with urgency Suddenly and violently I know y...

Cryptodira - On Sleepwalking

On Sleepwalking is the third track on Recursions. 'Recursions' will be streaming online as of 1/5 & physical copies will be available to purchase/order as of...

Cryptodira @ Amityville Music Hall 1/4/14

http://nothingspecialent.com.

CRYPTODIRA live at Saint Vitus Bar, Sep. 17th, 2013

Pit Full of Shit http://pitfullofshit.blogspot.com/ https://www.facebook.com/PitFullOfShit http://pitfullofshit.tumblr.com/ http://www.metalinjection.net/cha...

Cryptodira "Chop Suey" Cover

7/19/12 @ Cedar Beach.

Cryptodira - Anonymous

Track 3 off the debut EP 'The Four Quarters' www.facebook.com/cryptodira.

Cryptodira - "Amenity"

Cryptodira: https://www.facebook.com/cryptodira Metal Local: https://www.facebook.com/metallocal NY Metal: https://www.facebook.com/newyorkmetal.

487 videos foundNext > 

31 news items

Under the Gun Review

Under the Gun Review
Wed, 03 Dec 2014 11:03:48 -0800

Hey, prog-metal heads: Washington D.C. based prog-metal band Wings Denied just announced a co-headlining tour in January with New York's Cryptodira. The bands will be making 13 stops, primarily on the East Coast, ending back in Wings Denied's ...

Free Times (blog)

Free Times (blog)
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 13:00:40 -0700

The local prog-rockers in Trees on Mars take their craft seriously, delivering tangled instrumentals that lean confidently on familiar genre tropes. Long Island-based tourmates Johnny Booth and Cryptodira explore their own progressive impulses through ...

Under the Gun Review

Under the Gun Review
Wed, 15 Oct 2014 20:11:15 -0700

Trade Wind have announced a handful of US and Canadian tour dates for this coming January. This will be their first headlining tour, and they will receive support by Wander and Cryptodira. Though they will mostly be hitting cities on the West Coast ...
 
Free Times
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 21:05:42 -0700

British BullDog Pub: The No Name Bluegrass Band Delaney's: Josh McCaa eekly below. Dano's Pizza: McKenzie Butler's Acoustic Allstars Hemingway's: Prettier Than Matt new brookland tavern: Trees on Mars, Cryptodira, Johnny Booth, Human Beansauce, ...

Brooklyn Vegan (blog)

Brooklyn Vegan (blog)
Thu, 20 Mar 2014 12:53:34 -0700

That show takes place at Amityville Music Hall (3/28) and also includes Slingshot Dakota, Cryptodira and Petal Tickets are on sale now. All dates are listed below. Meanwhile, the Mixtape Festival also takes place on Long Island from March 29-30 at 89 ...

RedOrbit

RedOrbit
Tue, 17 Dec 2013 08:24:26 -0800

For loggerhead sea turtles, the number of returning nesting females in the Northwest Atlantic combined with favorable climate conditions in the preceding years are strongly related to the number of nests produced in a given year, according to a study ...
 
The Times and Democrat
Sun, 11 Aug 2013 22:03:54 -0700

Cryptodira, Emydidae, Testudinoidea, Environment, South Carolina, Usd, United States, Glyptemys, Chrysemys, Cryozoa, Bog Turtle, Painted Turtle, Turtle, Box Turtle, Chicken Turtle, Sea Turtle, James Luken, S.c. Department, Cottageville, Coastal ...

Aquarian Weekly

Aquarian Weekly
Wed, 14 Aug 2013 05:02:22 -0700

While my feelings about the Jersey Shore Music Festival in Lakewood a few weeks ago were ill ones, I did walk away from that day enjoying a lot of the young musical talent that New Jersey has to offer. One band that stuck out in my head was called ...
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