digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Cryptodira
Temporal range: Early Jurassic—Present, 190–0Ma
[citation needed]
Tortoise.aldabra.750pix.jpg
Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines (=Chelonii)
Suborder: Cryptodira
Cope, 1868[1]
Subgroups

Eucryptodira
Kayentachelys
Indochelys
Paracryptodira

Synonyms[1][2]

Cryptoderes Duméril and Bibron, 1834
Cryptodera Lichtenstein, 1856
Cryptodira Cope, 1868
Cryptodiramorpha Lee, 1995
Pancryptodira Joyce, Parham, and Gauthier, 2004

Cryptodira is the taxonomic suborder of Testudines that includes most living tortoises and turtles. Cryptodira differ from Pleurodira (side-neck turtles) in that they lower their necks and pull the heads straight back into the shells; instead of folding their necks sideways along the body under the shells' margins. They include among their species freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, soft shell turtles, and sea turtles.

Systematics and evolution[edit]

The earliest known cryptodire fossils belong to the species Kayentachelys aprix, from the early Jurassic period of Arizona (around 190 million years ago).[3] Cryptodires evolved primarily through the Jurassic period, and by the end of the Jurassic had almost completely replaced Pleurodires in the lakes and rivers, while beginning to develop land-based species.

Cryptodira has three living superfamilies, the Chelonioidea (sea turtles), Testudinoidea (tortoises and pond turtles) and Trionychoidea (softshell turtles and relatives). The Kinosternoidea are now recognized as a paraphyletic assemblage of mostly primitive Trionychoidea; they do not form a natural group.[4]

Two circumscriptions of the Cryptodira are commonly found. One is used here; it includes a number of primitive extinct lineages known only from fossils, as well as the Eucryptodira. These are, in turn, made up from some very basal groups, and the Centrocryptodira contains the prehistoric relatives of the living cryptodires, as well as the latter, which are collectively called Polycryptodira.[4]

The alternate concept restricts the use of the term "Cryptodira" to the crown clade (i.e. Polycryptodira). The Cryptodira as understood here are called Cryptodiramorpha in this view. Under this approach, the pleurodires and cryptodires are not sister taxa.[4]

As per the system used here, the Cryptodira can be classified as:[4]

SUBORDER CRYPTODIRA

The Indian flapshell turtle (Lissemys punctata) from the Trionychidae is a highly advanced eucryptodire


Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rhodin 2011, p. 000.171
  2. ^ Rhodin 2008, p. 000.3
  3. ^ Gafney, E., Hutchinson, H., Jenkins, F., and Meeker, L. 1987. Modern turtle origins; the oldest known cryptodire. Science 237: p. 289-291.
  4. ^ a b c d See references in Haaramo (2008)

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptodira — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
538 videos foundNext > 

Cryptodira - Descent

DESCENT Evolve and survive We evolve past survival Egotistically stunted We won't get anywhere if we are such narcissists Ego ends collective growth Evolve p...

Cryptodira - An Unmarked Grave (Acoustic Version ft. Samantha Marie Raia)

A performance of an acoustic rendition of "An Unmarked Grave" featuring Samantha Marie Raia.

Cryptodira - Descent (Drum Play Through)

Our drummer Matthew Taibi playing along to "Descent," a new track off our upcoming EP, "An Unmarked Grave," out 1/4/14!

Cryptodira @ Amityville Music Hall 1/4/14

http://nothingspecialent.com.

Cryptodira - On Sleepwalking

On Sleepwalking is the third track on Recursions. 'Recursions' will be streaming online as of 1/5 & physical copies will be available to purchase/order as of...

Cryptodira - An Unmarked Grave

AN UNMARKED GRAVE The chills running down my spine Must be a reminder from you I'm alive Return, readjust Filled with urgency Suddenly and violently I know y...

LIVE: Cryptodira - "Either Fly or Fall Faster"

Cryptodira perform "Either Fly or Fall Faster" off of their album 'Recursions' at Saint Vitus in Brooklyn March 31, 2014. SUBSCRIBE to Heavy Blog Is Heavy on...

CRYPTODIRA live at Saint Vitus Bar, Sep. 17th, 2013

Pit Full of Shit http://pitfullofshit.blogspot.com/ https://www.facebook.com/PitFullOfShit http://pitfullofshit.tumblr.com/ http://www.metalinjection.net/cha...

Cryptodira "Chop Suey" Cover

7/19/12 @ Cedar Beach.

Cryptodira - Allies to Ignorance

Allies to Ignorance is the fourth track on Recursions. 'Recursions' will be streaming online as of 1/5 & physical copies will be available to purchase/order ...

538 videos foundNext > 

45 news items

 
Baltimore City Paper (blog)
Sat, 24 Jan 2015 04:33:45 -0800

Virginia death-metal band Short Bus PileUp plays the Sidebar with Ground, Splitwig, Cryptodira, Universal Remonster, and Gnarkillian Battlecruiser. FLATOUT at the Windup Space will feature DJ sets from Neuport and Abdu Ali and a performance from Philly ...
 
Akron Beacon Journal
Fri, 09 Jan 2015 13:45:00 -0800

Also on the bill are Long Island death-metalheads Cryptodira and Cleveland's Decepticon Theory. Need more loud guitar? Saturday at Annabell's, local heavy psych-rock band Relaxer will perform with relatively new “interstellar” thrash-surf band the ...

Vancouver Sun

Vancouver Sun
Fri, 16 Jan 2015 17:10:51 -0800

So in the spirit of Brennan's, here is a personal handicapping of the NHL's reptilia cryptodira: MONSTER CATEGORY. Edmonton Oilers (currently 30th) — Crawling inexorably toward Brennan's lifetime underachievement award, given to the team that best ...

Under the Gun Review

Under the Gun Review
Wed, 03 Dec 2014 11:03:48 -0800

Hey, prog-metal heads: Washington D.C. based prog-metal band Wings Denied just announced a co-headlining tour in January with New York's Cryptodira. The bands will be making 13 stops, primarily on the East Coast, ending back in Wings Denied's ...

Free Times (blog)

Free Times (blog)
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 13:00:40 -0700

The local prog-rockers in Trees on Mars take their craft seriously, delivering tangled instrumentals that lean confidently on familiar genre tropes. Long Island-based tourmates Johnny Booth and Cryptodira explore their own progressive impulses through ...
 
Metal Underground
Wed, 07 Jan 2015 10:22:30 -0800

East Of The Wall's contribution to the split 7" with Cryptodira is a heavily-altered take on Nick Drake's classic folk song, "River Man." While the first few moments of the song may give the impression that the cover is faithful to the original, "River ...
 
Metal Underground
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 13:45:00 -0800

Additionally, Maid Myriad guitarist/vocalist Jeff Klemm will be filling the vocal position for Washington DC-based progressive metal outfit Wings Denied on the upcoming Progressive Winter Tour with Cryptodira, running through the eastern half of the ...
 
Metal Underground
Fri, 02 Jan 2015 13:20:36 -0800

As many of you know, our singer Luka is not a U.S. citizen, and unfortunately this time around, we have run into a delay with his visa status, meaning that he will not be able to participate in the Progressive Winter 2015 tour with Cryptodira. This is ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight