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Crevasse is also a traditional term for a levee breach.

A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock. Crevasses form as a result of the movement and resulting stress associated with the shear stress generated when two semi-rigid pieces above a plastic substrate have different rates of movement. The resulting intensity of the shear stress causes a breakage along the faces.

Description[edit]

Crevasses often have vertical or near-vertical walls, which can then melt and create seracs, arches, and other ice formations.[1] These walls sometimes expose layers that represent the glacier's stratigraphy. They are widely distributed across Antarctica and are more narrow at depth as it is here that pieces of the glacier may rub and break against each other. Crevasse size often depends upon the amount of liquid water present in the glacier. A crevasse may be as deep as 45 metres, as wide as 20 metres, and can be up to several hundred metres long.

A crevasse may be covered, but not necessarily filled, by a snow bridge made of the previous years' accumulation and snow drifts. The result is that crevasses are rendered invisible, and thus potentially lethal to anyone attempting to navigate their way across a glacier. Occasionally a snow bridge over an old crevasse may begin to sag providing some landscape relief, but this cannot be relied upon. Anyone planning to travel on a glacier should be trained in crevasse rescue.

The presence of water in a crevasse can significantly increase its penetration. Water-filled crevasses may reach the bottom of glaciers or ice sheets and provide a direct hydrologic connection between the surface, where significant summer melting occurs, and the bed of the glacier, where additional water may lubricate the bed and accelerate ice flow.

Types of crevasses[edit]

  • Transverse crevasses are the most common crevasse type and they form in a zone of longitudinal extension where the principal stresses are parallel to the direction of glacier flow, creating extensional tensile stress. These crevasses stretch across the glacier transverse to the flow direction, or cross-glacier. They generally form where a valley becomes steeper.[2]
  • Splashing crevasses form as a result of shear stress from the margin of the glacier, and longitudinal compressing stress from lateral extension. They extend from the margin of the glacier and are concave up with respect to glacier flow, making an angle less than 45° with the margin. At the centre line of the glacier, there is zero pure shear from the margins, so this area is typically crevasse-free.
  • Longitudinal crevasses form parallel to flow where the glacier width is expanding. They develop in areas of tensile stress, such as where a valley widens or bends. They are typically concave down-glacier, and form an angle greater than 45° with the margin.[2]

Gallery[edit]

Crevasses around the world
Crevasse on the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland 
Measuring snowpack in a crevasse on the Easton Glacier, Mount Baker, North Cascades, United States 
Exploring the bottom of a crevasse in Antarctica 
Crevasse on the Ross Ice Shelf, January 2001 
Crevasses on the Upper Price Glacier of Mt. Shuksan, North Cascades, WA. Photo taken August 2011 
Split-boarder skiing up past open crevasses on the Coleman Glacier of Mt. Baker. Photo taken October 2009 
Looking down into a crevasse on Mt. Rainier, Cascade range, WA. Photo taken Mid August 2009 
Crevasses on Mt. Rainier. Photo taken from the Disappointment Cleaver Route on Mt. Rainier. Photo taken August 2009 
Mountaineers crossing a crevasse on Mt. Rainier. Photo taken August 2009 
Ladder bridging a crevasse on Mt. Rainier. Photo taken Aug. 2009 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ van der Veen, C (1990). "Crevasses on Glaciers". Polar Geography 23 (3): 213–245. doi:10.1080/10889379909377677. 
  2. ^ a b Holdsworth, G (October 1956). "Primary Transverse Crevasses". Journal of Glaciology 8 (52): 107–129. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Paterson, W.S.B., 1994, The Physics of Glaciers, 3rd edition, ISBN 0-7506-4742-6.
  • Boon, S., M.J. Sharp, 2003, The role of hydrologically-driven ice fracture in drainage system evolution on an Arctic glacier, Geophysical Research Letters, 30, pp. 1916.
  • van der Veen, C.J., 1998, Fracture mechanics approach to penetration of surface crevasses on glaciers, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 27, pp. 31–47.
  • Zwally, H.J., W. Abdalati, T. Herring, K. Larson, J. Saba, K. Steffen, 2002, Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland ice-sheet flow, Science, 297, pp. 218–222.
  • Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills, 5th edition. ISBN 0-89886-309-0.
  • "Crevasse." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 17 Oct. 2010.
  • Das, S. B., I. Joughin, M.D. Behn, I.M. Howat, M.A. King, D. Lizarralde, M.P. Bhatia, 2008, Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supraglacial lake drainage, Science, 320, pp. 778.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Crevasse at Wikimedia Commons

Templates[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crevasse — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
53473 videos foundNext > 

50 feet down in a crevasse after fall, Chamonix

On February 17, 2015 I was snowboarding off-piste on Glacier des Rognons in the Grands Montets resort in Chamonix and I fell into a deep crevasse.

24-05-2015 Chute en crevasse a ski et secours sur le glacier du Strahlhorn.

Chute et secours en crevasse le 24/05/2015 en descendant du Strahlhorn. Merci au guide suisse Yvan Duc et deux de ses stagiaires Armand et Oriel pour leur ...

Climber films 20m crevasse fall in Himalayas - BBC News

Watch this dramatic video as seriously injured US climber John All struggles to survive after falling 70 feet (20m) into a crevasse in the Himalayas. He broke ...

Inside a crevasse on Mt. Rainier's Nisqually Glacier

My BCC (Basic Climbing Class) team lowers me into a small crevasse on the Nisqually Glacier on Mt. Rainier to practice the "z-pully", a method of crevasse ...

mike falls in crevasse

glacier riding at artic man and snow bridge falls in behind me as mike was following, you can hear his sled go in as I crest over the hill, listen for the can in the ...

2 Person Rope Team Crevasse Rescue

This video shows my variation for 1 on 1 Crevasse Rescue. Presenter - Darrell Weston Fallen Climber - Dana Tofell Videographer - Matt Blecharz.

Glacier Crevasse Rescue Demo

Glacier Crevasse Rescue Demo from our Alpine 101 course on the Easton Glacier on Mt. Baker, WA.

Programa "I Shouldn't Be Alive" (Sobreviví), Episodio "Killer Crevasse" (Discovery Channel)

Video publicado con el objetivo de difundir nuestro trabajo y asesorías en Coordinación de Stunts y Coreografía de Peleas. Video posted for the purpose of ...

Climber ordeal | 6 hours in a ice crevasse in Nepal | warning +18 | video

Fail Ice crevasse in Nepal video American professor John All records his ordeal after falling down an ice crevasse doing research in Nepal. American professor ...

Mount Everest crevasse ladder crossing

Crossing a deep crevasse on a ladder is typical in the Khumbu Icefall of Mt Everest. Here is 1st-person view of a crossing.

53473 videos foundNext > 

9002 news items

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Thu, 04 Jun 2015 04:45:43 -0700

Benjamin Spilthooren, an experienced skier from France, was descending the Strahlhorn mountain in late May when he fell into the glacial crevasse. Headcam footage shows Mr Spilthooren first falling into the opening of the crevasse and later dropping ...

Transworld Snowboarding

Transworld Snowboarding
Tue, 09 Jun 2015 09:32:52 -0700

This past winter while snowboarding in Chamonix, France, Brandon Kampschurr fell into a massive crevasse, and documented the harrowing experience in the edit above. Despite facing gnarly circumstances, Kampschurr was quite calm and collected as he ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Mon, 08 Jun 2015 04:26:15 -0700

Last week, a video of Frenchman Benjamin Spilthooren skiing into a crevasse in the Swiss Alps before being rescued made headlines. He was luckily unharmed, but sounds fairly shaken up in the footage as he calls up for help – as is only to be expected.

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Mon, 15 Jun 2015 09:07:20 -0700

But Andrew Fleming from the British Antarctic Survey, told MailOnline that the object was quite clearly simply a crevasse in the ground. 'A crevasse is a lot of ice formed by differential movement of the ice,' he said. 'They can be tens of metres deep ...

Simcoe.com

Simcoe.com
Sun, 21 Jun 2015 10:14:49 -0700

The crevasse is only a few feet off the Bruce Trail, midway between the 12/13 and 14/15 Sideroad of Clearview Township, south of Collingwood, in an area known as the Nottawasaga Bluffs Conservation Area. Fire officials say people walking the trail ...

Simcoe.com

Simcoe.com
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:36:32 -0700

For nearly 22 hours, the 30-year-old Rowe was stuck beneath the earth, caught in a crevasse that he was exploring. Rowe and his friends had been hiking along the Bruce Trail on Saturday morning in a section of the Nottawasaga Bluffs Conservation Area, ...

WMUR Manchester

WMUR Manchester
Mon, 08 Jun 2015 08:33:45 -0700

... will play in: 2. seconds. Guess the official 'allowance' for Prince William, Princess Kate, and Prince... 1: 01. next video will play in: 2. seconds. Wild cat vs. house cat. 1: 49. post a comment. Watch as a skier nearly cheats death and escapes ...

Irish Examiner

Irish Examiner
Sat, 06 Jun 2015 08:00:00 -0700

Watch the moment an experienced skier fell down a deep crevasse. Saturday, June 06, 2015. Imagine the scene: You're skiing down a lovely slope on a bright sunny day in the Swiss Alps. It's you and your family, experienced skiers doing what you love most.
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