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For other uses of the name "Crampton", see Crampton.
German Crampton locomotive "Badenia"

A Crampton locomotive is a type of steam locomotive designed by Thomas Russell Crampton and built by various firms from 1846. The main British builders were Tulk and Ley and Robert Stephenson and Company.

Notable features were a low boiler and large driving wheels. The crux of the Crampton patent was that the single driving axle was placed behind the firebox, so that the driving wheels could be very large. This helped to give this design a low centre of gravity, so that it did not require a very broad-gauge track to travel safely at high speeds. Its wheel arrangement was usually 4-2-0 or 6-2-0.

Design variations[edit]

Because the single driving axle was behind the firebox, Crampton locomotives usually had outside cylinders. However, some inside cylinder versions were built using indirect drive, then known as a jackshaft. The inside cylinders drove a crankshaft located in front of the firebox and the crankshaft was connected to the driving wheels by outside rods. Some long-wheelbase 0-4-0 tank locomotives were also built using this crankshaft system. The boiler feed-pump was often driven from the crankshaft as well because many Cramptons were built before the injector was invented.

Another peculiarity on some Crampton locomotives was the use of a boiler of oval cross-section, to lower the centre of gravity. It would nowadays be regarded as bad engineering practice because the internal pressure would tend to push the boiler into a circular cross-section and increase the risk of metal fatigue.

Usage[edit]

Preserved French Crampton locomotive

Crampton locomotives were used by some British railways and speeds of up to 120 km/h (75 mph) were achieved on the LNWR. They were more popular in France, southern Germany and the US. In France the expression "prendre la Crampton" meant to catch an express, and in the argot of the Saint Cyr military academy, footplate staff were known as "officiers de Crampton" (and this as late as 1971). One of the French examples has been preserved in the Cité du Train (the French Railway Museum) at Mulhouse and is still in working order. This is number 80 of the Chemin de Fer de l'Est, the Paris-Strasbourg line, which is named "Le Continent".

Locomotive list[edit]

Approximate numbers of Crampton-type locomotives built in Europe were:

  • Great Britain 51
  • France 127
  • Germany 135

Manufactured in Great Britain[edit]

Built by: Tulk and Ley, all of 4-2-0 wheel arrangement:

Works no. Date built Railway Name/no. Notes
10 1847 Namur and Liege Railway Namur [a]
11 1847 Namur and Liege Railway Liege [a]
1847 Namur and Liege Railway [a]
12? 1847 London and North Western Railway, Southern Division 200 London [b][c]
14 1847 Dundee and Perth and Aberdeen Junction Railway Kinnaird [d]
1847 Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway 35 Pegasus
1848 Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway 36 Phlegon
17 1854 Maryport and Carlisle Railway 12

Notes:

  1. ^ a b c Namur was tested over 2,300 miles (3,700 km) on the LNWR [1] speeds up to 62 miles per hour (100 km/h) were recorded. Delivery of Namur, Liege and the third engine ordered for Belgium was delayed, and they were purchased by the South Eastern Railway in December 1849, becoming SER Nos 81, 83 and 85.
  2. ^ Larger boiler and cylinders than Namur. Rebuilt as a goods 0-4-2 in 1855.[2][1]
  3. ^ The LNWR obtained two other Crampton-type locomotives: Courier, 4-2-0, built at Crewe Works in 1847 and Liverpool, 6-2-0, built by Bury, Curtis, and Kennedy in 1848.
  4. ^ the Dundee and Perth and Aberdeen Junction Railway was absorbed by the Scottish Central Railway in 1863.


Built by: Robert Stephenson and Company
Robert Stephenson and Company built a number of Crampton type locomotives for the South Eastern Railway and the London, Chatham and Dover Railway. These were all of 4-2-0 wheel arrangement with inside cylinders and indirect drive. The inside cylinders drove a crankshaft located in front of the firebox and the crankshaft was coupled to the driving wheels by outside rods.

SER No. 136 Folkstone at The Great Exhibition, 1851.
Works no. Date built Railway No./Name Notes
785 1851 South Eastern Railway 134
786 1851 South Eastern Railway 135
787 1851 South Eastern Railway 136 Folkstone [a]
788 1851 South Eastern Railway 137
789 1851 South Eastern Railway 138
790 1851 South Eastern Railway 139
791 1851 South Eastern Railway 140
792 1851 South Eastern Railway 141
793 1851 South Eastern Railway 142
794 1851 South Eastern Railway 143
1851 Prussian Eastern Railway England[5]
1851 Prussian Eastern Railway
1851 Prussian Eastern Railway
1851 Prussian Eastern Railway
1851 Prussian Eastern Railway
1851 Prussian Eastern Railway
1381 1862 London, Chatham and Dover Railway Coquette [b]
1382 1862 Echo
1383 1862 Flirt
1384 1862 Flora
1385 1862 Sylph

Notes:

  1. ^ The name should have read Folkestone but was misspelled on the plate. This locomotive was displayed at The Great Exhibition of 1851. [3] Bogie wheels 3 feet 6 inches (1.07 m) diameter, driving wheels 6 feet (1.83 m) diameter. Cylinders 15 by 22 inches (381 mm × 559 mm). Weight 26 long tons 5 cwt (58,800 lb or 26.7 t).[4]
  2. ^ LCDR Echo class; rebuilt as conventional 4-4-0s in 1865–1866.[6] They were not given numbers until 1874.


Built by: Bury, Curtis, and Kennedy, all 4-2-0 except Liverpool which was 6-2-0.

Works no. Date built Railway No./Name Notes
355 1848 London and North Western Railway, Southern Division 245 Liverpool [a]
 ? 1848 South Eastern Railway 68
 ? 1848 South Eastern Railway 69
 ? 1848 South Eastern Railway 72
 ? 1848 South Eastern Railway 74
 ? 1848 South Eastern Railway 75
 ? 1848 South Eastern Railway 78

Notes:

  1. ^ Liverpool, 6-2-0, built by Bury, Curtis, and Kennedy works number 355 of 1848. Driving wheels 8 feet (2.44 m) diameter, grate area 21.5 square feet (2.00 m2), heating area 2,290 square feet (213 m2), boiler pressure 120 lbf/in2 (8.4 kgf/cm2; 830 kPa), cylinders 18 by 24 inches (457 mm × 610 mm). The locomotive was awarded a Gold Medal at the Great Exhibition of 1851.[1][7][2]


Built by: E. B. Wilson and Company

Works no. Date built Railway Name/no. Notes
 ? 1847 North British Railway 55 [a]
 ? 1847 Eastern Counties Railway 108
 ? 1847 Eastern Counties Railway 109
 ? 1847 Eastern Counties Railway 110
 ? 1847 Eastern Counties Railway 111
 ? 1847 Eastern Counties Railway 112
 ? 1847 Aberdeen Railway 26
 ? 1847 Aberdeen Railway 27

Notes:

  1. ^ Hauled the Royal Train in 1850, withdrawn from service in 1907.[5]


Built by: R and W Hawthorn

Manufacturer Works no. Date built Railway Name/no. Notes
R and W Hawthorn 1006 1858 East Kent Railway Lake [a]
R and W Hawthorn 1007 1858 East Kent Railway Sondes [a]
R and W Hawthorn 1008 1858 East Kent Railway Faversham [a]
R and W Hawthorn 1009 1858 East Kent Railway Chatham [a]
R and W Hawthorn 1010 1858 East Kent Railway Sittingbourne [a]
R and W Hawthorn 1011 1858 East Kent Railway Crampton [a]

Notes:

  1. ^ a b c d e f LCDR Sondes class 4-4-0ST. Rebuilt by Kirtley as LCDR F class 2-4-0T in 1865.[8]


Built by: various builders

Builder Works no. Date built Railway Name/no. Notes
Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company 53 1846 South Eastern Railway 92 [a]
LNWR Crewe Works  ? 1847 London and North Western Railway, Northern Division 176 Courier [10]
Kitson and Company  ? 1848 Midland Railway 130
Kitson and Company  ? 1848 Midland Railway 131
Timothy Hackworth  ? 1848 London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 56
Timothy Hackworth  ? 1848 London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 58
A. Horlock & Co. 1848 Padarn Railway Fire Queen [b]
A. Horlock & Co. 1848 Padarn Railway Jenny Lind [b]
R. B. Longridge and Company  ? 1851 Great Northern Railway 200 [c]

Notes:

  1. ^ Originally built as a 2-2-2, rebuilt as a Crampton 2+2-2–0 December 1848.[9]
  2. ^ a b 0-4-0 locomotives, 4 ft (1,219 mm) gauge, Fire Queen preserved at Penrhyn Castle Railway Museum. Jenny Lind named after the opera singer, a friend of Crampton's wife Louisa.
  3. ^ Sources differ on how many Crampton locomotives Longridge built for the Great Northern Railway. Number 200 was later converted from a 4-2-0 to a conventional 2-2-2. There were nine similar 2-2-2 locomotives numbered 91-99 and it is uncertain whether these were built as 2-2-2 or whether they were converted from 4-2-0 like number 200.

Manufactured in France[edit]

Builder Works no. Date built Railway Name/no. Notes
Société Ch.Derosne et Cail 139–150 (12) 1849 Chemins de fer du Nord 122 Crampton to 133 Linné [a]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 188–199 (12) 1852 Chemins de fer de l'Est 79 Le Globe to 90 L’Amérique [b]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 219–230 (12) 1853–54 Chemins de fer du Nord 134 Pradier to 145 Van Eyck [13]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 329–340 (12) 1854 Chemin de fer de Paris à Lyon (fr) 301 to 312 [c]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 387–392 (6) 1855 Chemin de fer de Paris à Lyon (fr) 313 to 318 [d]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 414–429 (16) 1855 Chemins de fer du Nord 146 Alibert to 161 Volney [11]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 544–555 (12) 1857 Chemin de fer de Paris à Lyon (fr) 319 La France to 330 La Grèce [e]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 443 1856 Chemin de fer du Nord 162 Alma [f]
Société J.F Cail & Cie 444 1856 Chemin de fer du Nord 163 Inkerman [11]
Schneider et Cie 196–210 (15) 1856 Chemins de fer de l'Est 174 Eupatoria to 188 Taganrok [17]
André Koechlin et Cie 820–829 (10) 1864 Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée 31 Sylphie to 40 Moucheron [g]

Notes:

  1. ^ First Crampton locomotives in France.[11]
  2. ^ No. 80 Le Continent preserved in the Cité du Train.[12]
  3. ^ Became PLM 1 to 12 from 1857.[14]
  4. ^ Became PLM 13 to 18 from 1857.[14]
  5. ^ Became PLM 19 to 30 from 1857. Sold to the Chemins de fer de l'Est in 1869 as their 601 to 612.[14][15]
  6. ^ A 6-2-0 locomotive, converted to the Petiet system in the 1860s, withdrawn and scrapped in 1873.[16][11]
  7. ^ Last of 30 locomotives built for the P-L between 1855 and 1857, plus 10 locomotives built for the PLM between in 1864.[18][19]

Manufactured in Germany[edit]

Builder Works no. Date built Railway Name/no. Notes
J. A. Maffei  ?–? (4) 1853 Pfälzische Eisenbahnen 26 to 29 [a][b]
Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Karlsruhe  ?–? (2) 1854 Baden State Railway 67 Adler and 68 Falke [c]
Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Karlsruhe  ?–? (8) 1854–56 Baden State Railway 69 Comet to 78 Basel [c]
Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Karlsruhe  ?–? (8) 1854–56 Baden State Railway 69 Adler to 78 Falke [c]
Maschinenfabrik Esslingen  ?–? (14) 1855–63 Pfälzische Eisenbahnen 36–41, 46–49, 60–63 [a]
Hauptwerkstätte Karlsruhe  ?–? (3) 1856 Baden State Railway 1, 2, and 4 [d]
J. A. Maffei  ?–? (12) 1857–58 Bayerische Ostbahn A1 to A12 [e]
Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Karlsruhe  ?–? (8) 1858–59 Baden State Railway Rheinfelden to Pfalz [c]
Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Karlsruhe  ?–? (8) 1863 Baden State Railway Badenia to Offenburg [c][f]

Notes:

  1. ^ a b Palatinate Railway 26 to 63 (de).
  2. ^ 1925-built replica of No. 28 Die Pfälz preserved in Neustadt/Weinstrasse Railway Museum.
  3. ^ a b c d e Baden IX (de) class locomotives.
  4. ^ Baden I c (de) class locomotives.
  5. ^ Bavarian B IX (Ostbahn). Rebuilt as 2-4-0 locomotives (1869–71)
  6. ^ Phoenix of this series in service until 1903, length 12.90 metres (42 ft 4 in), top speed 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph), weight 28½ tonnes. Preserved in the Deutsches Bundesbahn Museum, Nuremberg.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "London & North Western Railway locomotives: Introduction & pre-Ramsbottom". Steam Index. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  2. ^ a b Baxter 1978, p. 78.
  3. ^ "Crampton's Locomotive Engine, displayed at The Great Exhibition 1851". The Royal Collection: Royal Palaces, Residences and Art Collection. 
  4. ^ "The South Eastern and Chatham Railway and the London, Chatham and Dover Railway Amalgamated 1899 LOCOMOTIVES: Their Description, History, distinctive features and interest". The Percy Whitlock Trust. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  5. ^ a b "LOCOMOTIVES". Crampton Tower Museum. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  6. ^ Bradley 1960, pp. 15–16.
  7. ^ "Thomas Russell Crampton". Steam Index. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  8. ^ Bradley 1960, pp. 19–22.
  9. ^ Bradley 1963, p. 43.
  10. ^ Baxter 1978, p. 104.
  11. ^ a b c d Davies 1997, p. 9.
  12. ^ Davies 2001, p. 13.
  13. ^ Davies 1997, p. 8.
  14. ^ a b c Davies 1996, p. 34.
  15. ^ Davies 2001, p. 22.
  16. ^ "Petiet's French Experiments". The Douglas Self Site. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  17. ^ Davies 2001, pp. 15–16.
  18. ^ "The Crampton steam locomotive". tgveurofrance.com. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  19. ^ Davies 1996, p. 57.
  20. ^ "In the days when locomotives still had poetic names - the Phoenix". Deutsche Bahn Group. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 

Sources[edit]

  • Baxter, Bertram (1978). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 2A: London and North Western Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-51-6. 
  • Bradley, D. L. (1960). The Locomotives of the London, Chatham and Dover Railway. Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. 
  • Bradley, D. L. (1963). The Locomotives of the South Eastern Railway. Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. 
  • Davies, John (July 2001). Chemins de fer de l’Est Locomotive List 1839–1938 (Third ed.). Woodbridge, Queensland: Dr. John Davies. ISBN 0-646-06600-5. 
  • Davies, John (January 1997). Chemins de fer du Nord Locomotive List 1842–1938. Sunnybank, Queensland: Dr. John Davies. ISBN 0-646-30938-2. 
  • Davies, John (1996). Chemins de fer P. L. M. and Constituents Locomotive List 1829–1938. Sunnybank, Queensland: Dr. John Davies. ISBN 0-646-15102-9. 
  • Sharman, M. (1983). The Crampton Locomotive. Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-9509067-0-0. 

External links[edit]


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