digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Albania
Coat of arms of Albania

This article is part of the series:
Albanian Constitution


Original text of the Constitution
Preamble
Articles of the Constitution
I · II · III · IV · V · VI · VII · VIII · IX · X · XI · XII · XIII · XIV · XV · XVI · XVII · XVIII
Referendum
1994 · 1998

The Constitution ·
Other countries
 ·  Law Portal

The current Constitution of Albania was adopted on 28 November 1998. It defines Albania as a parliamentary republic. According to the current Constitution, the Republic of Albania has a unicameral legislature composed of 140 deputies, who elect the head of state, the President of Albania, and the Council of Ministers that consists of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Ministers.

The 1998 Constitution is divided into 18 parts which sanction a parliamentary democracy, people’s sovereignty and fundamental rights of the citizens as well as other important points. The Constitution is said to have fulfilled all the requirements for a modern European constitution.[1]

Due to political instability, Albania has had many constitutions during its short history as an independent country. Albania was initially constituted as a monarchy in 1913, briefly a republic in the 1920s, then it returned to a democratic monarchy in 1928. It later became a socialist republic until the restoration of capitalism and democracy in the 1990s.

The Kanun and the Early Constitutional Laws[edit]

Albanians have an old tradition for law and regulations. Among the old laws is the Kanun (Canon), a sort of constitution respected by majority of Albanians throughout centuries. The Code of Lekë Dukagjini, which according to some writings was codified in the 15th century, is distinguished among several Kanuns. Kanun has provided some level of self-government for the Albanians under foreign rule and thereby democracy has been exercised. According to the Kanun, important decisions are made by Conventions of the Elderly.

During the National Renaissance of the 19th century, Albanians founded the League of Prizren and in the meantime a provisional government for the Albanian-populated districts of the Ottoman Empire. The New Kanun was adopted as a program and statute for the governing bodies. This is often regarded as the beginning of the modern Albanian politics and diplomacy.

In 1913, Albania was recognized as an independent country, yet the European powers decided for a constitutional monarchy headed by a European monarch William of Albania. The Constitution adopted for this period did not have much effect partially due to the rebellions against the foreign king and partially due to World War I.

The 1913 borders arranged by European powers left more than half of the Albanian-populated territories outside Albania’s borders. However, right after World War I, Albania was in danger of being re-partitioned between Balkan countries and Italy. In opposition to this, Albanian leaders held Congress of Lushnjë at which they decided to defend the sovereignty of their country and fight against any foreign invasions. An interim constitution (officially known as Statute) sanctioning the monarchy was also passed.

During the 1920s Albania experienced political instability and rapid succession of governments. In 1924 a revolutionary group took over by force, while six months later Ahmet Zogu crushed the revolution. In 1925 an Albanian Republic was declared under a constitution “based on the French model of the Third Republic” (IPLS). The Republic had a bicameral legislature (Chamber of Deputies and Senate) that elected a President, who was head of state and of government (Council of Ministers) for a seven-year term.

Three years later, in 1928, Albania was proclaimed a democratic and parliamentary kingdom. The legislative organ consisted of one chamber, while the executive power belonged the head of state, the King, and the cabinet composed of the Prime Minister and other ministers. With the Italian fascists invading Albania in 1939, this Constitution was abolished. Fascist collaborators in Albania offered the throne to Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy, an act that heavily violated the Constitution of the Albanian Kingdom. The Quisling government established by the Italians passed a new Constitution in 1939.

The Socialist Period (1944-1991)[edit]

After the liberation of Albania from Nazi occupation, the communists established the Democratic Government of Albania. On 11 January 1946, the constitution of the People's Republic of Albania was promulgated, to which amendments were adopted in 1950. It was later replaced on 28 December 1976, by the Constitution of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.

The 1976 Constitution defined Albania as a "Socialist People's Republic" (Art. 1) and a "state of the proletarian dictatorship" (Art. 2), and in a similar manner to its predecessor entrenched the rule of the Party of Labour of Albania as the leading force in the Albanian society and "the vanguard of the working class" (Art. 3). In socialist concepts, the Constitution guaranteed basic human rights and privileges to the citizen, such as tax exemption (1976 Constitution, Art. 31). State organs, the People's Assembly as the legislative organ, the Presidium of the People's Assembly as a de facto collegial head of state, and the Council of Ministers as the executive branch were described to function in a similar way as in a parliamentary democracy. However, the actions of these organs were subject to the guidance and decisions of the Labor Party, while its organization was not defined by the Constitution. The First Secretary of the Party was Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Chairmen of the Defense Council (Art. 89).

The Return to Capitalism[edit]

The 1976 Constitution remained in effect until 1991 when a temporary basic law was passed to legalize a pluralist system and re-establish a capitalist economy in Albania. Based on this document, which defined Albania as a parliamentary republic, the new Constitution was drafted in 1998. Many drafts, such as the one proposed in 1994, failed to be ratified.

The current Constitution was ratified by a popular referendum in 1998.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Albania — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
5846 videos foundNext > 

Militant Atheism in Albania / Ateizmi Militant në Shqipëri (Documentary / Dokumentar)

The Constitution of Albania in 1976 stated that "The State recognizes no religion, and supports and carries out atheistic propaganda in order to implant a sc...

Symposium: Albania's constitutional practice - Darinka Piqani (10 November 2012, Leiden)

Lecture by Dr Darinka Piqani on Albanian constitution, constitutional practice, and EU integration; on the second day of the symposium 'Albanian language and...

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana) PART 3

Kosovo Constitution Conference march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana).

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana) PART 1

Kosovo Constitution Conference march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana).

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana) PART 5

Kosovo Constitution Conference march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana).

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana) PART 6

Kosovo Constitution Conference march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana).

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana) PART 2

Kosovo Constitution Conference march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana).

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana) Last part

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 - Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana.

Kosovo Constitution Conference - march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana) PART 4

Kosovo Constitution Conference march 2010 (Marin Barleti University Albania - Tirana).

PS: Ne referendum me 3 çështje - Vizion Plus - News - Lajme

Partia Socialiste është dakord me referendumin për imunitetin, por kërkon përfshirjen ne te edhe te tre çështjeve, për importin e plehrave si dhe marrëveshje...

5846 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Constitution of Albania" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Constitution of Albania

You can talk about Constitution of Albania with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!