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Coca leaf

Cocaleros are the coca leaf growers of Peru and Bolivia. In response to U.S.-funded attempts to eradicate and fumigate coca crops in the Chapare region of Bolivia, cocaleros joined with other grassroots indigenous organizations in the country, such as syndicated mine workers and peasants to contest the government. Evo Morales, who became president of Bolivia in 2006, is a leader of the cocalero movement in that country.[1]

The Coca plant and the War on Drugs[edit]

Coca has been cultivated for 8000 years by indigenous people in the Andes for medicinal and religious reasons. As a stimulant, it is helpful in overcoming altitude sickness in the high Andes, and can be chewed and made into tea. Other medicinal uses include pain relief, stanching blood flow, combating Malaria, Ulcers, Asthma and improving digestion.[2] It is also configured in many religious ceremonies as offerings to Apus, Inti, and the Pachamama and as a method of divination.

An herbicidal shower over a coca field

It was introduced to Europe in the 16th century but it was not until the mid 19th century that it began to be refined into cocaine. Its cultivation was prohibited by Bolivian law, except in the region of Yungas despite its affinity to the climate and land of the Chapare region. Coca crops in Chapare were thus targeted for eradication. Because coca and cocaine were being trafficked up through South and Central America to the United States, coca production in South America came to the attention of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, which, under subsequently Plan Colombia, began to fund eradication efforts across the continent. Plan Colombia sent hundreds of millions of dollars in military aid, training and equipment to Central and South American countries, thereby militarizing the region and local and national governments' responses to coca production. Cocaleros who make their livings growing and selling coca were the most negatively affected by the policies, as their crops were burned, ripped up, or sprayed with herbicide.[3] Coca producers are left with few alternatives for subsistence, and therefore call for the legalization of coca. Also the anti-drug militancy has targeted left wing guerrilla groups like the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia and gangs who are involved in the drug trade. In 1987, UMOPAR, La Unidad Móvil Policial para Áreas Rurales, was formed as an anti-narcotic counterinsurgency force in Bolivia. It received training and monetary aid from the United States Drug Enforcement Agency and led raids on coca fields and suppressed cocalero organizing.[4]

Indigenous Organizing in Bolivia[edit]

Bolivia is a multiethnic, majority indigenous country in South America. Among over three dozen Amerindian nations, the most prominent are the Quechuas, Aymaras, Chiquitanos, Guaranís, and Mojeños. White and mestizo Bolivians have traditionally held power in the country since the time of colonization. For hundreds of years indigenous people were employed by mines that exported the country's mineral wealth abroad, first to Spain and then to other parts of quickly industrializing countries such as the U.S. and Western Europe following independence in 1809.[5] In the 1980s, the Bolivian Mining Corporation closed many mines, which forced many former miners into coca production. Not only did coca farming provide a living for the ex-miners, but the turn from wage labor to farming allowed for more political organization. Many of the organizations formed during this time period such as the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia later joined forces with the Confederación Sindical Única de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia, the Confederación Sindical de Colonizadores de Bolivia to form the beginnings of the Movimiento al Socialismo, the Party of Evo Morales. Among major mobilizations since its inception, the Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Bolivia has played a part in marches for land reform, indigenous autonomy, and for a plurinational state.[6]

Cocaleros and the MAS Party[edit]

Evo Morales

Movement for Socialism - Political Instrument for the Sovereignty of the Peoples (In Spanish Movimiento al Socialismo-Instrumento Político por la Soberanía de los Pueblos) or MAS rose as a left-wing populist political organization to support the preservation of the coca plant and the cocalero economy. It grew out of and gained support from the indigenous grassroots organizations that began to coalesce following the closure of mines and the criminalization of the coca plant and indigenous cocaleros.[7] Carlos Mesa, the president of Bolivia from October 17, 2003 to June 6, 2005, presided over several controversies that mobilized the indigenous grassroots organizations against the government, notably the Bolivian Gas Conflict which drew momentum from the Cochabamba Water Wars. Both of these conflicts centered on disputes between the indigenous population and the government over control of resources, which has long defined Bolivia's relation to the so-called first world. Mesa hastily resigned, opening up the country for elections. The momentum of the MAS party led to the successful election of Evo Morales, a cocalero union organizer, with a 54% absolute majority.[8]

Cocalero Coca Leaf Spirit[edit]

In November 2012 Cocalero Coca Leaf Spirit was released. Coca leaves from Peru & Bolivia are blended with 16 other botanicals including Juniper, Guarana, Ginseng, Ginger and Green Tea.

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocalero — Please support Wikipedia.
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558 news items

Los Tiempos

eju.tv
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 04:37:30 -0700

García Linera en campaña; arremete contra opositores en foro cocalero. 22/04/2014 - 07:46 Política. EL VICEPRESIDENTE DE BOLIVIA DIJO QUE DEL GRANADO Y DORIA MEDINA QUIEREN ACABAR CON EL PROCESO DE CAMBIO PARA ...
 
Minuto 30
Thu, 27 Mar 2014 11:45:00 -0700

La Policía Antioquia en ejecución de la Operación Patria 029 y EICONIMPAC, logró ubicar y destruir un laboratorio para el procesamiento de clorhidrato de cocaína con capacidad para procesar media tonelada de droga mensual, este complejo cocalero ...
 
Andina
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:45:00 -0700

10:48. Lima, abr. 14. La erradicación de hoja de coca ilegal, la promoción de desarrollo alternativo y la seguridad están permitiendo recuperar el valle del Monzón, bastión cocalero del Alto Huallaga, sostuvo la jefa de la Comisión Nacional para el ...

Universo Canario

Universo Canario
Sat, 05 Apr 2014 04:26:55 -0700

Evo, el niño indígena, el pastor de ovejas, el dirigente cocalero, que jamás en su vida había soñado con llegar a ser la persona más importante en su país, ahora es presidente de Bolivia. Lleva una vida sencilla, aún hoy siendo jefe de Estado, que se ...
 
World War 4 Report
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 13:03:45 -0700

Yapacaní, in Santa Cruz department, borders the Chapare coca-producing region where Bolivia's President Evo Morales rose to prominence as a leader of the cocalero protest movement against UMOPAR's operations 20 years ago. As president, Morales ...
 
El Día
Thu, 24 Apr 2014 00:18:45 -0700

El presidente Evo Morales llegó al lugar pasadas las 11 de la mañana y a las 11:50 comenzó su discurso donde recordó su pasado como dirigente cocalero, su lucha contra el gobierno norteamericano, al que llamó en varias oportunidades “imperio ...

El Día

El Día
Wed, 23 Apr 2014 13:25:35 -0700

El presidente Evo Morales presentará la noche de este miércoles en Santa Cruz su libro 'Mi Vida de Orinoca al Palacio Quemado', una obra autobiográfica en la que hace un repaso detallado de su infancia, juventud, sus inicios como dirigente cocalero y ...
 
StarMedia
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 08:33:45 -0700

En declaraciones citadas por la agencia oficial ABI, Evo Morales, ex líder del movimiento cocalero boliviano, añadió que la ley es un instrumento para mejorar la lucha contra el narcotráfico, en la que el país “va bien”. El mandatario destacó en ese ...
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