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Hematology: Blood smears on a glass slide, stained and ready to be examined under the microscope.
Hematology: microscopic image of a normal blood smear. a:erythrocytes, b:neutrophil, c:eosinophil, d:lymphocyte.
Bacteriology: Agar plate with bacterial colonies.
Bacteriology: microscopic image of a mixture of two types of bacteria stained with the Gram stain.
Clinical chemistry: an automated blood chemistry analyser.
Clinical chemistry: microscopic image of crystals in urine.

Clinical pathology (US, UK, Ireland, Commonwealth, Portugal, Brazil, Italy), Laboratory Medicine (Germany, Romania, Poland, Eastern Europe), Clinical analysis (Spain) or Clinical/Medical Biology (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Austria, North and West Africa...),[1] is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissues using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology. This specialty requires a medical residency and should not be confused with Biomedical science, which is not necessarily related to medicine.

Licensing and subspecialties[edit]

The American Board of Pathology certifies clinical pathologists, and recognizes the following secondary specialties of clinical pathology:

In some countries other subspecialties fall under certified Clinical Biologists responsibility:[2]

Organization[edit]

Clinical pathologists are often medical doctors. In some countries in South-America, Europe, Africa or Asia, this specialty can be practiced by non-physicians, such as Ph.D or Pharm.D after a variable number of years of residency.

In United States of America[edit]

Clinical pathologists work in close collaboration with clinical scientists (clinical biochemists, clinical microbiologists, etc.), medical technologists, hospital administrators, and referring physicians to ensure the accuracy and optimal utilization of laboratory testing.

Clinical pathology is one of the two major divisions of pathology, the other being anatomical pathology. Often, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination sometimes known as general pathology. Similar specialties exist in veterinary pathology.

Clinical pathology is itself divided into subspecialties, the main ones being clinical chemistry, clinical hematology/blood banking, hematopathology and clinical microbiology and emerging subspecialities such as molecular diagnostics and proteomics. Many areas of clinical pathology overlap with anatomic pathology. Both can serve as medical directors of CLIA certified laboratories. This overlap includes immunoassays, flow cytometry, microbiology and cytogenetics and any assay done on tissue. Overlap between anatomic and clinical pathology is expanding to molecular diagnostics and proteomics as we move towards making the best use of new technologies for personalized medicine.[3]

In Europe[edit]

Recently, EFCCLM has chosen the name of "Laboratory medicine specialist" to define all European Clinical pathologists, regardless of their training (M.D, Ph.D or Pharm.D) .[4]

In France, Clinical Pathology is called Medical Biology ("Biologie médicale") and is practiced by both M.D.s and Pharm.Ds. The residency lasts four years. Specialists in this discipline are called "Biologiste médical" which literally translates as Clinical Biologist rather than "Clinical pathologist".[5]

Place of work[edit]

See Medical laboratory.

Tools of Clinical Pathology[edit]

Microscopes, analysers, strips, centrifugal machines...

Macroscopic examination[edit]

The visual examination of the taken liquid is a first main indication for the pathologist or the physician. The aspect of the liquid, in addition, conditions the analytical assumption of responsibility that follow and the validity of the end-results.

Microscopical examination[edit]

Microscopic analysis is an important activity of the pathologist and the laboratory assistant. They have many different colourings at their disposal (GRAM, MGG, Grocott, Ziehl-Neelsen, …). Immunofluorescence, cytochemistry, the immunocytochemistry and FISH are also used in order make a correct diagnosis.

This stage allows the pathologist to determine the character of the liquid: “normal”, tumoral, inflammatory even infectious. Indeed, microscopic examination can often determine the causal infectious agent, in general a bacterium, a mould, a yeast, or a parasite, more rarely a virus.

Analyzers[edit]

See Automated analyser.

The analysers, by the association of robotics and spectrophotometry, allowed these last decades a better reproducibility of the results of proportionings, in particular in medical biochemistry and hematology.

The companies of in vitro diagnosis henceforth try to sell chains of automats, i.e. a system allowing the automatic transfer of the tubes towards the various types of automats of the same mark. These systems can include the computer-assisted management of a serum library.

These analysers must undergo daily controls to guarantee a result just possible, one speaks about quality control. These analysers must also undergo daily, weekly and monthly maintenances.

Cultures[edit]

A big part of the examinations of clinical pathology, primarily in medical microbiology, use culture media. Those allow, for example, the description of one or several infectious agents responsible of the clinical signs.

Values known as “normal” or reference values[edit]

Detailed article: Reference range.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_pathology — Please support Wikipedia.
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90 news items

 
DARKDaily.com - Laboratory News
Wed, 02 Apr 2014 11:45:00 -0700

There's a new Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services-approved (CMS) accrediting organization for clinical laboratories. Medicare officials granted deeming status for Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) to the American Association for ...

Science Codex

Science Codex
Sun, 20 Apr 2014 09:52:30 -0700

"One concern was that this compound would be toxic," said Dr. Diego Berman, assistant professor of clinical pathology and cell biology at CUMC and a lead author. "But R55 was found to be relatively non-toxic in mouse neurons in cell culture." More ...
 
Stuff.co.nz
Sun, 20 Apr 2014 09:52:30 -0700

But in the vast majority of the population aged in their 40s, 50s and 60s, that lack of sharpness is more a function of the complexity of what their brains are dealing with ... it's more a matter of selective attention than a measure of clinical ...
 
Newswise (press release)
Thu, 27 Mar 2014 05:20:18 -0700

The department utilizes the most advanced methods for making accurate, timely diagnoses in all areas of anatomic and clinical pathology. This includes providing personalized genomic testing that guides optimal therapeutic approaches and prognosis.

DARKDaily.com - Laboratory News

DARKDaily.com - Laboratory News
Mon, 31 Mar 2014 03:07:30 -0700

Many clinical laboratories and anatomic pathology groups now recognize the new reality of the American healthcare system: less reimbursement for laboratory testing. On one hand, the fee-for-service prices for lab tests paid by government and private ...
 
Newcastle Herald
Sat, 19 Apr 2014 07:03:45 -0700

But in the vast majority of people in their 40s, 50s and 60s, that lack of sharpness is more a function of the complexity of what their brains are dealing with . . . it's more a matter of selective attention than a measure of clinical pathology." But ...
 
Helena Daily World
Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:05:54 -0700

The American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASCP) has recognized Ryan Clawson and Cassie Hargrove, both of DeWitt, and Julie Stockford, of St. Charles, as outstanding students in the Medical Laboratory Technology (MLT) program at Phillips Community ...
 
Reuters
Tue, 01 Apr 2014 23:00:00 -0700

... urologists in the highly populated new york and new jersey region. * LI path is a high-end, full-service independent anatomic and clinical pathology laboratory that serves the New York City metropolitan area Source text for Eikon: Further company ...
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