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Not to be confused with Chalice.
Mary Magdalene in cilice. Polychrome wood carving by Pedro de Mena, Church of San Miguel and San Julian, Valladolid

A cilice /ˈsɪlɨs/ was originally a garment or undergarment made of coarse cloth or animal hair (a hairshirt) worn close to the skin. It was used in some religious traditions to induce discomfort or pain as a sign of repentance and atonement.

Cilices were originally made from sackcloth or coarse animal hair so they would irritate the skin. Other features were added to make cilices more uncomfortable, such as thin wires or twigs.

In modern religious circles it simply means any device worn for the same purposes.

Etymology[edit]

The word derives from the Latin cilicium, a covering made of goat's hair from Cilicia, a Roman province in south-east Asia Minor.[1] The reputed first Scriptural use of this exact term is in the original Latin Vulgate of Psalm 35:13, "Ego autem, cum mihi molesti essent, induebar cilicio." This is translated as hair-cloth in the Douay Bible, and as sackcloth in the King James Version and the Book of Common Prayer ("But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth." in the King James Bible). Sackcloth is often mentioned in the Bible as a symbol of mourning and penance, and probably was a form of hairshirt. Sackcloth may also mean burlap. However, sackcloth in the Bible was usually made of coarse, black goat's hair.[citation needed]

Usage[edit]

Cilice of St. Louis at St. Aspais Church, Melun, France
Ivan the Terrible's cilice (16th century). The tsar wanted to die like a monk.

There is some evidence, based on analyses of both clothing represented in art and preserved skin imprint patterns at Çatalhöyük in Turkey, that the usage of the cilice predates written history. This finding has been mirrored at Göbekli Tepe, another Anatolian site, indicating the widespread manufacturing of cilices. Ian Hodder has argued that "self-injuring clothing was an essential component of the Catalhöyük culturoritual entanglement, representing 'cleansing' and 'lightness'."[2]

To show deep repentance, it was the custom in Biblical times in the Jewish religion to wear a hairshirt (sackcloth) as a sign of repentance and atonement (Genesis 37:34, 2 Samuel 3:31, Esther 4:1), but not in order to cause harm to oneself, which is forbidden in the Jewish religion. Such garments or adornments have been worn at various times in the history of the Christian faith, to mortify the flesh or as penance for adorning oneself. Being made of rough cloth, generally woven from goats' hair, and worn close to the skin, they would feel very itchy.

Thomas Becket was wearing a hairshirt when he was martyred, St. Patrick reputedly wore a cilice, Charlemagne was buried in a hairshirt, and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany, famously wore one in the Walk to Canossa during the Investiture Controversy. Prince Henry the Navigator was found to be wearing a hairshirt at the time of his death in 1460.[citation needed] They have been used for centuries in the Catholic Church as a mild form of bodily penance, like fasting. St. Francis of Assisi, St. Ignatius Loyola and St. Therese of Lisieux are known to have used them. In modern times they have been used by Mother Teresa, St. Padre Pio, and Pope Paul VI.[3] The Discalced Carmelite convent of St. Teresa in Livorno, Italy, members of Opus Dei who are celibate (about 30% of the membership), and the Franciscan Brothers and Sisters of the Immaculate Conception continue an ascetic use of the cilice.[4] According to John Allen, an American Catholic writer, its practice in the Catholic Church is "more widespread than many observers imagine".[4]

It was in common usage in monasteries and convents throughout history up until the 1960s, and has been endorsed by popes as a way of following Christ, who died in a bloody crucifixion and who gave this advice: "Let him deny himself, take up his cross daily and follow me."[5][6] Supporters say that opposition to mortification is rooted in having lost (1) the "sense of the enormity of sin" or offense against God, and the consequent penance, both interior and exterior, (2) the notions of "wounded human nature" and of concupiscence or inclination to sin, and thus the need for "spiritual battle",[7] and (3) a spirit of sacrifice for love and "supernatural ends", and not only for physical enhancement.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

Closeup of a metal cilice with inwardly-pointing tines

In Dan Brown's novel The Da Vinci Code, one of the antagonists, an albino numerary named Silas associated with the religious organization Opus Dei, wears a cilice in the form of a spiked chain around his thigh. The sensationalized depiction in the novel has been criticized for its inaccuracy in subsequent books and by Opus Dei itself, which issued a press release responding to the movie's depiction of the practice, saying "In reality, they cause a fairly low level of discomfort comparable to fasting. There is no blood, no injury, nothing to harm a person's health, nothing traumatic. If it caused any harm, the Church would not allow it."[4][3]

In Molière's play, Tartuffe, the title character is shown to be a religious hypocrite when he wears a hair shirt with the hair lining facing outward, so that it can be seen, rather than felt.

The Marvel Comics character Robbie Baldwin commissioned the creation of a suit with 612 internal spikes to represent each person who died in an explosion for which he felt responsible, so that he'd be reminded of their pain in everything he did.

In Gustave Flaubert's "The Legend of St. Julian the Hospitaler", Julian wears a hair shirt with iron spikes to do penance for his parricide.

In Flannery O'Connor's novel Wise Blood, the protagonist Hazel Motes is discovered by his landlady to be wearing a barbed wire cilice around his torso after he has blinded himself. She also finds that he has been walking miles each day with small rocks and glass in the bottom of his shoes.

In George R. R. Martin's series A Song of Ice and Fire, members of the militant branch of the Faith of the Seven known as Warrior's Sons and Poor Fellows commonly wear hair shirts. The High Septon appointed in A Feast for Crows known as the High Sparrow also wears one.

In the U.S. WGN America television series, Salem, Increase Mather is shown wearing a metal cilice in Season 1, Episodes 10 and 11.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cilice". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-06-30. 
  2. ^ Ian Hodder, "Çatalhöyük: The Leopard's Tale", Thames & Hudson, 2006.
  3. ^ a b Opus Dei and Corporal Mortification
  4. ^ a b c John Allen, Jr. Opus Dei: An Objective Look Behind the Myths and Reality of the Most Controversial Force in the Catholic Church, Double Day, 2006. pages 165, 169, 171–173.
  5. ^ Luke 9:23
  6. ^ "The Da Vinci Code, the Catholic Church and Opus Dei". Opus Dei Official Site. Retrieved 2006-11-27. 
  7. ^ "The consequences of Adam's sin for humanity". Catechism of the Catholic Church no. 405. Retrieved 2007-06-13. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cilice — Please support Wikipedia.
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407 news items

 
Metal Underground
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 13:33:45 -0800

"Truly embodying the definition of 'underground,' Portugal's Black Cilice has lurked in the shadows the past five years - or perhaps even longer, as the one-man band's history is as mysterious as he is elusive - releasing a slew of demos and splits, ...
 
WJXT Jacksonville
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 15:48:45 -0800

Reporter: COOK SAYS IT'S BEST TO CUT LIMBS FROM THE GROUPED OR USE A CILICE. IT COSTS $300 BUT IT EXTENDS 25 FEET AND IT ALLOWS YOU TO CUT TREE LIMBS FROM THE GROUND. YOU CAN ALSO USE A POWER PRUNER.
 
Daily Mail
Wed, 01 Sep 2010 17:12:31 -0700

No. Sarah is 43, single and celibate — and determined to remain so. Each night she fastens a wire chain, known as a cilice, around her upper thigh. The device has sharp prongs that dig into the skin and flesh, though generally it does not draw blood ...

Le Monde

Le Monde
Fri, 05 Dec 2014 02:46:54 -0800

Mais aussi une chemise de lin tachée de sang, le « fouet » – chaînette d'argent – et le gilet en cilice – poils de chèvre –, avec lesquels ce roi très pieux, qui aime s'asseoir à même le sol, fait pénitence sur les pas de saint François d'Assise. Un ...

Sport.cz

Sport.cz
Thu, 04 Dec 2014 06:48:45 -0800

Znovu za výrazného přispění Tomáše Berdycha si tenisté výběru Singapore Slammers připsali druhou výhru v exhibiční soutěži International Premier Tennis League. Slammers dnes v Singapuru porazili celek UEA Royals 27:25 na gamy a Berdych získal ...
 
Libération
Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:28:06 -0800

Jamais on n'était arrivé à un pareil degré de presque religieuse abnégation et je voudrais qu'un cilice et une corde reliassent ce livre. […] J'ai l'impression très nette que je ne peux le lire qu'à l'envers, et comme si je retournais contre une vitre ...

The New Republic

The New Republic
Tue, 09 Sep 2014 17:04:33 -0700

... and commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus through 'self-mortification,' beating themselves with a cord whip called a 'discipline' and wearing an uncomfortable hair shirt undergarment or even a spiked chain, called a 'cilice,' designed to break the ...
 
Entertainment Weekly
Sun, 29 Jun 2014 20:08:16 -0700

While the two men chase Mercy farther into the woods, Mary is in her room doing a spell that tightens Increase's cilice, the hooked belt that he wears around his chest to remind him of his sins. This gives Mercy enough of an advantage that she tosses ...
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