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Short musical piece that uses the chromatic scale in the beginning as well as in the distorted part at 0:35
Chromatic scale
Qualities
Number of pitch classes 12
Chromatic scale drawn as a circle: each note is equidistant from its neighbors, separated by a semitone of the same size

The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below another. On a modern piano or other equal-tempered instrument, all the semitones have the same size (100 cents). In other words, the notes of an equal-tempered chromatic scale are equally spaced. An equal-tempered chromatic scale is a nondiatonic scale having no tonic because of the symmetry of its equally spaced notes.[1]

Chromatic scale on C: full octave ascending and descending About this sound Play in equal temperament  or About this sound Play in Pythagorean tuning 

The most common conception of the chromatic scale before the 13th century was the Pythagorean chromatic scale. Due to a different tuning technique, the twelve semitones in this scale have two slightly different sizes. Thus, the scale is not perfectly symmetric. Many other tuning systems, developed in the ensuing centuries, share a similar asymmetry. Equally spaced pitches are provided only by equal temperament tuning systems, which are widely used in contemporary music.

The term chromatic derives from the Greek word chroma, meaning color. Chromatic notes are traditionally understood as harmonically inessential embellishments, shadings, or inflections of diatonic notes.

Notation[edit]

The chromatic scale may be notated in a variety of ways.

Ascending and descending:[1]

Chromatic scale ascending, notated only with sharps.
Chromatic scale descending, notated only with flats.
The harmonic chromatic scale starting on C.
The melodic chromatic scale starting on C.

The chromatic scale has no set spelling agreed upon by all. Its spelling is, however, often dependent upon major or minor key signatures and whether the scale is ascending or descending. The images above, therefore, are only examples of chromatic scale notations. As an abstract theoretical entity (that is, outside a particular musical context), the chromatic scale is usually notated such that no scale degree is used more than twice in succession (for instance G flat - G natural - G sharp).

Non-Western cultures[edit]

  • The ancient Chinese chromatic scale is called Shí-èr-lǜ. However, "it should not be imagined that this gamut ever functioned as a scale, and it is erroneous to refer to the 'Chinese chromatic scale', as some Western writers have done. The series of twelve notes known as the twelve were simply a series of fundamental notes from which scales could be constructed."[2]
  • The Indian solfège, i.e. sargam, makes up the twelve notes of the chromatic scale with respective sharps and flats.

Total chromatic[edit]

The total chromatic (or aggregate[3]) is the set of all twelve pitch classes. An array is a succession of aggregates.[3] See also: Tone row.

Tuning[edit]

In 5-limit just intonation the chromatic scale is tuned as follows, with flats higher than their enharmonic sharps:

C C D D D E E F F G G G A A A B B C
1 25/24 16/15 9/8 75/64 6/5 5/4 4/3 25/18 36/25 3/2 25/16 8/5 5/3 125/72 9/5 15/8 2

In Pythagorean tuning (3-limit just intonation) the chromatic scale is tuned as follows, with sharps higher than their enharmonic flats:

C D C D E D E F G F G A G A B A B C
1 256/243 2187/2048 9/8 32/27 19683/16384 81/64 4/3 729/512 1024/729 3/2 128/81 6561/4096 27/16 59049/32768 16/9 243/128 2

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ a b Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p.47. Seventh Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
  2. ^ Needham, Joseph (1962/2004). Science and Civilization in China, Vol. IV: Physics and Physical Technology, p.170-171. ISBN 978-0-521-05802-5.
  3. ^ a b Whittall, Arnold. 2008. The Cambridge Introduction to Serialism, p.271. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68200-8 (pbk).

External links[edit]

Recommended Reading[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatic_scale — Please support Wikipedia.
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593 news items

BU Today

BU Today
Mon, 25 Apr 2016 21:05:56 -0700

Schoenberg, the pioneering 20th-century composer who created what is known as the 12-tone method of composition, a way of manipulating a series of all 12 notes in the chromatic scale, is also credited with developing several groundbreaking theories of ...

Wauwatosa Now

Wauwatosa Now
Tue, 26 Apr 2016 07:48:45 -0700

First up is the All-City Band Festival on April 26. This Second is the Underwood spring concert at 7 p.m. Tuesday, May 17. Band students also are learning to play two different types of scales on their instruments, a major scale and a chromatic scale.

Texas Monthly (subscription)

Texas Monthly (subscription)
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 13:59:47 -0700

Trained musicians, on the other hand, tell me things like “the fingerpicked A-minor arpeggio is similar, but does not have the ascending melody on the high E-string,” and “you cannot copyright a chromatic scale and a single chord which is what Spirit ...

Houston Press

Houston Press
Wed, 20 Apr 2016 02:00:00 -0700

There are those on various fringes who claim that philosophical pitch (A432) and its corresponding chromatic scale hew closer to the mathematical structures of the golden ratio, thus lending itself to more bio-harmonic endeavors, including undoing ...

Bloomberg

Bloomberg
Mon, 11 Apr 2016 10:55:31 -0700

Even if he did, they argued, the similarity between “Stairway to Heaven” and “Taurus” was limited to a “descending chromatic scale of pitches” that have been known for centuries and are too commonplace in music to be entitled to copyright protection.

JamBase

JamBase
Fri, 08 Apr 2016 10:37:30 -0700

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Stowe Today

Stowe Today
Thu, 07 Apr 2016 03:06:35 -0700

For the auditions, instrumentalists need only memorize a few scales, including the chromatic scale — every note possible to play on the instrument — and a couple of other scales, both the sharp and flat versions. The festivals also have an audition ...

Gadsden State News

Gadsden State News
Mon, 04 Apr 2016 15:02:25 -0700

Those who audition must have a prepared performance pieces. They will also be tested on major scales, the chromatic scale and sight reading. Drummers should be able to demonstrate a variety of styles, including bossa nova, swing, funk, rock and ballad.
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