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Chromatic scale
Number of pitch classes 12
Chromatic scale drawn as a circle: each note is equidistant from its neighbors, separated by a semitone of the same size.

The chromatic scale is a musical scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone above or below another. On a modern piano or other equal-tempered instrument, all the semitones are the same size (100 cents). In other words, the notes of an equal-tempered chromatic scale are equally spaced. An equal-tempered chromatic scale is a nondiatonic scale having no tonic because of the symmetry of its equally spaced notes.[1]

Chromatic scale on C: full octave ascending and descending About this sound Play in equal temperament  or About this sound Play in Pythagorean tuning .

The most common conception of the chromatic scale before the 13th century was the Pythagorean chromatic scale. Due to a different tuning technique, the twelve semitones in this scale have two slightly different sizes. Thus, the scale is not perfectly symmetric. Many other tuning systems, developed in the ensuing centuries, share a similar asymmetry. Equally spaced pitches are provided only by equal temperament tuning systems, which are widely used in contemporary music.

The term chromatic derives from the Greek word chroma, meaning color. Chromatic notes are traditionally understood as harmonically inessential embellishments, shadings, or inflections of diatonic notes.


The chromatic scale may be notated in a variety of ways.

Ascending and descending:[1]

Chromatic scale ascending, notated only with sharps.
Chromatic scale descending, notated only with flats.
The harmonic chromatic scale starting on C.
The melodic chromatic scale starting on C.

The chromatic scale has no set spelling agreed upon by all. Its spelling is, however, often dependent upon major or minor key signatures and whether the scale is ascending or descending. The images above, therefore, are only examples of chromatic scale notations. As an abstract theoretical entity (that is, outside a particular musical context), the chromatic scale is usually notated such that no scale degree is used more than twice in succession (for instance G flat - G natural - G sharp).

Non-Western cultures[edit]

  • The ancient Chinese chromatic scale is called Shí-èr-lǜ. However, "it should not be imagined that this gamut ever functioned as a scale, and it is erroneous to refer to the 'Chinese chromatic scale', as some Western writers have done. The series of twelve notes known as the twelve were simply a series of fundamental notes from which scales could be constructed."[2]
  • The Indian solfège, i.e. sargam, makes up the twelve notes of the chromatic scale with respective sharps and flats.

Total chromatic[edit]

The total chromatic (or aggregate[3]) is the set of all twelve pitch classes. An array is a succession of aggregates.[3] See also: Tone row.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p.47. Seventh Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0.
  2. ^ Needham, Joseph (1962/2004). Science and Civilization in China, Vol. IV: Physics and Physical Technology, p.170-171. ISBN 978-0-521-05802-5.
  3. ^ a b Whittall, Arnold. 2008. The Cambridge Introduction to Serialism, p.271. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68200-8 (pbk).

External links[edit]

Recommended Reading[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromatic_scale — Please support Wikipedia.
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6 news items

Daily Press (blog)
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 12:30:00 -0700

This form forces the composer to use all 12 notes of the chromatic scale in a non-repetitive order, abandoning the convention of a consistent key and challenging the composer to create something harmonic out of the atonal dissonance. When this ...
Santa Fe New Mexican.com
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 03:52:30 -0700

The 12 principal pitches are the notes of the ascending chromatic scale, and the movements are organized in precisely that order, respectively focusing on C, C-sharp, D, and so on up to B. This reflects the chromatic concerns of dozens of 18th- and ...

Bangkok Post

Bangkok Post
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 17:11:15 -0700

The ground-breaking development section of the galloping finale began with an in-tune BSO as it hurtled in unison through all 12 notes of the chromatic scale save, of course, the tonic. G-natural itself had the last word as emphatically ringing open ...

The Aerogram

The Aerogram
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 02:19:41 -0700

One big difference between “It's My Birthday” and those Here, the entire song uses Indian chromatic scale.other tracks is that those earlier tracks used Indian samples as a leitmotif in support of what were fundamentally R&B/blues-based melodies and ...
Smithsonian (blog)
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 07:57:55 -0700

With the Thelonious Monk book, I play the music and work with kids in a group to create a color wheel and show how the wheel can be mapped on a 12-tone chromatic scale. I definitely always try to get kids moving and doing something. The Sun Ra book ...
Monday Mag
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:18:45 -0700

It's still early morning in Japan, and I'm pretty sure hearing a flawless chromatic scale on the mouth organ from the hotel room next door, following by some blues and tango, is the coolest way to wake up. Powers got his first harmonica as a Christmas ...

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