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|Chinese bird spider|
Chinese bird spider is an English name given to several species of old-world tarantulas which are found in China and Vietnam. This spider, also known in English as the earth tiger, is currently classified in the genus Haplopelma.
Previously, different species have been variously classified as Ornithoctonus huwena, (虎紋捕鳥蛛 hǔ wén bǔ nǐao zhū, tiger striped bird capturing spider), Selenocosmia huwena and Haplopelma hainanum ("Hai nan" refers to Hainan Island).
The binomial name Haplopelma schmidti may turn out to have precedence; the name Haplopelma hainanum is used for a spider found in Vietnam that may belong to the same species. This article treats H. schmidti as a separate species.
The name Chinese bird spider includes several different species:
- "H. huwenum" (Wang, Peng & Xie, 1993),  the golden earth tiger, is primarily found in mainland China (in Guangxi and Yunnan provincs). This spider is golden-brown in colour with transverse black stripes. It was synonymized with H. schmidti in 2008.
- H. hainanum (Liang et al., 1999), the black earth tiger, is primarily found on Hainan Island, off the southeastern coast of China. As the name suggests, this spider's colouration ranges from dark brown to black.
- H. schmidti(Von Wirth, 1991)  is found in Vietnam. Haplopelma schmidti has transverse black and red stripes, i.e., "tiger stripes".
All three spiders (like tarantulas in general) are frequently kept by collectors and as pets; though the Chinese bird spiders have a reputation in the pet trade for being difficult to care for.
The Chinese bird spider is a large species, with a typical legspan of up to 7 inches.
Distribution and habitat
These spiders live in the tropical rain forests of southern China and Vietnam.
These tarantulas build and live in burrows up to nearly 1 metre deep, emerging to capture food. The bird spiders prey on numerous small insects and other creatures, such as cockroaches, crickets and mice. The Chinese bird spider is rather aggressive, and can bite humans if disturbed.
Its venom is the subject of much toxicology research, and while the effects of this spider's bite on man are not well documented it is frequently lethal in small doses to laboratory animals such as mice and rats. As a result, the Chinese bird spider is generally regarded as a highly venomous species. The venom is a complex neurotoxin, containing numerous compounds capable of blocking neurotransmitters. (See also: Spiders having medically significant venom.)
- H. huwenum at Catalogue of life
- H. hainanum at Catalogue of life
- H. schmidti at Catalogue of life
- "Purification and characterization of Hainantoxin-V, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel inhibitor from the venom of the spider Selenocosmia hainana", Toxicon 41 (6), May 2003: 643–650, doi:10.1016/s0041-0101(02)00280-5
- Platnick, Norman I. (2009): The world spider catalog, version 9.5. American Museum of Natural History.
- Haplopelma schmidti yellow form, Haplopelma schmidti dark form - huwenum and more Haplopelma (Ornithoctonus) species in tarantulas gallery.
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