digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

This article is about the biography. For the film, see Xica da Silva.

Chica da Silva,[1] sometimes written as Xica da Silva (Francisca da Silva de Oliveira, c. 1732-1796) was a Brazilian woman who became famous for becoming rich and powerful despite having been born into slavery. Her life has been a source of inspiration for many works in television, films, theater and literature. She is popularly known as the slave who became a queen.[2]

Biography[edit]

Francisca da Silva de Oliveira was born in Vila do Príncipe (nowadays Serro), in the north of the state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. She lived mainly in Arraial do Tijuco (nowadays known as Diamantina) and was the daughter of a Portuguese man, Antônio Caetano de Sá and his black enslaved lover, Maria da Costa, who was probably from the Gulf of Guinea or Bahia. Francisca's first master was Sergeant Manuel Pires Sardinha, with whom she had two sons: Plácido Pires Sardinha and Simão Pires Sardinha, both of whom studied at the University of Coimbra, in Portugal. Francisca's second master was Priest Rolim (José da Silva Oliveira), who was forced to sell Chica to João Fernandes de Oliveira, a diamond mine owner and mining Governor of Arraial do Tijuco, one of the richest persons of Colonial Brazil.

Francisca and João soon started a romance and she was freed by him. Even though they were not officially married, the couple lived together for several years and had 13 children: Francisca de Paula (1755); João Fernandes (1756); Rita (1757); Joaquim (1759); Antonio Caetano (1761); Ana (1762); Helena (1763); Luiza (1764); Antônia (1765); Maria (1766); Quitéria Rita (1767); Mariana (1769); José Agostinho Fernandes (1770).

In 1770, João Fernandes had to return to Portugal and took along with him the 4 sons he had with Chica, who were granted noble titles by the Portuguese Court. Their daughters remained with Chica in Brazil and were sent to then renowned Convent of Macaúbas. Even after the departure of João to Portugal, Chica retained her prestige. She was a member of the São Francisco do Carmo Brotherhood (exclusive to whites), Mercês Brotherhood (exclusive to mulattaoes) and of Rosário Brotherhood (exclusive to Africans).

Chica da Silva died in 1796. She was buried at the Church of São Francisco de Assis, a privilege that only wealthy whites enjoyed.

The myth[edit]

Chica was a symbol of Brazil's so called "racial democracy."[citation needed] Currently, however, scholars maintain that she used miscegenation and her connections as a tool to achieve a higher social status, as did other African Brazilians at the time. Historian Júnia Ferreira Furtado sustains that concubinage and marriage between white male and black female in colonial Brazilian society was a way found by the enslaved to change their social position and to escape racism[citation needed]:

Manumission, rather than the beginning for the formation of a positive black identity, was the beginning of a process of acceptance of values of the elite, in order to insert them (former slaves) as well as their descendants in this society.[3]

Sex was decisive to the relative facilitated access to freedom and concubinage with white men offered advantages to black women because, once free, they reduced the stigma of color and of slavery for them and for their descendants.[4]

João Fernandes and Chica da Silva's relationship was a scandal in colonial Brazilian society. Chica da Silva, formerly enslaved, had become one of the most powerful women in colonial America[citation needed]. Chica was banished from the parish church, which was reserved for Caucasians only. To show the locals Chica's power, João Fernandes built a luxurious church attended just by herself. However, as Furtado discloses, Chica attended brotherhoods exclusive to whites, as a way to try to fit into the status quo and be aware of its schemes against her and her people.

Contrary to what was propagated,[citation needed] Chica also had enslaved workers and there is only one reference that shows that she granted freedom to one of them. Historians view this as the main difference between the experience of Africans in Brazil and their counterparts in the United States[citation needed]. While in the US, African American formerly enslaved individuals had a more unified movement, in Brazil they tried to integrate into white society as mixed-race people saw that "whitening" themselves was a way to escape from their enslaved past.[citation needed] Although the enslaved didn't have any choice if the master or mistress decided to use them as sex objects, some were able to use the situation, especially in regard to their offsprings who were part European. The colonial Portuguese mentality was also more tolerant than the US Anglo-Saxon one on race when it had to do with their mixed-race offsprings. Whereas Anglo-Saxon slave holders forced their own race-mixed offsprings into slavery and sold them to other masters as well, making a profit from them, Luso-Brazilians generally freed[citation needed] their own mixed-race children and often granted them nobility titles. This happened perhaps because of the lack of Portuguese women that migrated to Brazil[citation needed].

Chica, as the other freed female slaves, achieved her freedom, loved, had children and raised them up socially sought to reduce the mark that the condition[citation needed] of Parda (brown) and former slave had to herself and to her descendants.[5]

Works[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cheney, Glenn Alan, Journey on the Estrada Real: Encounters in the Mountains of Brazil, (Xicago: Academy Xicago, 2004) ISBN 0-89733-530-9
  • Ferreira Furtado, Júnia . Chica da Silva e o contratador de diamantes: o outro lado do mito, (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2003).
  • Ferreira Furtado, Júnia. Chica da Silva: A Brazilian Slave of the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2009). (Translation of Chica da Silva e o contratador de diamantes.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chica_da_Silva — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
63427 videos foundNext > 

Xica da Silva (cap 1 completo)

una de mis novelas favoritas espero que la vean. mas alla que ya esta . pero aca esta completa espero que les gute y lo disfruten.. si tengo buenas respuesta...

XICA DA SILVA (CAP 16-COMPLETA)

Filme - Xica da Silva (1976)

Cinema Nacional.

XICA DA SILVA (CAP 21-COMPLETO)

XICA DA SILVA: Xica se diverte ao ver todos aos seus pés por causa de água

XICA DA SILVA: Xica se diverte ao ver todos aos seus pés por causa de água, Começous a vingança de Xica ( Taís Araújo)

Xica da Silva - Capitulo 141

Xica Da Silva Cap 124/1

Obscuridad en este episodio. Isabel se pasa al lado obscuro. Ursula sigue ensenando sus obscuras clases. Joaquina muestra su lado mas obscuro...

Xica Da Silva (Capítulo Final)

Xica da Silva es una telenovela brasileña, emitida en el año 1996/97. Protagonizada por Tais Araujo y Victor Wagner. Visita mi Facebook para ver más telenove...

XICA DA SILVA SIN CENSURA

Xica Da Silva Cap 91-4(360p)

63427 videos foundNext > 

247 news items

Globo.com

Globo.com
Wed, 26 Nov 2014 07:30:06 -0800

De Dandara a Chica da Silva, a Mãe Menininha do Gantoá. Mulheres que não se deixaram abater ou vencer pelo preconceito. A Mangueira vai mostrar sua força com Suluca, irmã do lendário mestre-sala Delegado, Guezinha, filha de uma “mulher de ...

Globo.com

Globo.com
Mon, 01 Dec 2014 14:17:19 -0800

Também foi o Salgueiro que contou a história de Chica da Silva em 1963, e de Chico Rei, em 1964. Para Costa, as escolas de samba começaram a ter sua linguagem. Também foi o Salgueiro, em 1965, que contou a história do carnaval carioca ...

Globo.com

Globo.com
Mon, 24 Nov 2014 09:20:46 -0800

Na UFMG, uma caloura foi pintada com tinta marrom, enrolada em uma corrente e chamada "Chica da Silva" em 2013. Na UFPR, em 2012, os veteranos do curso de Direito distribuíram um manual de sobrevivência dos calouros ensinando "como se dar bem ...

Correio do Brasil

Correio do Brasil
Mon, 09 Jun 2014 12:33:44 -0700

Não é de hoje que a Igreja Católica condena o uso de preservativo ou camisinha e a prática do sexo que não seja com o fim exclusivo de procriação. Uma luta que, se não se pode chamar de vã, pelo menos se tem mostrado como praticamente impossível ...

SRZD

SRZD
Fri, 28 Nov 2014 11:59:37 -0800

Com todo respeito e admiração que tenho ao Pamplona, reafirmo que esse desfile emblemático do Salgueiro em 1963, que eternizou Isabel Valença como a escrava que se tornou uma dama, Chica da Silva, foi concebido e desenvolvido por Arlindo ...

Purepeople.com.br

Purepeople.com.br
Wed, 23 Oct 2013 13:20:23 -0700

Cris Vianna entrou em estúdio nesta quarta-feira (23) para dar vida a uma das personagens mais populares na história do Brasil: Chica da Silva. A atriz participou da gravação da 3ª edição dos "Heróis de Todo Mundo", série idealizada e dirigida por Luiz ...

SPIN

SPIN
Mon, 18 Nov 2013 05:06:18 -0800

... to Agidir," "El Lute," "Consuela Biaz," and the Jorge Ben cover "Chica Da Silva" chronicled strife, exodus, and triumph among the underclasses of Ireland, Morocco, Spain, the Dominican Republic, and Brazil, though beneath the music's breeze and ...

Estado de Minas

O Tempo
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 16:30:19 -0700

Na outra, uma estudante pintada de preto aparece acorrentada por um veterano com a inscrição "Caloura Chica da Silva”. Em seu parecer, a comissão observou que as imagens “são repulsivas e remontam a situações simbólicas de discriminação histórica, ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight