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This article is about the biography. For the film, see Xica da Silva.

Chica da Silva,[1] sometimes written as Xica da Silva (Francisca da Silva de Oliveira, c. 1732-1796) was a Brazilian woman who became famous for becoming rich and powerful despite having been born into slavery. Her life has been a source of inspiration for many works in television, films, theater and literature. She is popularly known as the slave who became a queen.[2]

Biography[edit]

Francisca da Silva de Oliveira was born in Vila do Príncipe (nowadays Serro), in the north of the state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. She lived mainly in Arraial do Tijuco (nowadays known as Diamantina) and was the daughter of a Portuguese man, Antônio Caetano de Sá and his black enslaved lover, Maria da Costa, who was probably from the Gulf of Guinea or Bahia. Francisca's first master was Sergeant Manuel Pires Sardinha, with whom she had two sons: Plácido Pires Sardinha and Simão Pires Sardinha, both of whom studied at the University of Coimbra, in Portugal. Francisca's second master was Priest Rolim (José da Silva Oliveira), who was forced to sell Chica to João Fernandes de Oliveira, a diamond mine owner and mining Governor of Arraial do Tijuco, one of the richest persons of Colonial Brazil.

Francisca and João soon started a romance and she was freed by him. Even though they were not officially married, the couple lived together for several years and had 13 children: Francisca de Paula (1755); João Fernandes (1756); Rita (1757); Joaquim (1759); Antonio Caetano (1761); Ana (1762); Helena (1763); Luiza (1764); Antônia (1765); Maria (1766); Quitéria Rita (1767); Mariana (1769); José Agostinho Fernandes (1770).

In 1770, João Fernandes had to return to Portugal and took along with him the 4 sons he had with Chica, who were granted noble titles by the Portuguese Court. Their daughters remained with Chica in Brazil and were sent to then renowned Convent of Macaúbas. Even after the departure of João to Portugal, Chica retained her prestige. She was a member of the São Francisco do Carmo Brotherhood (exclusive to whites), Mercês Brotherhood (exclusive to mulattaoes) and of Rosário Brotherhood (exclusive to Africans).

Chica da Silva died in 1796. She was buried at the Church of São Francisco de Assis, a privilege that only wealthy whites enjoyed.

The myth[edit]

Chica was a symbol of Brazil's so called "racial democracy."[citation needed] Currently, however, scholars maintain that she used miscegenation and her connections as a tool to achieve a higher social status, as did other African Brazilians at the time. Historian Júnia Ferreira Furtado sustains that concubinage and marriage between white male and black female in colonial Brazilian society was a way found by the enslaved to change their social position and to escape racism[citation needed]:

Manumission, rather than the beginning for the formation of a positive black identity, was the beginning of a process of acceptance of values of the elite, in order to insert them (former slaves) as well as their descendants in this society.[3]

Sex was decisive to the relative facilitated access to freedom and concubinage with white men offered advantages to black women because, once free, they reduced the stigma of color and of slavery for them and for their descendants.[4]

João Fernandes and Chica da Silva's relationship was a scandal in colonial Brazilian society. Chica da Silva, formerly enslaved, had become one of the most powerful women in colonial America[citation needed]. Chica was banished from the parish church, which was reserved for Caucasians only. To show the locals Chica's power, João Fernandes built a luxurious church attended just by herself. However, as Furtado discloses, Chica attended brotherhoods exclusive to whites, as a way to try to fit into the status quo and be aware of its schemes against her and her people.

Contrary to what was propagated,[citation needed] Chica also owned slaves, and is only known to have freed one of them. Historians view this as the main difference between the experience of Africans in Brazil and their counterparts in the United States[citation needed]. While in the US, African-American former slaves had a more unified movement, in Brazil they tried to integrate into white society as mixed-race people saw that "whitening" themselves was a way to escape from their slave past.[citation needed] Although slaves didn't have any choice if the master or mistress decided to use them as sex objects, some were able to use the situation, especially in regard to their offsprings who were part European. The colonial Portuguese mentality was also more tolerant than the US Anglo-Saxon one on race when it had to do with their mixed-race offsprings. Whereas Anglo-Saxon slave holders forced their own race-mixed offsprings into slavery and sold them to other masters as well, making a profit from them, Luso-Brazilians generally freed[citation needed] their own mixed-race children and often granted them nobility titles. This happened perhaps because of the lack of Portuguese women that migrated to Brazil[citation needed].

Chica, as the other freed female slaves, achieved her freedom, loved, had children and raised them up socially sought to reduce the mark that the condition[citation needed] of Parda (brown) and former slave had to herself and to her descendants.[5]

Works[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cheney, Glenn Alan, Journey on the Estrada Real: Encounters in the Mountains of Brazil, (Xicago: Academy Xicago, 2004) ISBN 0-89733-530-9
  • Ferreira Furtado, Júnia . Chica da Silva e o contratador de diamantes: o outro lado do mito, (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2003).
  • Ferreira Furtado, Júnia. Chica da Silva: A Brazilian Slave of the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2009). (Translation of Chica da Silva e o contratador de diamantes.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chica_da_Silva — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
62238 videos foundNext > 

Xica da Silva (cap 1 completo)

una de mis novelas favoritas espero que la vean. mas alla que ya esta . pero aca esta completa espero que les gute y lo disfruten.. si tengo buenas respuestas de este video subire las que faltan.....

Xica Da Silva Cap 32 - 2 (480p)

Todo Xica da Silva!!!, SUBSCRIBETE!! Otros videos populares! Aquí Calafate, Jose Maria hace una joda a Zaira Nara! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWGgahm5E_8&feature=plcp Marco A. Denegri ...

XICA DA SILVA (CAP 21-COMPLETO)

Xica Da Silva Cap 124/1

Obscuridad en este episodio. Isabel se pasa al lado obscuro. Ursula sigue ensenando sus obscuras clases. Joaquina muestra su lado mas obscuro...

Novela Xica da Silva - Capítulo 1

Novela Xica da Silva.

XICA DA SILVA: Xica se diverte ao ver todos aos seus pés por causa de água

XICA DA SILVA: Xica se diverte ao ver todos aos seus pés por causa de água, Começous a vingança de Xica ( Taís Araújo)

Xica Da Silva (Capítulo Final)

Xica da Silva es una telenovela brasileña, emitida en el año 1996/97. Protagonizada por Tais Araujo y Victor Wagner. Visita mi Facebook para ver más telenovelas https://www.facebook.com/tustele...

Novela Xica da Silva - Capítulo 11

Novela Xica da Silva.

Filme - Xica da Silva (1976) TVRip

Cinema Nacional.

Xica da Silva - Capitulo 164 (ultimos capitulos)

62238 videos foundNext > 

250 news items

 
kpfa 94.1fm
Mon, 16 Mar 2015 08:00:00 -0700

Ever heard of Queen Nanny of the Maroons or Chica da Silva? Bee Quammie profiles five Black women in history everyone should know. Then we talk with Joan C. Williams, founding director of the UC Hastings Center for Work Life Law about her new study, ...
 
Clic Folha
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 17:45:00 -0700

Ele é capaz de enfiar qualquer verso a serviço de sua concepção rítmica: 'Chica da, Chica da, Chica da Silva'. E enfim, sua dignidade de ser solidário.” Há para muitos o Jorge AG e o Jorge DG, antes e depois da guitarra. Depois de fazer grandes discos ...
 
Jornal Mundo Lusíada
Mon, 23 Mar 2015 13:15:00 -0700

... Barrocas Matrizes: Identidades Urbanas, Arquitetura, Artes e Legados; Paralelos biográficos: o Marquês de Pombal e Chica da Silva; Universos Literários: a História pelas Lentes dos Historiadores e dos Jornalistas; Sons e Imagens: Narrativas ...
 
Tribuna do Norte - Natal
Thu, 19 Mar 2015 08:00:00 -0700

Protagonizar ''Escrava Mãe” tem um sabor especial para Gabriela Moreyra. E isso não se resume ao peso da responsabilidade de encarar um personagem-título de uma novela. A atriz de 26 anos comemora a positiva e gradativa trajetória que conquistou ...
 
ElTiempo.com
Sun, 08 Mar 2015 08:54:14 -0700

Lo marcó con un remate de talón dentro del área chica. Da Silva descontó 3-2 al 46 con un remate de cabeza dentro de área chica regiomantana. Con este resultado, el Monterrey del técnico argentino Antonio Mohamed llegó a 10 puntos mientras que el ...
 
Diário do Grande ABC
Tue, 24 Feb 2015 19:00:00 -0800

O sambista aguentou os temas Inconfidência, Abolição, Proclamação, Chica da Silva. Mas, quando o tema foi A Atual Conjuntura, o crioulo endoidou de vez. Um comerciante foi assaltado por cinco bandidos armados, em Cubatão, no litoral de São Paulo.

UAI

UAI
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 11:13:06 -0800

Em uma das imagens, uma aluna estava com o corpo coberto por tinta preta e com as mãos atadas, carregando uma placa onde se podia ler "caloura Chica da Silva", em referência à icônica escrava brasileira que viveu na cidade mineira de Diamantina.

Foreign Affairs

Foreign Affairs
Tue, 17 Feb 2015 11:14:47 -0800

We had African-Brazilians in the nobility, as the Viscount of Jequitinhonha, we had female slaves that became part of the nobility, as Chica da Silva so we do not compare to the US in nothing about race and less than 5% of our population is 100 ...
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