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In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories.

A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form of work-up procedure before the final product is isolated.[1] The amount of product in a chemical synthesis is the reaction yield. Typically, chemical yields are expressed as a weight in grams or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity of product that could be produced. A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place that diminishes the yield of the desired product.

The word synthesis in the present day meaning was first used by the chemist Hermann Kolbe.

Strategies[edit]

Many strategies exist in chemical synthesis that go beyond converting reactant A to reaction product B. In cascade reactions multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant, in multi-component reactions up to 11 different reactants form a single reaction product and in a telescopic synthesis one reactant goes through multiple transformations without isolation of intermediates.

Organic synthesis[edit]

Main article: Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis dealing with the synthesis of organic compounds. In the total synthesis of a complex product it may take multiple steps to synthesize the product of interest, and inordinate amounts of time. Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as Robert Burns Woodward the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds and yields something new, it is a purely synthetic process. If it starts from a product isolated from plants or animals and then proceeds to new compounds, the synthesis is described as a semisynthetic process.

Other meanings[edit]

The other meaning of chemical synthesis is narrow and restricted to a specific kind of chemical reaction, a direct combination reaction, in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product. The general form of a direct combination reaction is:

A + B → AB

where A and B are elements or compounds, and AB is a compound consisting of A and B. Examples of combination reactions include:

2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl (formation of table salt)
S + O2SO2 (formation of sulfur dioxide)
4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 (iron rusting)
CO2 + H2OH2CO3 (carbon dioxide dissolving and reacting with water to form carbonic acid)

4 special synthesis rules:

metal-oxide + H2O → metal(OH)
non-metal-oxide + H2O → oxi-acid
metal-chloride + O2 → metal-chlorate
metal-oxide + CO2 → metal carbonate (CO3)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vogel, A.I., Tatchell, A.R., Furnis, B.S., Hannaford, A.J. and P.W.G. Smith. Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall, 1996. ISBN 0-582-46236-3.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_synthesis — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

70 news items

 
News-Medical.net
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 12:07:30 -0700

However, chemical synthesis is not the only challenge. These proteins must also be folded into their proper three-dimensional shapes. Dr. Kay continues, "Larger, more complex proteins often rely on chaperones to prevent misfolding and produce ...

AZoNano.com

AZoNano.com
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:30:00 -0700

Maye says the goal of the NSF project is three-fold: to develop "wet-chemical" synthesis strategies to prepare the alloy nanomaterials; to understand their oxidation and phase behavior; and to use such behavior to construct novel structures. "We're ...
 
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Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:26:15 -0700

The Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters has announced Cortellis Clinical Trials Intelligence, its global clinical-drug-trial intelligence database, marked an industry-first milestone with the documentation of more than 180,000 ...
 
Knowledgespeak
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:26:15 -0700

The Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters has announced Cortellis Clinical Trials Intelligence, its global clinical-drug-trial intelligence database, marked an industry-first milestone with the documentation of more than 180,000 ...
 
Nature.com
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:06:06 -0700

Its research involves chemical synthesis, molecular genetics, mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy, as well as a proprietary flow cell assay that better represents physiological conditions by using liquid flow rather than stagnant broth ...
 
Slate Magazine
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 05:00:00 -0700

The automation of the chemical synthesis of DNA. That's the next big aim. What's going to drive synthetic biology is cheap, accurate DNA synthesis. And not just short stretches of DNA known as oligonucleotides, but possibly entire genes. If you can do ...
 
Financial Times
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 08:22:30 -0700

At the same time robotic techniques are transforming chemical synthesis, enabling researchers to make and test large numbers of compounds simultaneously. He admits that techniques such as “high-throughput screening” and “combinatorial chemistry” were ...
 
Main Line
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 01:15:00 -0700

It is used commercially for fumigation, electroplating, mining, chemical synthesis, and the production of synthetic fibers, plastics, dyes, and pesticides. Hydrogen cyanide (AC) gas has a distinctive bitter almond odor (others describe a musty 'old ...
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