digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories.

A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form of work-up procedure before the final product is isolated.[1] The amount of product in a chemical synthesis is the reaction yield. Typically, chemical yields are expressed as a weight in grams or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity of product that could be produced. A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place that diminishes the yield of the desired product.

The word synthesis in the present day meaning was first used by the chemist Hermann Kolbe.

Strategies[edit]

Many strategies exist in chemical synthesis that go beyond converting reactant A to reaction product B. In cascade reactions multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant, in multi-component reactions up to 11 different reactants form a single reaction product and in a telescopic synthesis one reactant goes through multiple transformations without isolation of intermediates.

Organic synthesis[edit]

Main article: Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis dealing with the synthesis of organic compounds. In the total synthesis of a complex product it may take multiple steps to synthesize the product of interest, and inordinate amounts of time. Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as Robert Burns Woodward the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds and yields something new, it is a purely synthetic process. If it starts from a product isolated from plants or animals and then proceeds to new compounds, the synthesis is described as a semisynthetic process.

Other meanings[edit]

The other meaning of chemical synthesis is narrow and restricted to a specific kind of chemical reaction, a direct combination reaction, in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product. The general form of a direct combination reaction is:

A + B → AB

where A and B are elements or compounds, and AB is a compound consisting of A and B. Examples of combination reactions include:

2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl (formation of table salt)
S + O2SO2 (formation of sulfur dioxide)
4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 (iron rusting)
CO2 + H2OH2CO3 (carbon dioxide dissolving and reacting with water to form carbonic acid)

4 special synthesis rules:

metal-oxide + H2O → metal(OH)
non-metal-oxide + H2O → oxi-acid
metal-chloride + O2 → metal-chlorate
metal-oxide + CO2 → metal carbonate (CO3)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vogel, A.I., Tatchell, A.R., Furnis, B.S., Hannaford, A.J. and P.W.G. Smith. Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall, 1996. ISBN 0-582-46236-3.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_synthesis — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
393007 videos foundNext > 

Organic Chemistry: Synthesis of DMC

In this video, a useful dehydrating agent (DMC) is synthesized via the reaction of 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone and phthaloyl chloride. Air-free techniques...

Synthesis Reactions

Describes the basics of synthesis reactions, how to identify them, predict the product and balance the chemical equation. Two examples are also shown, synthe...

Block Spotlight - Chemical Synthesis Machine

Minechem: ljdp http://www.minecraftforum.net/topic/988773-11-minechem-v15/ If you would like to see more of my stuff be sure to follow me both here and on tw...

Less Hazardous Synthesis - Green Chemistry Principle #3

The Green Chemistry Initiative shows that choosing a less hazardous synthetic route to make any molecule can make a big impact. In this video, we talk about ...

The Implications of Oligonucleotide Synthesis : Chemistry Concepts

Subscribe Now: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=ehoweducation Watch More: http://www.youtube.com/ehoweducation The implications of oligonu...

Chemical Synthesis Without Round Bottom Flask With Synthesis Workstation

http://mt.com/Synthesis-Workstation Chemical synthesis is performed without a round bottom flask with synthesis workstations. OptiMax synthesis workstation r...

Synthesis of Phenylacetylene

Phenylacetylene is prepared from styrene dibromide in 59.9% yield by a double dehydrobromination utilizing high temperature NaOH in glycerol. The product dis...

Organic chemistry: Synthesis problems (1)

Organic chemistry: Single- and multi-step synthesis problems. (First-semester final exam review session) This is a recording of a tutoring session, posted wi...

Chemical Synthesis - Final Fantasy

Chemical Synthesis - Final Fantasy - 1999.

Chemical Synthesis - Battle Zone

Chemical Synthesis - Final Fantasy - 1999.

393007 videos foundNext > 

1308 news items

Chemistry World

Chemistry World
Sun, 07 Sep 2014 10:16:14 -0700

You too can create thousands of new compounds and screen them for a desired activity. That is the promise of a novel approach to building chemical libraries, which only requires simple building blocks in water, without any additional reagents or sample ...
 
Nature.com
Thu, 20 Nov 2014 05:43:24 -0800

... small feat, and these reactions are important steps to convert relatively unreactive methane deposits and unwanted byproducts of gasoline production into useful petrochemicals, which has important implications for fuel storage and fine chemical ...

UD Daily

UD Daily
Wed, 05 Nov 2014 07:11:15 -0800

“The chemical synthesis of natural products provides an exciting platform from which to conduct fundamental research in chemistry and biology. Our laboratory has ongoing research programs targeting the chemical syntheses of several natural products, ...

Forum:Blog - The World Economic Forum (blog)

Forum:Blog - The World Economic Forum (blog)
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 08:43:43 -0700

Looking back, a career in science was always on the cards. When I was about four, for behaving myself I wanted to be allowed to add lots of numbers up. Growing up in Western Sydney, we didn't have much, and a long university degree didn't really match ...
 
Yahoo!7 News
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 12:21:10 -0800

"What we're hoping is a number of people will pick up these ideas we're using for more efficient chemical synthesis and apply them more generally," he said. "Hopefully we will eventually get to the point where we can make any structure at will in a ...

Cornell Chronicle

Cornell Chronicle
Wed, 05 Nov 2014 13:45:00 -0800

The technology increases the effectiveness of key enzymes for chemical synthesis. Think sand castles. Given the right conditions, sand and water stick together to form structures that can maintain a shape. ZYMtronix nanoparticles and enzymes similarly ...
 
Business Wire (press release)
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 06:07:30 -0700

About Richman Chemical. Richman Chemical provides custom chemical synthesis, toll manufacturing and raw material sourcing to life science, specialty chemical, nanotechnology and other emerging technology companies. Founded in 1988 by Ed Richman, ...
 
Science Careers Blog (subscription)
Thu, 12 Dec 2013 11:18:01 -0800

1Laboratory for Bioorganic Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. 2Cell Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight