digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories.

A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form of work-up procedure before the final product is isolated.[1] Synthesis can start with very simple compounds (such as various petroleum distillates) and work toward a complex one (total synthesis), or it can start with natural products from plants in which various portions of the desired end-product molecules (such as particular functional groups) are already conveniently assembled (semisynthesis). (Semisynthesis is often more cost-effective than total synthesis for industrial chemical products.)

The amount of product in a chemical synthesis is the reaction yield. Typically, chemical yields are expressed as a weight in grams or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity of product that could be produced. A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place that diminishes the yield of the desired product.

The word synthesis in the present day meaning was first used by the chemist Hermann Kolbe.

Strategies[edit]

Many strategies exist in chemical synthesis that go beyond converting reactant A to reaction product B. In cascade reactions multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant, in multi-component reactions up to 11 different reactants form a single reaction product and in a telescopic synthesis one reactant goes through multiple transformations without isolation of intermediates.

Organic synthesis[edit]

Main article: Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis dealing with the synthesis of organic compounds. In the total synthesis of a complex product it may take multiple steps to synthesize the product of interest, and inordinate amounts of time. Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as Robert Burns Woodward the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds and yields something new, it is a purely synthetic process. If it starts from a product isolated from plants or animals and then proceeds to new compounds, the synthesis is described as a semisynthetic process.

Other meanings[edit]

The other meaning of chemical synthesis is narrow and restricted to a specific kind of chemical reaction, a direct combination reaction, in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product. The general form of a direct combination reaction is:

A + B → AB

where A and B are elements or compounds, and AB is a compound consisting of A and B. Examples of combination reactions include:

2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl (formation of table salt)
S + O2SO2 (formation of sulfur dioxide)
4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 (iron rusting)
CO2 + H2OH2CO3 (carbon dioxide dissolving and reacting with water to form carbonic acid)

4 special synthesis rules:

metal-oxide + H2O → metal(OH)
non-metal-oxide + H2O → oxi-acid
metal-chloride + O2 → metal-chlorate
metal-oxide + CO2 → metal carbonate (CO3)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vogel, A.I., Tatchell, A.R., Furnis, B.S., Hannaford, A.J. and P.W.G. Smith. Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall, 1996. ISBN 0-582-46236-3.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_synthesis — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

1715 news items

ExecutiveBiz (blog)

ExecutiveBiz (blog)
Thu, 18 Jun 2015 06:31:55 -0700

DARPADNA The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is seeking potential partners who will provide expertise for various fields of study in support of DARPA's efforts to develop automated chemical synthesizer for molecule production. DARPA said ...
 
Nature.com
Tue, 30 Jun 2015 08:08:03 -0700

“It's a single-chain polymerase that proceeds at about 300 nucleotides per second,” says Wang, “so it is far more efficient than the current state-of-the-art chemical synthesis.” Position-selective labeling of RNA (PLOR) works by stalling transcription ...

ECNmag.com

ECNmag.com
Wed, 24 Jun 2015 06:52:30 -0700

... renewable energy and optoelectronics, are typically expensive and complicated to manufacture. In particular, current chemical synthesis methods use high temperatures and toxic solvents, which make environmental remediation expensive and challenging.
 
Medgadget.com (blog)
Thu, 02 Jul 2015 14:00:00 -0700

Chemical synthesis was the most dominant application market; with catalyst demand exceeding 1,800 kilo tons in 2013, owing to growth in chemical production, particularly in Asia Pacific and Latin America. Environmental catalysis another key application ...
 
Nature.com
Mon, 29 Jun 2015 07:48:45 -0700

(b) Structures of chemical modifications incorporated during chemical synthesis of sgRNAs (sequences can be found in Supplementary Table 1). (c,d) Gene disruption by mutagenic NHEJ as measured by deep sequencing of PCR amplicons (c) or gene ...
 
Seeking Alpha
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 13:48:36 -0700

Lower input costs ought to increase profits, and so low oil prices should be a boon for a chemical synthesis company. So why has WLK been sold along with oil? The extended chart shows that WLK is not tied to the price of oil. (click to enlarge). In ...
 
Next Big Future
Wed, 24 Jun 2015 23:56:15 -0700

The power of automation in chemical synthesis was demonstrated through the development of peptide and nucleic acid synthesizers decades ago. These now-robust commercial systems run a limited set of chemistry in well-defined cycles, allowing specialists ...
 
Nature.com
Wed, 03 Jun 2015 10:15:43 -0700

... and do not cause resistance, Susan Lindquist at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Martin Burke at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and their colleagues used just three steps of chemical ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight