digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories.

A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form of work-up procedure before the final product is isolated.[1] The amount of product in a chemical synthesis is the reaction yield. Typically, chemical yields are expressed as a weight in grams or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity of product that could be produced. A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place that diminishes the yield of the desired product.

The word synthesis in the present day meaning was first used by the chemist Hermann Kolbe.


Many strategies exist in chemical synthesis that go beyond converting reactant A to reaction product B. In cascade reactions multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant, in multi-component reactions up to 11 different reactants form a single reaction product and in a telescopic synthesis one reactant goes through multiple transformations without isolation of intermediates.

Organic synthesis[edit]

Main article: Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis dealing with the synthesis of organic compounds. In the total synthesis of a complex product it may take multiple steps to synthesize the product of interest, and inordinate amounts of time. Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as Robert Burns Woodward the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds and yields something new, it is a purely synthetic process. If it starts from a product isolated from plants or animals and then proceeds to new compounds, the synthesis is described as a semisynthetic process.

Other meanings[edit]

The other meaning of chemical synthesis is narrow and restricted to a specific kind of chemical reaction, a direct combination reaction, in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product. The general form of a direct combination reaction is:

A + B → AB

where A and B are elements or compounds, and AB is a compound consisting of A and B. Examples of combination reactions include:

2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl (formation of table salt)
S + O2SO2 (formation of sulfur dioxide)
4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 (iron rusting)
CO2 + H2OH2CO3 (carbon dioxide dissolving and reacting with water to form carbonic acid)

4 special synthesis rules:

metal-oxide + H2O → metal(OH)
non-metal-oxide + H2O → oxi-acid
metal-chloride + O2 → metal-chlorate
metal-oxide + CO2 → metal carbonate (CO3)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Vogel, A.I., Tatchell, A.R., Furnis, B.S., Hannaford, A.J. and P.W.G. Smith. Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall, 1996. ISBN 0-582-46236-3.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_synthesis — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
407994 videos foundNext > 

Organic Chemistry: Synthesis of DMC

In this video, a useful dehydrating agent (DMC) is synthesized via the reaction of 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone and phthaloyl chloride. Air-free techniques...

The Art of Chemical Synthesis

The Center for Selective C-H Functionalization (CCHF) is leading a paradigm shift in the art of organic synthesis by bringing together experts from across a ...

Nylon Synthesis Chemistry Demo

In this video, learn how to create never-ending nylon. When you combine 2 colorless solutions, you'll create a strand of polymer (nylon) that seems to have n...

Synthesis Reactions

Describes the basics of synthesis reactions, how to identify them, predict the product and balance the chemical equation. Two examples are also shown, synthe...

Less Hazardous Synthesis - Green Chemistry Principle #3

The Green Chemistry Initiative shows that choosing a less hazardous synthetic route to make any molecule can make a big impact. In this video, we talk about ...

POC: Auto MineChem Chemical Synthesis Machine using Applied Energistics

Proof of Concept: Automating MineChems Chemical Synthesis Machine using Applied Energistics. Viewer requested. Like, Comment, Subscribe as you feel so inclin...

Chemical Synthesis - Final Fantasy

Chemical Synthesis - Final Fantasy - 1999.

The Implications of Oligonucleotide Synthesis : Chemistry Concepts

Subscribe Now: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=ehoweducation Watch More: http://www.youtube.com/ehoweducation The implications of oligonu...

Block Spotlight - Chemical Synthesis Machine

Minechem: ljdp http://www.minecraftforum.net/topic/988773-11-minechem-v15/ If you would like to see more of my stuff be sure to follow me both here and on tw...

Chemical Synthesis - New World

Chemical Synthesis - Final Fantasy - 1999.

407994 videos foundNext > 

1149 news items


Mon, 19 Jan 2015 05:20:04 -0800

"We hope this work serves as a model for others to emulate and to expand upon – both the new methods of doing chemical synthesis and the new ways for organic chemists to combine their expertise and collaborate, rather than compete." The graduate ...
PharmiWeb.com (press release)
Wed, 14 Jan 2015 07:11:15 -0800

Richman Chemical Inc. provides custom chemical synthesis custom manufacturing and raw material sourcing in the life sciences specialty chemical biotechnology pharmaceutical and emerging technology industries. RCI's Consulting Services include patent ...

Chemistry World

Chemistry World
Sun, 07 Sep 2014 10:16:14 -0700

You too can create thousands of new compounds and screen them for a desired activity. That is the promise of a novel approach to building chemical libraries, which only requires simple building blocks in water, without any additional reagents or sample ...

Jacksonville Daily News

Jacksonville Daily News
Tue, 20 Jan 2015 15:15:00 -0800

Simpson is accused of making methamphetamine by chemical synthesis and of having sulfuric acid, lithium metal, a funnel, measuring cup and coffee filters, according to warrants. Lithium and sulfuric acid are among 45 substances considered “immediate ...

Solar Novus Today

Solar Novus Today
Thu, 22 Jan 2015 21:26:15 -0800

The EPFL scientists dubbed their method “slip-coating.” The wet-chemical synthesis technique works at or near room temperature and at ambient pressure. “As nowadays the emphasis is on low cost, high throughput, high volume and simplicity in production, ...
R & D Magazine
Mon, 12 Jan 2015 07:00:00 -0800

... the division between reactive, or functional, molecular bonds and the inert, or non-functional bonds carbon-carbon (C-C) and carbon-hydrogen (C-H). The inert bonds provide a strong, stable scaffold for performing chemical synthesis on the reactive ...
Thomson Reuters' peHUB (press release)
Wed, 21 Jan 2015 08:30:00 -0800

GBL's Clostridium fermentation platform converts a wide range of sustainable feedstocks into high performance green chemicals such as nbutanol, acetone, and through chemical synthesis, derivatives of butanol and acetone used by a growing global ...


Thu, 15 Jan 2015 06:10:05 -0800

Plant cells are potential hosts that can be used for the mass production of medicinal compounds, recombinant proteins, flavors, fragrances, and colorants—none of which can be produced by microbial cells or chemical synthesis, but they must be modified ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight