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A cenosphere is a lightweight, inert, hollow sphere made largely of silica and alumina and filled with air or inert gas., typically produced as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants. The color of cenospheres varies from gray to almost white and their density is about 0.4–0.8 g/cm3 (0.014–0.029 lb/cu in), which gives them a great buoyancy. Cf. glass microspheres.

Cenospheres are hard and rigid, light, waterproof, innoxious[citation needed], and insulative. This makes them highly useful in a variety of products, notably fillers. Cenospheres are now used as fillers in cement to produce low-density concrete[citation needed]. Recently, some manufacturers have begun filling metals and polymers with cenospheres to make lightweight composite materials with higher strength than other types of foam materials[citation needed]. Such composite materials are called syntactic foam. Aluminum-based syntactic foams are finding applications in the automotive sector.[citation needed]

Silver-coated cenospheres are used in conductive coatings, tiles and fabrics. Another use is in conductive paints for antistatic coatings and electromagnetic shielding.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The word cenosphere is derived from two Greek words kenos (hollow, void) and sphaera (sphere), literally meaning "hollow spheres".

Production[edit]

The process of burning coal in thermal power plants produces fly ash containing ceramic particles made largely of alumina and silica. They are produced at temperatures of 1,500 to 1,750 °C (2,730 to 3,180 °F) through complicated chemical and physical transformation. Their chemical composition and structure varies considerably depending on the composition of coal that generated them.

The ceramic particles in fly ash have three types of structures. The first type of particles are solid and are called precipitator. The second type of particles are hollow and are called cenospheres. The third type of particles are called plerospheres, which are hollow particles of large diameter filled with smaller size precipitator and cenospheres.

Fuel or oil cenospheres[edit]

The definition of cenosphere has changed over the last 30 years. Up until the 1990s it was limited to a largely carbonaceous sphere caused by the oxygen-deficient combustion of a liquid fuel droplet that was cooled below 200 °C (392 °F) before it was consumed. These fuel cenospheres indicated a combustion source using injected droplets of fuel or the open burning of heavy liquid fuels such as asphalt or a thermoplastic material that were bubbling as they burned; the bursting of the bubbles created airborne droplets of fuel.[2][3] This is still a common definition used in environmental microscopy to differentiate between the inefficient combustion of liquid fuels and the high temperature fly ash resulting from the efficient combustion of fuels with inorganic contaminants. Fuel cenospheres are always black.[4]

The refractory cenosphere as defined above is synonymous with microballoons or glass microspheres and excludes the traditional fuel cenospheres definition.[5] The use of the term cenosphere in place of microballoons is widespread, and it has become an additional definition.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About our Products: Silver Coated Cenospheres". Camouflage.com.au. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  2. ^ McCrone, Walter C.; Draftz, Ronald G.; Delly, John Gustav (1967). The Particle Atlas. Ann Arbor Science Publishers. p. 349. 
  3. ^ Hopke, Philip K. (1985). Receptor Modeling in Environmental Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience. pp. 43–44. 
  4. ^ "Cenospheres from Diesel Fuel". Microlabgallery.com. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  5. ^ Brady, George S.; Clauser, Henry R., eds. (1979). Materials Handbook (Eleventh ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 490. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenosphere — Please support Wikipedia.
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1742 news items

 
PR Newswire (press release)
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 14:52:30 -0800

The Global Cenosphere Industry Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the cenosphere industry. The report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry ...
 
WhaTech
Sun, 11 Jan 2015 13:56:15 -0800

For international and China market analysis, the report analyzes Cenosphere markets in China and other countries or regions (such as US, Europe, Japan, etc.) by presenting research on global products of different types and applications, developments ...
 
Times of India
Thu, 08 Jan 2015 13:45:00 -0800

Companies operational in Mihan SEZ: Cenosphere, Hexaware BPS (Caliber Point), Lupin Pharma, Smart Data, TAL Manufacturing Solutions, ADCC Infocomm (Working in CFB), Dr M Hope Software, Ebix, Global Logic, Informatics Solutions, Klouddata, and ...

Business Standard

Business Standard
Mon, 29 Dec 2014 09:52:16 -0800

About 31 per cent of the fly ash generated is used for land and mine void filling, 6.94 per cent for ash pond dyke raising and 9.74 per cent for other purposes like cenosphere, soil remediation and leveling of common spaces. The cumulative fly ash ...
 
SteelGuru
Tue, 30 Dec 2014 21:41:57 -0800

About 31% of the fly ash generated is used for land and mine void filling, 6.94% for ash pond dyke raising and 9.74% for other purposes like cenosphere, soil remediation and leveling of common spaces. The cumulative fly ash accumulation in ash ponds ...
 
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Mon, 22 Dec 2014 04:56:15 -0800

Product customization and frugal solutions are driving the 3D printing technology. Experimentation with unorthodox materials can revolutionize the adoption of 3D printing, even in healthcare or automotive sectors. It is also seen that individual ...
 
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Research and Markets Logo. Global Ultrasonic Flaw Detector Industry Report 2015; Jan 23, 2015, 17:59 ET. Research and Markets Logo. Lyophilized Injectables; Jan 23, 2015, 17:59 ET. Research and Markets Logo. Global Cenosphere Industry Report 2015 ...
 
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Natural personal care products are made up of quality ingredients found in nature such as flowers, fruits, and vegetables. There is no official government definition on the term "natural" on the label. However, products that appears to be natural does ...
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