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For other uses, see Carus (disambiguation).
Carus
48th Emperor of the Roman Empire
Carus.jpg
Aureus of Emperor Carus
Reign 282–283
Full name Marcus Numerius Carus (from birth to accession);
Caesar Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus (as emperor)
Born c. 224
Birthplace Narbo, Gallia Narbonensis
Died July or August 283 (aged 59)
Place of death Beyond the River Tigris, Mesopotamia
Predecessor Probus
Successor Carinus
Issue Carinus, Numerian, Aurelia Paulina

Carus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus;[1][2] c. 224[3] – July or August 283) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283. During his short reign, Carus fought the Germanic tribes and Sarmatians along the Danube frontier with success.

During his campaign against the Sassanid Empire, he sacked their capital Ctesiphon, but died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by his sons Carinus and Numerian, creating a dynasty which, though short-lived, granted further stability to a resurgent empire.

Biography[edit]

An Antoninianus of Carus.

Carus, whose name before the accession may have been Marcus Numerius Carus,[4] was likely born at Narbo (modern Narbonne) in Gaul[5][6] but was educated in Rome.[7] He was a senator[8] and filled various civil and military posts before being appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by the emperor Probus in 282.[9]

After the murder of Probus at Sirmium, Carus was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.[10] Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was suspected as an accessory to the deed.[11] He does not seem to have returned to Rome after his accession, contenting himself with an announcement to the Senate.[12]

Campaign against the Sassanids and Death[edit]

Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerian,[13][14] he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire and took Numerian with him on an expedition against the Persians, which had been contemplated by Probus.[15] Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube,[16] for which he was given the title Germanicus Maximus,[17] Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, annexed Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and marched his soldiers beyond the Tigris.[18]

The Sassanid King Bahram II, limited by internal opposition and his troops occupied with a campaign in modern day Afghanistan, could not effectively defend his territory.[19] The victories of Carus avenged all the previous defeats suffered by the Romans against the Sassanids, and he received the title of Persicus Maximus.[20]

Carus' hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death, which was announced after a violent storm.[21] His death was variously attributed to disease,[22] the effects of lightning,[23] or a wound received in the campaign against the Persians.[24] The fact that he was leading a victorious campaign, and his son Numerian succeeded him without opposition, suggest that his death may have been due to natural causes.[25]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Primary Sources[edit]

Secondary Sources[edit]

  • Leadbetter, William, "Carus (282–283 A.D.)", DIR
  • Jones, A.H.M., Martindale, J.R. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971
  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001
  • Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8 
  • Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ In Classical Latin, Carus' name would be inscribed as MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS AVGVSTVS.
  2. ^ Jones, pg. 183
  3. ^ Canduci, pg. 105
  4. ^ Jones, pg. 183
  5. ^ Victor, 38:1
  6. ^ The tradition that he was one of the so-called "Illyrian Emperors", based on the unreliable vita Cari embedded in the Augustan History, was accepted uncritically by Joseph Scaliger, who assumed the other sources were wrong, and followed by Edward Gibbon in The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. (Tom B. Jones, "A Note on Marcus Aurelius Carus" Classical Philology 37.2 (April 1942), pp. 193–194).
  7. ^ Historia Augusta, "Vita Cari", 4:2
  8. ^ Historia Augusta, "Vita Cari", 5:4
  9. ^ Canduci, pg.105
  10. ^ Zonaras, 12:29
  11. ^ Historia Augusta, "Vita Cari", 6:1
  12. ^ Southern, pg. 132
  13. ^ Zonaras, 12:30
  14. ^ Victor 38:2
  15. ^ Historia Augusta, "Vita Cari", 7:1
  16. ^ Canduci, pg. 105
  17. ^ Leadbetter, www.roman-emperors.org/carus.htm
  18. ^ Zonaras, 12:30
  19. ^ Leadbetter, www.roman-emperors.org/carus.htm
  20. ^ Southern, pg. 133
  21. ^ Historia Augusta, "Vita Cari", 8:3
  22. ^ Historia Augusta, "Vita Cari", 8:2
  23. ^ Victor, 38:3
  24. ^ Zonaras, 12:30
  25. ^ Leadbetter, www.roman-emperors.org/carus.htm
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Probus
Roman Emperor
282–283
Succeeded by
Carinus and Numerian
Political offices
Preceded by
Probus ,
Victorinus
Consul of the Roman Empire
283
with Carinus
Succeeded by
Carinus,
Numerian


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carus — Please support Wikipedia.
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1025 news items

 
The Times (subscription)
Sun, 06 Jul 2014 21:29:15 -0700

Carus' 14th annual science camp took place in Peru earlier this month, ending with a graduation ceremony and the launch of five different kinds of rockets, all made by campers. Carus offers the free day camp to students entering sixth grade. This year ...
 
MyWebTimes.com
Mon, 07 Jul 2014 21:03:14 -0700

Hegeler Carus Mansion, 1307 Seventh St., La Salle, is in need of volunteer docents. Volunteers with intelligent and creative minds with a passion for history are being sought to lead guided tours. Availability is one day each week, two days a month or ...
 
Ararat Advertiser
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 15:52:30 -0700

WELL known to live music fans in the region, Carus Thompson will perform this weekend as part of the Project Platypus Plantout. The performance will take place on Saturday at the Crowlands Hall commencing at 7pm. The evening will be the celebration of ...

Lancashire Evening Post

Lancashire Evening Post
Fri, 25 Jul 2014 00:07:30 -0700

Tomorrow's Palace Shield action sees Premier Division leaders Vernon Carus visit bottom club Withnell Fold. Great Eccleston, in second spot, play host to fourth-place Garstang at Hall Lane. Longridge, who have enjoyed a strong season, welcome ...
 
Ballarat Courier
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 21:30:00 -0700

HE HAS spent the past six months travelling Australia for inspiration now Kyle Taylor is set to return to Ballarat to perform his collection of new songs. After starting his career performing at open mic nights, the 25-year-old folk singer-songwriter ...
 
Orlando Sentinel (blog)
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:41:15 -0700

Some streetwise art will provide a counterpoint to QL's wine selection at "A Toast to Art," where Shannon Carus will be painting the winery's dumpster. Non-painted dumpsters are becoming an endangered species around that part of town, but this will be ...
 
MyWebTimes.com
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 20:18:54 -0700

MEERKAT MONSTERS, rock 'n' roll, 7 p.m. Friday, July 25, Hegeler Carus Mansion, 1307 Seventh St., La Salle. 815-224-5892. JAKE OWEN, country, 7:30 p.m. Friday, July 25, iWireless Center, Moline. 309-764-2000. THE DOWNTOWNERS, big band music, ...

Audiophile Audition

Audiophile Audition
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 12:30:00 -0700

GOTTFRIED AUGUST HOMILIUS: Habe deine Lust an dem Herrn (Motets II) – Sirventes Berlin/ Stefan Schuck – Carus. Homilius—despite the rather staid name—has a lot of fire in him that demands to be heard in our time. He's one of the late Baroque's best.
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