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This article is about Caledonia as the Latin name for Scotland. For other uses, see Caledonia (disambiguation).
Personification of Caledonia by the Victorian artist William Hole

Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire. The etymology of the name is probably from a P-Celtic source. Its modern usage is as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole, comparable with Hibernia for Ireland and Britannia for the whole of Britain.

Original usage[edit]

The original use of the name, by Tacitus, Ptolemy, Lucan and Pliny the Elder, referred to the area (or parts of the area) later known as Pictavia or Pictland north of Hadrian's Wall in today's Scotland.[1] The name may be related to that of a large central Pictish tribe, the Caledonii, one amongst several in the area and perhaps the dominant tribe, which would explain the binomial Caledonia/Caledonii.

The name of the Caledonians may be found in toponymy, such as Dùn Chailleann, the Scottish Gaelic word for the town of Dunkeld meaning "fort of the Caledonii", and possibly in that of the mountain Sìdh Chailleann, the "fairy hill of the Caledonians".[2][3]

The north-west ridge of Schiehallion - the "fairy hill of the Caledonians"

According to Historia Brittonum the site of the seventh battle of the mythical Arthur was a forest in what is now Scotland, called Coit Celidon in early Welsh.[4][5] Traces of such mythology have endured until today in Midlothian: near the town centre of Edinburgh stands an old volcanic mountain called Arthur's Seat.

Etymology[edit]

According to Zimmer (2006), Caledonia is derived from the tribal name Caledones (or Calīdones), which he etymologizes as "'possessing hard feet', alluding to standfastness or endurance", from the Proto-Celtic roots *kal- "hard" and *φēdo- "foot".[6] Similarly, Moffat (2005) suggests the name is related to the Welsh word caled, "hard", which could refer to the rocky land or the hardiness of the people.[7] Keay and Keay (1994) state that the word is "apparently pre-Celtic".[8]

Location[edit]

The exact location of what the Romans called Caledonia in the early stages of Britannia is uncertain, and the boundaries are unlikely to have been fixed until the building of Hadrian's Wall. From then onwards, Caledonia stood to the north of the wall, and to the south was the Roman province of Britannia (consisting of most of what is now England and Wales).[note 1] During the brief Roman military incursions into central and northern Scotland,[note 2] the Scottish Lowlands were indeed absorbed into the province of Britannia, and the name was also used by the Romans, prior to their conquest of the southern and central parts of the island, to refer to the whole island of Great Britain. Once the Romans had built a second wall further to the north (the Antonine Wall) and their garrisons advanced north likewise, the developing Roman-Britons south of the wall had trade relations with the Picts north of the wall, as testified by archaeological evidence, much of it available at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.

Modern usage[edit]

The modern use of "Caledonia" in English and Scots is either as a historical description of northern Britain during the Roman era or as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole.[5][8]

The name has been widely used by organisations and commercial entities. Notable examples include Glasgow Caledonian University, ferry operator Caledonian MacBrayne, and the now-defunct British Caledonian airline. The Caledonian Sleeper is an overnight train service from London to Scottish destinations operated by First ScotRail. In music, "Caledonia" is a popular folk ballad written by Dougie MacLean in 1977 and published in 1979 on an album of the same name; it has since been covered by various other artists, including Amy Macdonald.[9][10] The web series Caledonia and associated novel is a supernatural police drama that takes place in Glasgow, Scotland.[11][12]

Ptolemy's account also referred to the Caledonia Silva, an idea still recalled in the modern expression "Caledonian Forest", although the woods are much reduced in size since Roman times.[13][note 3]

Some scholars point out that the name "Scotland" is ultimately derived from Scotia, a Latin term first used for Ireland (also called Hibernia by the Romans) and later for Scotland, the Scoti peoples having originated in Ireland and resettled in Scotland.[note 4] Another, post-conquest, Roman name for the island of Great Britain was Albion, which is cognate with the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland: Alba.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Haverfield (1911, p. 987) in Encyclopædia Britannica, though, states that "a tribe of Caledones" are "named by the geographer Ptolemy as living within boundaries which are now unascertainable".
  2. ^ Hanson (2003, p. 198) states that the military presence of Rome lasted for little more than 40 years for most of Scotland and only as much as 80 years in total anywhere. At no time was even half of Scotland's land mass under Roman control.
  3. ^ The extent of the reduction is a matter of debate. This association with a Silva (literally the flora) reinforces the idea that Caledonia was a forest or forested area named after the Caledonii, or that the people were named after the woods in which they dwelt.
  4. ^ Bede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata. (McClure & Collins 1999, p. 386)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moffat 2005, pp. 21-22.
  2. ^ Bennet 1985, p. 26.
  3. ^ Watson 2004, p. 21.
  4. ^ Lacy, Ashe & Mancoff 1997, p. 298.
  5. ^ a b Koch 2006, p. 332.
  6. ^ Zimmer 2006, pp. 163-167.
  7. ^ Moffat 2005, p. 22.
  8. ^ a b Keay & Keay 1994, p. 123.
  9. ^ "Rock and roll years: the 1970s". The Scotsman. 16 October 2003. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  10. ^ "Biography". Dougiemaclean.com. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  11. ^ Beacom, Brian (14 January 2014). "New detective drama set to hit our screens". Evening Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Marshall, Andrew (26 August 2014). "Caledonia". Starburst. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  13. ^ Smout, MacDonald & Watson 2007, pp. 20-25.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caledonia — Please support Wikipedia.
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258645 videos foundNext > 

Dougie MacLean - Caledonia

Celtic Woman - Caledonia

Lisa Kelly sings "Caledonia" at the Slane Castle, Ireland.

Celtic Thunder - Caledonia

From: Celtic Thunder - "The Show". If you would like to pick up a copy today, please visit our Official Store on Amazon http://www.amazon.com/Celtic-Thunder/...

Dougie Maclean & Guests - Caledonia

Barbara Dickson, Rab Noakes, Martha Wainwright, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Eddi Reader, Ralph McTell, Karine Polwart, Kris Drever, Dick Gaughan, Phil Cunningham,...

Boogie Song "Caledonia"

Dougie McLean - Caledonia | Caitlin Bell

Scottish and proud ;) Definitely one of my favourite songs. My Channels! http://www.youtube.com/caitlinbellvlogs http://www.twitter.com/caitlinbell8 http://w...

Dolores Keane - Caledonia (With On-Screen Lyrics)

Beautiful version of this Scottish love song by Irish singer Dolores Keane.

Caledonia- Dougie MacLean

Sticking to the Scottish theme, this a truly beautiful song by Dougie MacLean about memories. This brings back memories of my High School, as I used this during one of the assemblies I presented...

The Show - 'Caledonia'

BE SURE TO 'SHARE' IF YOU LOVE IT! CALEDONIA I don't know if you can see the changes that have come over me In these last few days, I've been afraid, that I might drift away I've...

Caldonia / Louis Jordan

ロックンロールの源流の一つ、ブギウギの名曲です。 1959年にビル・ヘイリーもカバーして歌っています。 They are one of the origins of rock n roll, and an excellent piece of music of boogie-woogie ? Bill Haley.

258645 videos foundNext > 

1745290 news items

MLive.com

MLive.com
Fri, 27 Feb 2015 18:37:43 -0800

GRAND RAPIDS, MI – Caledonia's girls basketball team spoiled Grand Rapids Christian's Senior Night as well as the Eagles' bid for an undefeated OK White Conference season during Friday night's MLive Grand Rapids Press Game of the Week.
 
MLive.com
Fri, 27 Feb 2015 13:00:00 -0800

GRAND RAPIDS, MI – Grand Rapids Christian (9-0, 16-3) has won the OK White Conference but the Eagles and their nine-game winning streak look to maintain momentum heading into the postseason. Caledonia (7-2, 13-6), winners of four of five, wants the ...
 
Journal Times
Thu, 26 Feb 2015 12:59:52 -0800

Caledonia Police were called early Thursday morning to the neighborhood between Highway 38 and Nicholson Road in northern Racine County for a prowler looking into vehicles around Caddy Lane. It appears someone may have attempted to enter many ...
 
MLive.com
Thu, 26 Feb 2015 08:15:00 -0800

One of five all-conference bowlers on the Caledonia roster, sophomore Brittney Schnicke has delivered many key shots as the team's anchor bowler, averaging 193 this season after making the state singles finals as a freshman. (Photo by Jeff Swainston ...
 
MLive.com
Tue, 24 Feb 2015 20:02:03 -0800

“We really clamped down and stopped them from running their offense in the third and fourth quarters,” Caledonia coach Mike Glass said. “We made sure Holzhueter didn't get another shot off. We made sure her and Kate Montgomery didn't get loose on us.”.

Winona Post

Post-Bulletin
Thu, 26 Feb 2015 22:22:30 -0800

Ty Thoreson 4 P; Deja Mosley 2 P; Carolyn Shanahan 16 P; Haley Ludens 13 P, 3 3-PT; Anna Hershey 4 P; Katelyn Ihrke 16 P; Jenna Ihrke 1 P. NO. 3 CALEDONIA (65). Lydia DeMorett 4 P; Tracy Felten 9 P, 1 3-PT; Trece Frank 9 P; Mariah Schroeder 20 P; ...

Rochester Democrat and Chronicle

Rochester Democrat and Chronicle
Sat, 21 Feb 2015 06:05:15 -0800

A Caledonia contractor has been arrested on felony charges of taking money from clients and not finishing the job. Kurt Kline, 45, owner and operator of Tri County Contractors, was taken into custody Thursday by Livingston County Sheriff's deputies and ...
 
MLive.com
Wed, 25 Feb 2015 20:52:30 -0800

Ales Hyrsl paced the Unity Knights boys hockey team with four goals in a 7-5 victory against the joint Lowell/Caledonia/South Christian team on Wednesday. An exchange student from the Czech Republic with junior hockey experience, Hyrsl currently ...
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