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This article is about Caledonia as the Latin name for Scotland. For other uses, see Caledonia (disambiguation).
Personification of Caledonia by the Victorian artist William Hole

Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire. The etymology of the name is probably from a P-Celtic source. Its modern usage is as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole, comparable with Hibernia for Ireland and Britannia for the whole of Britain.

Original usage[edit]

The original use of the name, by Tacitus, Ptolemy, Lucan and Pliny the Elder, referred to the area (or parts of the area) later known as Pictavia or Pictland north of Hadrian's Wall in today's Scotland.[1] The name may be related to that of a large central Pictish tribe, the Caledonii, one amongst several in the area and perhaps the dominant tribe, which would explain the binomial Caledonia/Caledonii.

The name of the Caledonians may be found in toponymy, such as Dùn Chailleann, the Scottish Gaelic word for the town of Dunkeld meaning "fort of the Caledonii", and possibly in that of the mountain Sìdh Chailleann, the "fairy hill of the Caledonians".[2][3]

The north-west ridge of Schiehallion - the "fairy hill of the Caledonians"

According to Historia Brittonum the site of the seventh battle of the mythical Arthur was a forest in what is now Scotland, called Coit Celidon in early Welsh.[4][5] Traces of such mythology have endured until today in Midlothian: near the town centre of Edinburgh stands an old volcanic mountain called Arthur's Seat.

Etymology[edit]

According to Zimmer (2006), Caledonia is derived from the tribal name Caledones (or Calīdones), which he etymologizes as "'possessing hard feet', alluding to standfastness or endurance", from the Proto-Celtic roots *kal- "hard" and *φēdo- "foot".[6] Similarly, Moffat (2005) suggests the name is related to the Welsh word caled, "hard", which could refer to the rocky land or the hardiness of the people.[7] Keay and Keay (1994) state that the word is "apparently pre-Celtic".[8]

Location[edit]

The exact location of what the Romans called Caledonia in the early stages of Britannia is uncertain, and the boundaries are unlikely to have been fixed until the building of Hadrian's Wall. From then onwards, Caledonia stood to the north of the wall, and to the south was the Roman province of Britannia (consisting of most of what is now England and Wales).[note 1] During the brief Roman military incursions into central and northern Scotland,[note 2] the Scottish Lowlands were indeed absorbed into the province of Britannia, and the name was also used by the Romans, prior to their conquest of the southern and central parts of the island, to refer to the whole island of Great Britain. Once the Romans had built a second wall further to the north (the Antonine Wall) and their garrisons advanced north likewise, the developing Roman-Britons south of the wall had trade relations with the Picts north of the wall, as testified by archaeological evidence, much of it available at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.

Modern usage[edit]

The modern use of "Caledonia" in English and Scots is either as a historical description of northern Britain during the Roman era or as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole.[5][8]

The name has been widely used by organisations and commercial entities. Notable examples include Glasgow Caledonian University, ferry operator Caledonian MacBrayne, and the now-defunct British Caledonian airline. The Caledonian Sleeper is an overnight train service from London to Scottish destinations operated by First ScotRail. In music, "Caledonia" is a popular folk ballad written by Dougie MacLean in 1977 and published in 1979 on an album of the same name; it has since been covered by various other artists, including Amy Macdonald.[9][10] The web series Caledonia and associated novel is a supernatural police drama that takes place in Glasgow, Scotland.[11][12]

Ptolemy's account also referred to the Caledonia Silva, an idea still recalled in the modern expression "Caledonian Forest", although the woods are much reduced in size since Roman times.[13][note 3]

Some scholars point out that the name "Scotland" is ultimately derived from Scotia, a Latin term first used for Ireland (also called Hibernia by the Romans) and later for Scotland, the Scoti peoples having originated in Ireland and resettled in Scotland.[note 4] Another, post-conquest, Roman name for the island of Great Britain was Albion, which is cognate with the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland: Alba.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Haverfield (1911, p. 987) in Encyclopædia Britannica, though, states that "a tribe of Caledones" are "named by the geographer Ptolemy as living within boundaries which are now unascertainable".
  2. ^ Hanson (2003, p. 198) states that the military presence of Rome lasted for little more than 40 years for most of Scotland and only as much as 80 years in total anywhere. At no time was even half of Scotland's land mass under Roman control.
  3. ^ The extent of the reduction is a matter of debate. This association with a Silva (literally the flora) reinforces the idea that Caledonia was a forest or forested area named after the Caledonii, or that the people were named after the woods in which they dwelt.
  4. ^ Bede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata. (McClure & Collins 1999, p. 386)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moffat 2005, pp. 21-22.
  2. ^ Bennet 1985, p. 26.
  3. ^ Watson 2004, p. 21.
  4. ^ Lacy, Ashe & Mancoff 1997, p. 298.
  5. ^ a b Koch 2006, p. 332.
  6. ^ Zimmer 2006, pp. 163-167.
  7. ^ Moffat 2005, p. 22.
  8. ^ a b Keay & Keay 1994, p. 123.
  9. ^ "Rock and roll years: the 1970s". The Scotsman. 16 October 2003. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  10. ^ "Biography". Dougiemaclean.com. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  11. ^ Beacom, Brian (14 January 2014). "New detective drama set to hit our screens". Evening Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Marshall, Andrew (26 August 2014). "Caledonia". Starburst. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  13. ^ Smout, MacDonald & Watson 2007, pp. 20-25.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caledonia — Please support Wikipedia.
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326637 videos foundNext > 

Dougie MacLean - Caledonia

Celtic Woman - Caledonia

Lisa Kelly sings "Caledonia" at the Slane Castle, Ireland.

Celtic Thunder - Caledonia

From: Celtic Thunder - "The Show". If you would like to pick up a copy today, please visit our Official Store on Amazon http://www.amazon.com/Celtic-Thunder/...

Dougie Maclean & Guests - Caledonia

Barbara Dickson, Rab Noakes, Martha Wainwright, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Eddi Reader, Ralph McTell, Karine Polwart, Kris Drever, Dick Gaughan, Phil Cunningham,...

Boogie Song "Caledonia"

Dougie McLean - Caledonia | Caitlin Bell

Scottish and proud ;) Definitely one of my favourite songs. My Channels! http://www.youtube.com/caitlinbellvlogs http://www.twitter.com/caitlinbell8 http://w...

Dolores Keane - Caledonia (With On-Screen Lyrics)

Beautiful version of this Scottish love song by Irish singer Dolores Keane.

Caledonia- Dougie MacLean

Sticking to the Scottish theme, this a truly beautiful song by Dougie MacLean about memories. This brings back memories of my High School, as I used this dur...

Celtic Woman - Caledonia Live On Tour 2013

emerald - musical gems 2013 by susan mcfadden.

Caledonia Best presents Caledonia

Since Caledonia Best's first TV advert aired across Scotland in December 2012, we've had an overwhelming response to its soundtrack featuring Anderson, McGin...

326637 videos foundNext > 

663992 news items

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Sun, 25 Jan 2015 13:52:38 -0800

Mark Danczyk said Sunday he will never forget the sight of four empty shoes strewn along the side of the road near his Caledonia church after two longtime parishioners were killed. "Those four empty shoes," Danczyk said after an emotional 9:30 a.m ...
 
Journal Times
Sat, 24 Jan 2015 20:01:48 -0800

The Caledonia Village Board will vote on what question will appear on the April 7 election ballot during a special meeting at 6 p.m. Monday at the East Side Community Center, 6156 Douglas Ave. The question will likely ask residents if they would like ...
 
MLive.com
Sat, 24 Jan 2015 18:36:43 -0800

FHC led 34-23 at halftime and extended its lead with a 24-14 third quarter, which allowed it to hold off Caledonia in its 22-16 fourth-quarter charge. After defeating Grand Rapids Christian 70-54 on Friday, FHC has now won two league games in as many ...
 
MLive.com
Sat, 24 Jan 2015 14:41:15 -0800

Caledonia Head-on crash The scene of a head-on crash involving two vehicles near the intersection of Whitneyville Ave SE and Walnut Ln SE, which occurred around 4:20 p.m., Caledonia, Mich., Saturday, January 24, 2015. (Joel Bissell | MLive.com).
 
MLive.com
Sat, 24 Jan 2015 19:00:00 -0800

Jessica Fuller and Sophia Sanfilippo each scored 13 points on Saturday during a 47-40 Grand Rapids Forest Hills Central win at Caledonia. “I thought Forest Hills Central came into our place with a lot more energy,” Caledonia coach Mike Glass said.
 
MarketWatch
Sun, 25 Jan 2015 23:07:30 -0800

TORONTO, ONTARIO, Jan 26, 2015 (Marketwired via COMTEX) -- Caledonia Mining Corporation ("Caledonia") (CAL) (otcqx:CALVF) (aim:CMCL) announces that on 23 January 2015, Leigh Wilson, Chairman of the Company, purchased 30,200 ordinary ...

Marion Star

Marion Star
Wed, 21 Jan 2015 14:30:00 -0800

Marion post troopers said a 2006 Hummer driven by Elizabeth Dyer failed to yield at a stop sign while northbound on Nesbitt Road. The Hummer struck a 2000 Dodge Ram 1500 that was eastbound on Caledonia Mud Pike, sending both vehicles off the road.
 
MLive.com
Fri, 16 Jan 2015 12:55:13 -0800

CALEDONIA, MI - Three Caledonia schools students were back in class Friday, one day after their school bus was rear-ended by a driver police said was high on marijuana at the time of the crash. The accident occurred shortly after 3 p.m. on 108th Street ...
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