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This article is about Caledonia as the Latin name for Scotland. For other uses, see Caledonia (disambiguation).
Personification of Caledonia by the Victorian artist William Hole

Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire. The etymology of the name is probably from a P-Celtic source. Its modern usage is as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole, comparable with Hibernia for Ireland and Britannia for the whole of Britain.

Original usage[edit]

The original use of the name, by Tacitus, Ptolemy, Lucan and Pliny the Elder, referred to the area (or parts of the area) later known as Pictavia or Pictland north of Hadrian's Wall in today's Scotland.[1] The name may be related to that of a large central Pictish tribe, the Caledonii, one amongst several in the area and perhaps the dominant tribe, which would explain the binomial Caledonia/Caledonii.

The name of the Caledonians may be found in toponymy, such as Dùn Chailleann, the Scottish Gaelic word for the town of Dunkeld meaning "fort of the Caledonii", and possibly in that of the mountain Sìdh Chailleann, the "fairy hill of the Caledonians".[2][3]

The north-west ridge of Schiehallion - the "fairy hill of the Caledonians"

According to Historia Brittonum the site of the seventh battle of the mythical Arthur was a forest in what is now Scotland, called Coit Celidon in early Welsh.[4][5] Traces of such mythology have endured until today in Midlothian: near the town centre of Edinburgh stands an old volcanic mountain called Arthur's Seat.

Etymology[edit]

According to Zimmer (2006), Caledonia is derived from the tribal name Caledones (or Calīdones), which he etymologizes as "'possessing hard feet', alluding to standfastness or endurance", from the Proto-Celtic roots *kal- "hard" and *φēdo- "foot".[6] Similarly, Moffat (2005) suggests the name is related to the Welsh word caled, "hard", which could refer to the rocky land or the hardiness of the people.[7] Keay and Keay (1994) state that the word is "apparently pre-Celtic".[8]

Location[edit]

The exact location of what the Romans called Caledonia in the early stages of Britannia is uncertain, and the boundaries are unlikely to have been fixed until the building of Hadrian's Wall. From then onwards, Caledonia stood to the north of the wall, and to the south was the Roman province of Britannia (consisting of most of what is now England and Wales).[note 1] During the brief Roman military incursions into central and northern Scotland,[note 2] the Scottish Lowlands were indeed absorbed into the province of Britannia, and the name was also used by the Romans, prior to their conquest of the southern and central parts of the island, to refer to the whole island of Great Britain. Once the Romans had built a second wall further to the north (the Antonine Wall) and their garrisons advanced north likewise, the developing Roman-Britons south of the wall had trade relations with the Picts north of the wall, as testified by archaeological evidence, much of it available at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.

Modern usage[edit]

The modern use of "Caledonia" in English and Scots is either as a historical description of northern Britain during the Roman era or as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole.[5][8]

The name has been widely used by organisations and commercial entities. Notable examples include Glasgow Caledonian University, ferry operator Caledonian MacBrayne, and the now-defunct British Caledonian airline. The Caledonian Sleeper is an overnight train service from London to Scottish destinations operated by First ScotRail. In music, "Caledonia" is a popular folk ballad written by Dougie MacLean in 1977 and published in 1979 on an album of the same name; it has since been covered by various other artists, including Amy Macdonald.[9][10]

Ptolemy's account also referred to the Caledonia Silva, an idea still recalled in the modern expression "Caledonian Forest", although the woods are much reduced in size since Roman times.[11][note 3]

Some scholars point out that the name "Scotland" is ultimately derived from Scotia, a Latin term first used for Ireland (also called Hibernia by the Romans) and later for Scotland, the Scoti peoples having originated in Ireland and resettled in Scotland.[note 4] Another, post-conquest, Roman name for the island of Great Britain was Albion, which is cognate with the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland: Alba.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Haverfield (1911, p. 987) in Encyclopædia Britannica, though, states that "a tribe of Caledones" are "named by the geographer Ptolemy as living within boundaries which are now unascertainable".
  2. ^ Hanson (2003, p. 198) states that the military presence of Rome lasted for little more than 40 years for most of Scotland and only as much as 80 years in total anywhere. At no time was even half of Scotland's land mass under Roman control.
  3. ^ The extent of the reduction is a matter of debate. This association with a Silva (literally the flora) reinforces the idea that Caledonia was a forest or forested area named after the Caledonii, or that the people were named after the woods in which they dwelt.
  4. ^ Bede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata. (McClure & Collins 1999, p. 386)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moffat 2005, pp. 21-22.
  2. ^ Bennet 1985, p. 26.
  3. ^ Watson 2004, p. 21.
  4. ^ Lacy, Ashe & Mancoff 1997, p. 298.
  5. ^ a b Koch 2006, p. 332.
  6. ^ Zimmer 2006, pp. 163-167.
  7. ^ Moffat 2005, p. 22.
  8. ^ a b Keay & Keay 1994, p. 123.
  9. ^ "Rock and roll years: the 1970s". The Scotsman. 16 October 2003. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  10. ^ "Biography". Dougiemaclean.com. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  11. ^ Smout, MacDonald & Watson 2007, pp. 20-25.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caledonia — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
325289 videos foundNext > 

Dougie MacLean - Caledonia

Celtic Woman - Caledonia

Lisa Kelly sings "Caledonia" at the Slane Castle, Ireland.

Celtic Thunder - Caledonia

From: Celtic Thunder - "The Show". If you would like to pick up a copy today, please visit our Official Store on Amazon http://www.amazon.com/Celtic-Thunder/...

Dougie Maclean & Guests - Caledonia

Barbara Dickson, Rab Noakes, Martha Wainwright, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Eddi Reader, Ralph McTell, Karine Polwart, Kris Drever, Dick Gaughan, Phil Cunningham,...

Boogie Song "Caledonia"

Dolores Keane - Caledonia (With On-Screen Lyrics)

Beautiful version of this Scottish love song by Irish singer Dolores Keane.

Dougie McLean - Caledonia | Caitlin Bell

Scottish and proud ;) Definitely one of my favourite songs. My Channels! http://www.youtube.com/caitlinbellvlogs http://www.twitter.com/caitlinbell8 http://w...

Caledonia- Dougie MacLean

Sticking to the Scottish theme, this a truly beautiful song by Dougie MacLean about memories. This brings back memories of my High School, as I used this dur...

Celtic Woman - Caledonia Live On Tour 2013

emerald - musical gems 2013 by susan mcfadden.

Muddy Waters - Caledonia

A performance from the Muddy Waters Blues Band in 1978. It was on German TV, WDR. The programm was called: Rockpalast.

325289 videos foundNext > 

1125072 news items

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (blog)

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (blog)
Sat, 20 Dec 2014 11:18:45 -0800

Sebastian's restaurant in Caledonia, 6025 Douglas Ave., has put dishes on its winter menu that evoke the season, including burrata, frisee and olives with chestnut-pesto vinaigrette ($14); grilled kale and dried cherry salad ($8) with black fig ...
 
MLive.com
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 20:30:00 -0800

East Kentwood erased Caledonia's slim halftime margin with 15 unanswered third-quarter points, and the Falcons cruised from there to a 57-40 non-conference victory on Friday. "Caledonia came out with a lot of fight," East Kentwood coach Jeff Anama said.
 
MLive.com
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 05:07:30 -0800

CALEDONIA -- Caledonia bowling coach Eric Bottrall has a few reasons to feel good about his program right now. With two promising freshmen added to the lineup, the Caledonia girls' squad appears primed to defend its OK White championship, and the ...

Post-Bulletin

Post-Bulletin
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 07:02:21 -0800

The truth is, she didn't have much of it out of high school, even though she was an all-state player and led her Caledonia team to a state championship her senior year. In hindsight, she regrets not having taken better advantage of Caledonia's weight ...

fox6now.com

fox6now.com
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 17:30:00 -0800

According to the criminal complaint, Philyaw was spotted on around 8:30 p.m. on Tuesday, December 16th at a vacant business in the Village of Caledonia. Officers had learned three days before that the business had been a target of metal thieves.

Jackson Clarion Ledger

Mississippi News Now
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 07:33:45 -0800

CALEDONIA, Miss. (AP) - Authorities say a 41-year-old Caledonia man died after his motorcycle collided with another vehicle on Highway 12 east of Caledonia. Lowndes County Coroner Greg Merchant tells The Commercial Dispatch (http://bit.ly/1uNDLdx ) ...

Madison.com

Madison.com
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 14:30:00 -0800

A Caledonia man who allegedly wanted to fire his guns near a fire on his property faces jail time after his fire got too big and his gunshots hit a neighboring business, according to reports. Craig Busse, 53, faces misdemeanor charges of negligent ...
 
MLive.com
Sun, 14 Dec 2014 12:59:35 -0800

“Kobe will step up outside his comfort zone and do whatever the team needs to win,” Caledonia coach Todd Bloemers said. “If we need him to step up and score, he can do that. He will guard the opponent's best player and he takes it on as a personal ...
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