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This article is about Caledonia as the Latin name for Scotland. For other uses, see Caledonia (disambiguation).
Personification of Caledonia by the Victorian artist William Hole

Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire. The etymology of the name is probably from a P-Celtic source. Its modern usage is as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole, comparable with Hibernia for Ireland and Britannia for the whole of Britain.

Original usage[edit]

The original use of the name, by Tacitus, Ptolemy, Lucan and Pliny the Elder, referred to the area (or parts of the area) later known as Pictavia or Pictland north of Hadrian's Wall in today's Scotland.[1] The name may be related to that of a large central Pictish tribe, the Caledonii, one amongst several in the area and perhaps the dominant tribe, which would explain the binomial Caledonia/Caledonii.

The name of the Caledonians may be found in toponymy, such as Dùn Chailleann, the Scottish Gaelic word for the town of Dunkeld meaning "fort of the Caledonii", and possibly in that of the mountain Sìdh Chailleann, the "fairy hill of the Caledonians".[2][3]

The north-west ridge of Schiehallion - the "fairy hill of the Caledonians"

According to Historia Brittonum the site of the seventh battle of the mythical Arthur was a forest in what is now Scotland, called Coit Celidon in early Welsh.[4][5] Traces of such mythology have endured until today in Midlothian: near the town centre of Edinburgh stands an old volcanic mountain called Arthur's Seat.

Etymology[edit]

According to Zimmer (2006), Caledonia is derived from the tribal name Caledones (or Calīdones), which he etymologizes as "'possessing hard feet', alluding to standfastness or endurance", from the Proto-Celtic roots *kal- "hard" and *φēdo- "foot".[6] Similarly, Moffat (2005) suggests the name is related to the Welsh word caled, "hard", which could refer to the rocky land or the hardiness of the people.[7] Keay and Keay (1994) state that the word is "apparently pre-Celtic".[8]

Location[edit]

The exact location of what the Romans called Caledonia in the early stages of Britannia is uncertain, and the boundaries are unlikely to have been fixed until the building of Hadrian's Wall. From then onwards, Caledonia stood to the north of the wall, and to the south was the Roman province of Britannia (consisting of most of what is now England and Wales).[note 1] During the brief Roman military incursions into central and northern Scotland,[note 2] the Scottish Lowlands were indeed absorbed into the province of Britannia, and the name was also used by the Romans, prior to their conquest of the southern and central parts of the island, to refer to the whole island of Great Britain. Once the Romans had built a second wall further to the north (the Antonine Wall) and their garrisons advanced north likewise, the developing Roman-Britons south of the wall had trade relations with the Picts north of the wall, as testified by archaeological evidence, much of it available at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.

Modern usage[edit]

The modern use of "Caledonia" in English and Scots is either as a historical description of northern Britain during the Roman era or as a romantic or poetic name for Scotland as a whole.[5][8]

The name has been widely used by organisations and commercial entities. Notable examples include Glasgow Caledonian University, ferry operator Caledonian MacBrayne, and the now-defunct British Caledonian airline. The Caledonian Sleeper is an overnight train service from London to Scottish destinations operated by First ScotRail. In music, "Caledonia" is a popular folk ballad written by Dougie MacLean in 1977 and published in 1979 on an album of the same name; it has since been covered by various other artists, including Amy Macdonald.[9][10] The web series Caledonia and associated novel is a supernatural police drama that takes place in Glasgow, Scotland.[11][12]

Ptolemy's account also referred to the Caledonia Silva, an idea still recalled in the modern expression "Caledonian Forest", although the woods are much reduced in size since Roman times.[13][note 3]

Some scholars point out that the name "Scotland" is ultimately derived from Scotia, a Latin term first used for Ireland (also called Hibernia by the Romans) and later for Scotland, the Scoti peoples having originated in Ireland and resettled in Scotland.[note 4] Another, post-conquest, Roman name for the island of Great Britain was Albion, which is cognate with the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland: Alba.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Haverfield (1911, p. 987) in Encyclopædia Britannica, though, states that "a tribe of Caledones" are "named by the geographer Ptolemy as living within boundaries which are now unascertainable".
  2. ^ Hanson (2003, p. 198) states that the military presence of Rome lasted for little more than 40 years for most of Scotland and only as much as 80 years in total anywhere. At no time was even half of Scotland's land mass under Roman control.
  3. ^ The extent of the reduction is a matter of debate. This association with a Silva (literally the flora) reinforces the idea that Caledonia was a forest or forested area named after the Caledonii, or that the people were named after the woods in which they dwelt.
  4. ^ Bede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata. (Bede, the Venerable Saint 1999, p. 386)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moffat 2005, pp. 21-22.
  2. ^ Bennet 1985, p. 26.
  3. ^ Watson 2004, p. 21.
  4. ^ Lacy, Ashe & Mancoff 1997, p. 298.
  5. ^ a b Koch 2006, p. 332.
  6. ^ Zimmer 2006, pp. 163-167.
  7. ^ Moffat 2005, p. 22.
  8. ^ a b Keay & Keay 1994, p. 123.
  9. ^ "Rock and roll years: the 1970s". The Scotsman. 16 October 2003. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  10. ^ "Biography". Dougiemaclean.com. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  11. ^ Beacom, Brian (14 January 2014). "New detective drama set to hit our screens". Evening Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Marshall, Andrew (26 August 2014). "Caledonia". Starburst. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  13. ^ Smout, MacDonald & Watson 2007, pp. 20-25.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caledonia — Please support Wikipedia.
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327989 videos foundNext > 

Dougie MacLean - Caledonia

Celtic Woman - Caledonia

Lisa Kelly sings "Caledonia" at the Slane Castle, Ireland.

Celtic Thunder - Caledonia

From: Celtic Thunder - "The Show". If you would like to pick up a copy today, please visit our Official Store on Amazon ...

Dougie Maclean & Guests - Caledonia

Barbara Dickson, Rab Noakes, Martha Wainwright, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Eddi Reader, Ralph McTell, Karine Polwart, Kris Drever, Dick Gaughan, Phil Cunningham, Aly Bain, Steve Knightley, Ross...

Boogie Song "Caledonia"

Dolores Keane - Caledonia (With On-Screen Lyrics)

Beautiful version of this Scottish love song by Irish singer Dolores Keane.

Dougie McLean - Caledonia | Caitlin Bell

Scottish and proud ;) Definitely one of my favourite songs. My Channels! http://www.youtube.com/caitlinbellvlogs http://www.twitter.com/caitlinbell8 http://www.facebook.com/caitlinbellmusic...

Caldonia / Louis Jordan

ロックンロールの源流の一つ、ブギウギの名曲です。 1959年にビル・ヘイリーもカバーして歌っています。 They are one of the origins of rock...

Caledonia- Dougie MacLean

Sticking to the Scottish theme, this a truly beautiful song by Dougie MacLean about memories. This brings back memories of my High School, as I used this during one of the assemblies I presented...

Celtic Woman - Caledonia (Live at Morris Performing Arts Center - 2013)

emerald - musical gems 2013 by susan mcfadden.

327989 videos foundNext > 

6390790 news items

 
Waynesboro Record Herald
Sat, 18 Apr 2015 10:26:15 -0700

The Pennsylvania Parks and Forests Foundation and Caledonia State Park will hold a meeting on Thursday, April 23, from 6 to 8 p.m. at Caledonia State Park to discuss the formation of a friends group for the park. A friends group is made up of people ...
 
MLive.com
Fri, 17 Apr 2015 05:11:15 -0700

CALEDONIA – Chris Clark has been a fixture behind the plate for the Caledonia baseball team since he was a freshman, and is expected to be there again this spring. Clark, however, was unavailable for Caledonia's first two games, but the Fighting Scots ...
 
Journal Times
Thu, 16 Apr 2015 11:00:00 -0700

Caledonia police said this man stole two pairs of reading glasses from the Pick n' Save located at 2210 Rapids Drive and returned them for gift cards at the Pick n' Save at 5111 Douglas Ave. He was tracked down because he reportedly used a Pick 'n Save ...

MLive.com

MLive.com
Wed, 15 Apr 2015 14:00:00 -0700

After going through the daily practice routine for each of the past five weeks, the Caledonia boys track and field team finally has their first shot of competition tomorrow when they face OK White rival Forest Hills Central. "It's been a long build up ...

WISN Milwaukee

WISN Milwaukee
Wed, 08 Apr 2015 15:58:19 -0700

ONE OF THE MOST INTERESTING RACES, VOTERS IN CALEDONIA SAID THEY WANTED TO SPLIT FROM THE RACINE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT. 12 NEWS' MAX SEIGLE TELLS US WHAT NEEDS TO HAPPEN NEXT TO MAKE THIS A REALITY.
 
MLive.com
Wed, 15 Apr 2015 12:07:30 -0700

As the spring sports season is beginning to take off, the Caledonia softball team will take a trip to the east-side of the state to play in its first tournament of the season. The Fighting Scots will play in a four-game tournament involving Walled-Lake ...
 
AccuWeather.com
Fri, 10 Apr 2015 08:55:01 -0700

Solo has likely reached its peak intensity while to the north of New Caledonia as a strong tropical storm. While nearing the country, some weakening is expiated. Despite this, the island nation will experience damaging winds and torrential rainfall ...
 
sleekmoney
Fri, 17 Apr 2015 22:48:45 -0700

Caledonia Mining Co. logo Sanlam Securities restated their buy rating on shares of Caledonia Mining (LON:CMCL) in a report released on Thursday. Sanlam Securities currently has a GBX 92 ($1.35) price objective on the stock. Several other analysts have ...
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