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This article is about a city in the Philippines. For other uses, see Cagayan (disambiguation).
Cagayan de Oro
Highly urbanized city
City of Cagayan de Oro
From top, left to right: St. Augustine Cathedral, Misamis Oriental Cultural Heritage Monument, Misamis Oriental Provincial Capitol, Centrio Ayala Mall, Limketkai Center, IT Park, Market City
From top, left to right: St. Augustine Cathedral, Misamis Oriental Cultural Heritage Monument, Misamis Oriental Provincial Capitol, Centrio Ayala Mall, Limketkai Center, IT Park, Market City
Official seal of Cagayan de Oro
Nickname(s): City of Golden Friendship
Map of Misamis Oriental with Cagayan de Oro highlighted
Map of Misamis Oriental with Cagayan de Oro highlighted
Cagayan de Oro is located in Philippines
Cagayan de Oro
Cagayan de Oro
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 08°29′N 124°39′E / 8.483°N 124.650°E / 8.483; 124.650Coordinates: 08°29′N 124°39′E / 8.483°N 124.650°E / 8.483; 124.650
Country Philippines
Region Northern Mindanao (Region X)
Province Misamis Oriental
Districts 1st & 2nd districts of Cagayan de Oro
Settled 1871
Cityhood June 15, 1950
Barangays 80
 • Type Mayor–council
 • Mayor Oscar Moreno (Liberal Party)
 • Vice Mayor Ian Acenas (Nacionalista Party)
 • Highly urbanized city 412.80 km2 (159.38 sq mi)
Elevation 10.0 m (32.8 ft)
Population (2010)[5]
 • Highly urbanized city 602,088
 • Density 1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,121,564[3][4]
Demonym Cagayanons; Kagay-anons
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 9000
Dialing code 88
Abbreviations CdeO, CDO, CDOC, Cag. de Oro
Website cagayandeoro.gov.ph

Cagayan de Oro (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Cagayan de Oro; Filipino: Lungsod ng Cagayan de Oro) is a highly urbanized and capital city of the province of Misamis Oriental in Mindanao, southern part of the Philippines. It serves as the regional center and business hubs for Northern Mindanao (Region X), and is part of the growing Metropolitan Cagayan de Oro area, which includes the city of El Salvador.

The City of Cagayan de Oro is located along the central coast of northern Mindanao island facing the Macajalar Bay and is bordered by the municipalities of Opol to the west; Tagoloan to the east, and provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte to the south of city. According to the 2010 Census of Population, the city has a population of 602,088 people,[5] making it the 10th most populous city in the Philippines.

Cagayan de Oro is famous for its whitewater rafting or kayaking adventures, one of the tourism activities being promoted along the Cagayan de Oro River.[6][7][8]


The name Cagayan de Oro (lit. River of Gold)[9] can be written traced back during the arrival of the Spanish Augustinian Recollect friars in 1622, the area around Himologan (now Huluga), was already known as "Cagayán". Early Spanish written documents in the 16th century already referred to the place as "Cagayán".

The region of Northern Mindanao, which included Cagayan de Oro, was granted as Encomienda to a certain Don Juan Griego on January 25, 1571. It was then former Vice President of the Philippines Emmanuel Peláez who appended de Oro to Cagayan.

There are also other places in the Philippines with a Cagayan name. One must distinguish Cagayan de Oro from province of Cagayan in northern Luzon and the Cagayan islands in the Sulu Sea.


The area was first inhabited around 377 C.E. (the late Neolithic period), island natives lived in a settlement then known as Himologan[10] (now known as Huluga), eight kilometers from present-day Cagayan de Oro. The natives were polytheistic animists. Austronesian in origin. Their customs were closely related to the prosperous Rajahnate of Butuan with rich Sri Vijayan (Visayan) and Indian culture. Ceramics were found in the area, Chinese had probably visited during the Ming dynasty period. Possibly an old thriving port of Sri Vijaya (Buddhist state) empire with overseas trading link to China and India.

Spanish colonial period[edit]

In 1622, two Spanish Augustinian Recollect missionaries came in contact with the natives of Himologan and in 1626, Fray Agustín de San Pedro persuaded the chief of Himologan, Datu Salangsang, to transfer his settlement down the Cagayan River, to the present-day Gaston Park. De San Pedro later fortified the new settlement against Sultan Kudarat's raiders.

In 1738, Spanish dominance was felt in Cagayan de Oro. When Misamis gained status of province in 1818, one of its four districts was the Partidos de Cagayan. In 1871, the "Partidos" became a town and was made a permanent capital of Misamis.

On February 27, 1872, Governor-General Carlos María de La Torre issued a decree declaring Cagayan the permanent capital of Segundo Distrito de Misamis. During this era, the name of the town was known as Cagayan de Misamis.

In 1883, the town became a seat of the Spanish government in Mindanao for the provinces of Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte.

On January 10, 1899, Cagayan de Misamis joined the government of Emilio Aguinaldo and celebrated its independence from Spain. It was the second time the Aguinaldo government was declared and the new Philippine flag raised on the Mindanao island. By virtue of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States; this caused friction and resulted in the Philippine–American War.

American colonial period[edit]

On March 31, 1900, Americans occupied the town of Cagayan de Misamis and on April 7, 1900, battle erupted in the town center led by General Nicolas Capistrano[11] and Filipino resistance fighters. This would later be known as the Battle of Cagayan de Misamis. The Americans won the war, and about forty years later, gave the Philippines its independence July 4, 1946.[12] The war years in Cagayan de Oro were prompted by the presence of the Americans in 1898. The Americans were initially and successfully repulsed by the Kagay-anons forces led by Mayor Don Apolinar Vélez at the historic Battle of Makahambus on June 4, 1900.

The American forces attacking Makahambus, circa 1900s.

After the troubled years, peace finally brought back the economic activities to normalcy under the guidance of the United States. Consequently, from a purely farming-fishing area, Cagayan de Oro emerged into a booming commerce and trade center.

In 1948, the barrios of El Salvador and Molugan with their sitios known as Sala, Sambulawan, Sinaloc, Lagtang, Talaba, Kalabaylabay and Hinigdaan were separated from Cagayan de Oro to form the town of El Salvador.[13]

In 1950, the barrios of Opol, Igpit, and lower Iponan were separated from Cagayan de Oro to form the town of Opol.[14]


On June 15, 1950, then former President Elpidio Quirino signed Republic Act No. 521, which granted the status of a chartered city to the Municipality of Cagayan de Misamis.[15] This was made possible through the efforts of then Cagayan de Oro Congressman Emmanuel Pelaez.[16]

Cagayan de Oro was then declared a highly urbanized city by the Ministry of Local Government on November 22, 1983.

On December 16, 2011, Tropical Storm Sendong caused widespread flash floods in Northern Mindanao. In Cagayan de Oro, hundreds living near the banks of the Cagayan de Oro River were killed, with hundreds are still missing. The total death toll in Northern Mindanao (including Iligan City and nearby regions) is estimated to be at least 500.[17][18]

Officials said that despite government warning, some people did not evacuate. Five people were killed in a landslide, but all others died in the flash floods. The flash flooding occurred overnight, following 10 hours of rain, compounded by overflowing rivers and tributaries. Most of the victims had been sleeping.

In some areas, up to 20 centimeters of rain fell in 24 hours. More than 2,000 have been rescued, according to the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and at least 20,000 people are staying in 10 evacuation centers in Cagayan de Oro. Officials are also investigating reports that an entire village was swept away.[19]


NASA—satellite image captured of Macajalar Bay and the metropolis area.

Cagayan de Oro is located along the central coast of Northern Mindanao region. It is situated in Mindanao island, the second giant of the archipelago of all the landmass of the Philippines.

The southern portion of the city is bordered by the provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte. The municipality of Opol borders the city on the west and Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental to the east. To the north lies Macajalar Bay facing Bohol Sea.

Its total land area is 488.86 km² representing 13.9 percent of the entire Misamis Oriental province. It includes 25 kilometers of coastline and a harbor, Macajalar Bay. 44.7 percent of the surface of Cagayan de Oro is classified as agricultural land and 38.4 percent is classified as open spaces.[20]

The city is frequently categorized and referenced according to geographic factors: 1st district (west area) are consist of 24 barangays which mostly are suburban, and 2nd district (east area) are consist of 17 barangays, including city proper barangays from 1 to 40.


Under the Köppen climate classification system, Cagayan de Oro has a tropical climate with an annual average temperature of 28 °C. In June 1998, the city recorded its highest temperature to date of 39 °C.

Cagayan de Oro does not receive an even amount of rainfall throughout the year. The driest months are March and April while August and September are the wettest months. The rainy or wet season lasts from June until November with the relatively drier seasons lasting from December until May. The city lies outside the typhoon belt but is affected by the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone.

Climate data for Cagayan de Oro, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37
Average high °C (°F) 30
Daily mean °C (°F) 27
Average low °C (°F) 23
Record low °C (°F) 17
Avg. rainy days 10 7 6 6 8 13 14 14 15 15 11 11 130
Source: Weatherbase[21]


Population census
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1903 21,779 —    
1918 28,062 +1.70%
1939 48,084 +2.60%
1948 46,266 −0.43%
1970 128,319 +4.74%
1975 165,220 +5.20%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1980 227,312 +6.59%
1990 339,598 +4.10%
2000 461,871 +3.12%
2007 553,966 +2.54%
2010 602,088 +3.08%
Source: National Statistics Office[5]

As of the 2010 Census of Population, the population of the city was 602,088[5] people, making it the 10th most populous city in the Philippines.

About 44 percent of the household population in Cagayan de Oro classified themselves as ethnically mixed people, 22.15 percent as Cebuano, 4.38 percent as Boholano, while 28.07 percent as other ethnic groups. (2000 Census).[22]


Most Reverend James T. G. Hayes, the first archbishop of Cagayan de Oro.
St. Augustine Cathedral, one of the oldest cathedrals in Mindanao.
Inside St. Augustine Cathedral

Roman Catholicism is the city's dominant religion, represented by almost 87 percent of the population. Other religious affiliations include the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Iglesia ni Cristo, Philippine Independent Church, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Christ's Commission Fellowship, United Methodist Church, Jesus Miracle Crusade, Islam, and others.

The archdiocese of Cagayan de Oro is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. This archdiocese comprises three civil provinces of Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon, Camiguin and entire Caraga region. It is a metropolitan seat in the island of Mindanao.

The current archbishop in Cagayan de Oro is Most Reverend Antonio J. Ledesma, S.J., D.D. [clarification needed], who was installed on March 4, 2006, and its seat is located at St. Augustine Metropolitan Cathedral.

Recently, the Basilica of the Black Nazarene in Quiapo Church has also decided to move the replica statue of the Black Nazarene to Jesus Nazareno Parish Church in Cagayan de Oro along Claro M. Recto Avenue, so that the Black Nazarene devotees from Mindanao may not have to travel to Quiapo in Manila for their annual pilgrimage.

In recent decades, Protestants abound in the city. One of the known Protestant groups in the city is Pentecostalism, which dramatically increased with 2.8 percent total population, about 20 churches have been settling in the metropolitan area. Celebration International Church has one of the highest member attendances with a record of 735 members. In addition, three main Pentecostal mother churches are situated in the suburban area and few in the metropolitan areas. Also, Adventists, Mormons, and Methodists have surged in the suburban areas.

Islam is practiced mainly by Maranao settlers and the Balik Islam. There is an estimated of about 10% Muslims in the city. There are several large mosques and about 30 small mosques that can be found in the city. Some barangays has a very significant population or dominant population such as in Poblacion area, Nazareth, Bulua, Balulang, Iponan, Macabalan, Carmen, Camaman-an, Puntod, Patag, Macasandig, Kauswagan etc.

Buddhism and Taoism are practiced by majority of local Chinese. Their population is significant especially in Cugman and Gusa area.


Cebuano is primarily the spoken language in the city. Tagalog serves as the city's secondary language. Hiligaynon or erroneously called "Ilonggo", is spoken among residents near the city's port area and around Agora, brgy. Lapasan. English is mainly used for business and in the academe. Maranao is widely spoken within Maranao communities in the city.


Centrio Mall's Circular Section Facade
North Concourse, Limketkai Center
CM Recto Avenue, Cagayan de Oro's commercial district.
The view upon entering CDO's biggest Central Business District
Puregold Cagayan de Oro at intersection in Lapasan.

Cagayan de Oro is the melting pot of Mindanao because of its accessibility, business growth, attractions and most of its entire warm and hospitable people. Being the regional center and business hub of Northern Mindanao region, the city is one of the most progressive and competitive cities in the Philippines.[23]

The city's economy is largely based on industry, commerce, trade, service and tourism. Investment in Cagayan de Oro City for the first six months of 2012 has reached 7.4 billion pesos outpacing the local government's expectation of to nearly 100 percent. Investments in the city are dominated by malls, high-rise hotels and condominiums and convention centers. The net income for 2012 pegged at 2,041,036,807.89 billion pesos.

Car Industry[edit]

Cagayan de Oro City has been dubbed as the auto-hub in Mindanao after hosting world-renowned car brands like Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Isuzu, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, Ford, Kia, Foton, Mazda, Chevrolet, BMW, Peugeot, Hyundai, Subaru, Chery, Jinbei and soon Tata. Most of the car showrooms are located in one avenue along Iligan-Cagayan de Oro-Butuan Road.

Retail and Real Estate Industry[edit]

Cagayan de Oro City boasts a very healthy retail and residential market. National and International companies have started building high-rise condominiums like Centrio Tower and Aspira Towers under Avida Residences, Primavera Residences under ItalPinas Corp and The Loop under Vista Residences. Malls like Centrio Mall, SM City, Robinsons Malls and Limketkai Center also play a vital role on the city's economy.

Shopping centers[edit]

Market City and Bus Terminal at Agora, Lapasan, CDO.

There are many shopping malls located in the city. Notable ones are national retail giants namely SM City Cagayan de Oro, Centrio under Ayala Malls and Robinsons Cagayan de Oro. Homegrown retail giants such as Limketkai Center under Limketkai & Sons Inc., Gaisano City Mall and Gaisano Bulua under Interpace Corp., Ororama Cogon and Ororama Carmen under Mega Farm Corp. are now under major renovation and expansion. Soon to be expanded is The Lifestyle District, an open-air type mall under Montecarlo Realty Corp. Under construction malls are Gaisano Puerto, Paseo Mall under Zealep Company, Vista Malls The Village Center, another open-air type mall, under Vista Land Company and a second SM Supermall under premier brand in the city's downtown. However Rustan's Wellcome, the Vista Mall's anchor supermarket is already in operation. Soon to rise is another Ororama mall in barangay Agusan. Starmalls Inc. and CityMalls of Double Dragon Properties are said to expand their operation in the city.

There are three market malls (a hybrid of shopping mall and market) in the city namely Market City that houses a fully air-conditioned wet market, SM Savemore Market, Ororama department store and other tenants. 858-Cogon Market and Carmen Market complexes house Unitop supermarkets and department stores, stalls and botiques.

Hypermarkets are Shopwise and Puregold Cagayan de Oro. Neighborhood centers are SM Savemore Market Kauswagan and SM Savemore Market Capistrano. Another SM Savemore Market in barangay Puerto is said to be in the pipeline. Under the planning stage is SnR Cagayan de Oro.

Department store, supermarket and food court under one building are Gaisano Osmena, Gaisano Cogon and Gaisano Carmen.

Stand-alone supermarkets are Robinsons Supermarket Gusa and Gaisano Suki Club. There are many stand-alone department stores and large groceries owned by local and foreign Chinese, Taiwanese and Korean businessmen in the city.

Culture and arts[edit]

There are several notable events in the city. Each barangay or barrio has its own feast locally known as Fiesta literally as festivals honoring their patron saints after achieving recognition in their own rights.

The Kagay-an Festival(now called Higalaay Festival), is a week-long festival in celebration of Cagayan de Oro's patron saint Señor San Agustin, held every month of August. The word "Kagay-an" thus means a river.

Highlights of the Kagay-an Festival are the Kahimuan Trade Fair that features the native products of the city and province particularly on agriculture products, Miss Cagayan de Oro, Folkloric Street Dancing Competition which features colorful attires and cultural dances of the Higaonon tribes, Golden Float Parade, Halad sa Lambagohan, PE Rhythmic Dance Competition, Kalo Festival and Kumbira that started on 1996 by Kagay-anons hoteliers and restaurants. A culinary show and exhibit, it has been evolved over the years and it now hosts a culinary competition among students and professionals all over Mindanao.[24]

The competition is divided into students and professionals where Hotel and Restaurant Management schools and professional chefs compete against each other in their respective categories. There are also cultural shows, competitions and celebrity concerts.

Charter Day is the city's celebration of its cityhood established on June 15, 1950. It is a non-working holiday and a roster of special activities is lined up annually to mark this special occasion.


Cagayan de Oro food cultures include a variety of world cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Western and Austronesian immigrants have made the city famous for pastel bread, chicharrón and Hamon de Cagayan. Numerous of Chinese and Korean restaurants are also present in the city. Some mobile food vendors licensed by the city sell street food like kwek-kwek, fish balls, tempura, proven and grilled meat.


Cagayan de Oro is the home of "Cagayan de Oro Stars" and "Cagayan de Oro Rapids" basketball teams. This major teams of the city is member community of Mindanao Visayas Basketball Association, an amateur commercial basketball league in southern Philippines sanctioned by the country's National Sports Association for basketball, the Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas (SBP). Also, it is the home of "Holcim MoneyGram-Misamis Oriental" and "Holcim Pryce Pharma", which commencing the Misamis Oriental province. Aside from the basketball, Cagayan de Oro also to be known for its oldest lawn tennis clubs like the "Golden Friendship Tennis Club". In addition, the city is ornamented with amateur volleyball teams like the Xavier University Volleyball Team.

The city was known to its leading sport, chess, one of the most common recreations by continuing championships in Mindanao since 1990’s. Also, the white water rafting and Kayaking has its annual sport events through the Cagayan River.

Also, designate a number of sports venues, including one of the biggest sports complex in Mindanao the Pelaez Memorial Sports Center, Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan Gymnasium, Liceo Civic Center and others, a sports and entertainment complex that also hosts concerts. The Pelaez Memorial Sports Center serves as the home complex of Misamis Oriental sports teams.


Due to the national government's aggressive tourism campaign, local and foreign tourist arrivals in the city are on the rise. In 2004, the city registered a tourist arrival of 307,820; an increase from a previous of 232,257 in 2003.

Parks and resorts[edit]

Whitewater rafting or kayaking adventures in the Cagayan de Oro River.
The Heritage Monument of Misamis Oriental in Vicente de Lara Park.
A Tribute monument to the slain members of the press
  • Duaw Park
  • Gaston Park is located along the St. Augustine Cathedral. This park eventually became an execution ground for Spanish criminals turned later into a training ground for the local revolutionaries during the American occupation.
  • Plaza Divisoria (Golden Friendship Park) is located in the downtown area. It was built around 1900's as a town divider after a great fire that almost burned down the entire city. The park is dedicated to local and national heroes like former President Ramon Magsaysay, Andrés Bonifacio, Dr. José Rizal, and former Mayor Justiniano R. Borja. Most of the Kagay-anons soldiers who died during the Philippine-American War are buried beneath the monument and has survived the ravages of time including World War II.[7]
  • Vicente de Lara Park (McArthur Park) is a popular jogging area during the morning situated in front of the Provincial Capitol of Misamis Oriental building with age-old mahogany trees that provide a therapeutic canopy for the promenades. A Press Freedom Monument and the Heritage Monument of Misamis Oriental designed by national artist Eduardo Castrillo can also be found in this redevelopment park.
  • Gardens of Malasag Eco-Tourism Village is located in a reforested area in Malasag Hill. This 7 hectares village has replicas of tribal houses in the region and a panoramic view of Macajalar Bay. The tourism village is owned and managed by the Philippine Tourism Authority.[25]
  • Plaza de Los Heroes is a memorial park dedicated to the heroes of the Three Battles of Cagayan de Oro during the Philippine-American War located along Mastersons Avenue in upper Carmen.
  • Mapawa Nature Park is for horseback riding, biking, zip line and nature trekking adventures.
  • Monigue Cave is located in barangay Mambuaya this city; the cave entrance is flowing water from underground stream. The cave has a small opening that seems too narrow to be passable, it has a six inches airspace between ceiling and water that you have submerge yourselves one by one, equipped with a helmet and a waterproof cap lamp. It contains a beautiful sparkling formation, which is called the Calcium Carbonates (CaCO3) or Calcites. These stalactites and stalagmites, white and brown, are sign of oxidized materials that take 50 to 60 years to form an inch the cave is definitely spellbinding. There were formations of flowstone, gurpool-resembling, rice terraces, transparent crystals and picturesque speleothems, such as cathedral drapes and icons.
  • Catanico Falls is concealed by a huge boulders, the rapids, cascading falls and natural pool of barangay F.S. Catanico.
  • Palalan Falls is surrounded by boulders and stones dubbed by the city as "Oro" stone similar in characteristics with the Mangima stone.
  • Migtugsok Falls is located at barangay Cugman and it is composed of five beautiful cascading waters, where the beauty of nature could be experienced, unexploited by the carelessness of human search for progress and development.
  • Kagay-an Resort (Lawndale Spring Resort) is located in barangay Taguanao area, is usually packed with families and groups on weekends lounging in the cold springs.

Museums and historical places[edit]

Cagayan de Oro City Museum.
Gen. McArthur Memorial Marker in Macabalan Wharf.
  • City Archives Museum is a museum used to be an Old Water Tower built circa 1922 just across the cathedral and Gaston Park. Recently, it was upgraded into a museum that houses antiquities, memorabilia of well-known families in the city and a gallery parade of Cagayan de Oro history.
  • Gen. McArthur Memorial Marker is a historical marker located at the edge of Port of Cagayan de Oro; the monument commemorates two historical events.
  • Museo de Oro is a museum located within the main campus of Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan. The museum exhibits artifacts dug from Huluga Caves and repertoire of Bukidnon, and the Maranao cultures that have survived the ravages of time.[7]
  • Museum of Three Cultures is a museum of Capitol University. It houses a gallery of Maranao antiquities from Tugaya, Lanao del Sur; a gallery of ethno history which shall display Cagayan de Oro history, Butuan archaeological artifacts, lumad arts and crafts from the Higaonon and Manobo cultures, and a treasure of Christians lowland artifacts of Northern Mindanao region; and finally an art gallery and coffee shop that promotes the local visual arts of Mindanao. It also has a research archives that will house Spanish era written documents, photographs, memorabilia of well-known personalities in Mindanao, which is open to all researchers and students of culture.
  • La Castilla is a museum of the Philippine household heirlooms and antiques. This is the Peláez family memorabilia administered by the Liceo de Cagayan University.
  • DXCC Museum is a museum of a well-known radio broadcasting station in the Philippines called RMN-DXCC located at Don Apolinar Velez street.
  • Executive Building (Old City Hall) is used to be known as Casa Real de Cagayán, a former Spanish Governors residence and seat of the present-day local government officials.
  • MOGCHS Administration Building was part of the 1907 Gabaldon initiatives to established and build public schools all over the Philippines under the Americans regime.
  • Casa del Chino Ygua (Balay na Bato) was built in 1882 by the Sia family; they are the first Chinese migrants in Cagayan de Oro. Most of the revolutionaries died and buried behind the house during the Philippine-American War.
  • Makahambus Cave and Adventure Park is an underground cave with a 130 foot (40 m) circular gorge. The ravine is thick with various species of plants and huge trees. It is the site of the historic Battle of Makahambus Hill between Kagay-anons and American soldiers during the Philippine-American War circa 1900's [clarification needed].[26]
  • Huluga Caves is an archaeological site in Sitio Taguanao, barangay Indahag. It is composed of an open site and two caves where skeletal remains of a child and woman were found. A fragment of the woman's skull was 377 A.D. by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, United States. The open site is the venue of a prehistoric settlement.



CM Recto Flyover
Ysalina Bridge
Port of Cagayan de Oro, one of the busiest ports in Mindanao.[27]

As the gateway to Northern Mindanao region and the rest of Mindanao, Cagayan de Oro is very accessible via land, air and water transportations.


Port of Cagayan de Oro in Macabalan area is located near the estuary of Cagayan de Oro River. It has an anchorage depth of 18 meters and is around 400 meters from the shoreline. It has two authorized cargo-handling operators. With the recent completion of the P250 million rehabilitation project, the port is now the biggest international and domestic seaport in Mindanao.[28]

The Port of Cagayan de Oro (Macabalan Port) serves regular cities trips to and from Metro Manila, Cebu City, Tagbilaran, Bacolod, Dumaguete, Iloilo City and Jagna, Bohol.

General Milling and Del Monte Philippines also operate their own port facilities within Cagayan de Oro. The $85 million Mindanao International Container Port located in nearby town Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental 17 kilometers from Cagayan de Oro serves the PHIVIDEC Industrial Estate. This city's sub-port connects Mindanao to the ports of major cities in Visayas, Batangas, Metro Manila and the rest of the world.


Laguindingan Airport.

The new airport of Cagayan de Oro, called Laguindingan Airport, provides domestic flights to and from Manila, Cebu City, Iloilo City and Davao City. The new Laguindingan Airport, which replaced Lumbia Airport, was officially opened on June 15, 2013, and sits on a 4.17 square kilometres (1.61 sq mi) site in Barangay Moog, Laguindingan, some 46 kilometres (29 mi) northwest of Cagayan de Oro.[29] It was inaugurated on January 11, 2006, with groundbreaking ceremonies presided by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who advocated the idea of an international airport in the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Corridor.[30] Laguindingan Airport, one of the national government's flagship projects to boost the nation's tourism industry, is destined to become an international airport serving the entire region of Northern Mindanao and Lanao del Norte.

Bus terminals[edit]

Several means of public transportation are also available within the city. A number of companies also operate taxi services. There are also a couple of river taxis that ply down to the Cagayan de Oro River for both locals and tourists.

The Eastbound integrated Bus Terminal (Agora) offers a regular landtrips to and from eastern municipalities of Misamis Oriental, Gingoog, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Bayugan, Prosperidad, San Francisco, Surigao City, Tandag, Bislig, Bukidnon including Malaybalay and Valencia, Wao, Lanao del Sur, Davao City, Tagum, Kabacan, Cotabato City, Isulan, Tacurong and General Santos.

Westbound Integrated Bus and Jeepney Terminal is also offering a regular land trips to and from western municipalities of Misamis Oriental including El Salvador and Laguindingan, Iligan, Tubod, Marawi, Oroquieta, Tangub, Ozamiz, Dapitan, Dipolog, and the rest of Zamboanga Peninsula including Pagadian, Ipil and Zamboanga City.

Utilities and services[edit]

  • There are five major land-based phone companies MisOrTel, PLDT-PhilCom, Smart Broadband (formerly CruzTelCo), BayanTel and ItalTel serving the city.
  • Mobile phone services are provided by Globe Telecom, Smart Communications and Sun Cellular.
  • There are several internet companies operating in the city offering dial up, broadband, Wi-Fi and cable services. Pueblo de Oro Business IT Park located in Upper Carmen is the first PEZA-registered IT park in Mindanao. The IT Park currently houses one of Cagayan de Oro's call centers.
  • Water services are provided by the Cagayan de Oro Water District (COWD), it was the first water district established in the entire Philippines.
  • Electricity is provided by the Cagayan Electric Power and Light Company (CEPALCO). CEPALCO, which began operations in 1952 that covers Cagayan de Oro and the Municipalities of Tagoloan, Villanueva and Jasaan, all in the Province of Misamis Oriental, including the 3,000-hectare PHIVIDEC Industrial Estate and caters to more than 100,000 consumers. The company's distribution system network now includes 138KV, 69KV, 34.5KV and 13.8KV systems. CEPALCO is also operating the developing world's first and largest (at the time of its inauguration in 2004) on-grid Solar Photovoltaic power plant. The 1-megawatt polycrystalline silicon-based Photovoltaic (PV) plant in Barangay Indahag of this city is connected with the distribution network of CEPALCO. It is the biggest solar power plant connected to the power grid in Southeast Asia.[31]

Law enforcement[edit]

Cagayan de Oro is the base of major military and police camps in the Northern Mindanao region. Camp Vicente Alagar, located in barangay Lapasan, is the headquarters of the Philippine National Police in the city. It has jurisdiction over the entire region.

Camp Edilberto Evangelista, located in barangay Patag is the largest military camp in Mindanao with an area of 129 hectares. It is home to the 4th infantry division of the Philippine Army. Camp Evangelista's external jurisdiction covers the Northern Mindanao and Caraga regions. Minor military camps are also located in barangay Lumbia and upper Puerto.

Medical facilities[edit]

Cagayan de Oro has a hospital bed to population ratio of 1:474 as of 2003. The Justiniano R. Borja Memorial Medical Hospital (formerly City Hospital), Puerto Community Hospital and Northern Mindanao Medical Center (formerly Provincial Hospital) are the three government-run hospitals.

Capitol University Medical Center, Polymedic General Hospital, Polymedic Medical Plaza, Maria Reyna–Xavier University Hospital, Cagayan de Oro Medical Center, Madonna and Child Hospital, Sabal Hospital and Cagayan de Oro Doctor's Hospital (formerly Maternity Hospital) are privately owned.

Many of these hospital facilities have undergone expansion, renovation and modernization.

Local government[edit]

Misamis Oriental Provincial Capitol

Elected and appointed officials have administered Cagayan de Oro since June 15, 1950, with a strong mayor-council government. The city political government is composed of the mayor, vice-mayor, two congressional districts representatives, sixteen councilors, one Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Federation representative and an Association of Barangay Captains (ABC) representative. Each official is elected publicly to a three-year terms.

The following are the current city officials of Cagayan de Oro:[32]

Barangay and legislative districts[edit]

Cagayan de Oro is politically subdivided into 80 barangays. These are grouped into two congressional districts, 24 barangays in the 1st district (West) and 56 barangays in the 2nd district (East), with Cagayan de Oro River as the natural boundary. The city has a 57 urbanized barangays and 23 rural barangays all in all.

1st district
  • Barangays: Baikingon, Balulang, Bayabas, Bayanga, Besigan, Bonbon, Bulua, Canitoan, Carmen, Dansolihon, Iponan, Kauswagan, Lumbia, Mambuaya, Pagalungan, Pagatpat, Patag, Pigsag-an, San Simon, Taglimao, Tagpangi, Tignapoloan, Tuburan, Tumpagon—with a population of 290,913 (as of 2010 census).[5]
2nd district
  • Barangays: Agusan, Balubal, Bugo, Camaman-an, Consolacion, Cugman, F.S. Catanico, Gusa, Indahag, Lapasan, Macabalan, Macasandig, Nazareth, Puerto, Puntod, Tablon, and the city proper barangays of Barangay 1 (Poblacion), Barangay 2 (Población), Barangay 3 (Población), Barangay 4 (Población), Barangay 5 (Población), Barangay 6 (Población), Barangay 7 (Población), Barangay 8 (Población), Barangay 9 (Población), Barangay 10 (Población), Barangay 11 (Población), Barangay 12 (Población), Barangay 13 (Población), Barangay 14 (Población), Barangay 15 (Población), Barangay 16 (Población), Barangay 17 (Población), Barangay 18 (Población), Barangay 19 (Población), Barangay 20 (Población), Barangay 21 (Población), Barangay 22 (Población), Barangay 23 (Población), Barangay 24 (Población), Barangay 25 (Población), Barangay 26 (Población), Barangay 27 (Población), Barangay 28 (Población), Barangay 29 (Población), Barangay 30 (Población), Barangay 31 (Población), Barangay 32 (Población), Barangay 33 (Población), Barangay 34 (Población), Barangay 35 (Población), Barangay 36 (Población), Barangay 37 (Población), Barangay 38 (Población), Barangay 39 (Población), Barangay 40 (Población)—with a population of 311,175 (as of 2010 census).[5]


The city has four major private universities/colleges: the Capitol University, Liceo de Cagayan University, Lourdes College - Cagayan de Oro City, and Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan. The Mindanao University of Science and Technology is the only state university in the city. Other higher education institutions include, Southern Philippines College, Pilgrim Christian College, Cagayan de Oro College – PHINMA Education Network, Lourdes College and St. Mary's Academy of Carmen run by the RVM Sisters, and STI College - Cagayan de Oro with a secondary education program in Barangay Kauswagan. There are also a number of foreign schools in the city with study programs.

Notable public and private elementary and high schools include Cagayan de Oro National High School, Misamis Oriental General Comprehensive High School, Regional Science High School 10, City Central School, St. Mary's School, Corpus Christi School, Merry Child School, Nanuri International School, International School, Golden Heritage Polytechnic College, Vineyard International Polytechnic College, and Montessori de Oro. There are also schools in Cagayan de Oro that use the Accelerated Christian Education system. Two of these schools include Lapasan Baptist Christian Academy and Shekinah Glory Christian Academy. There are two Chinese schools in the city: Kong Hua School (Roman Catholic) and Oro Christian Grace School (an Evangelical Christian school).[33]


Notable media publications in the city are the Mindanao Gold Star Daily, SunStar Cagayan de Oro, and Super Balita. Ang Katarungan is the city's major English-Cebuano language paper published since 1926. Brigada Newspaper Cagayan de Oro is the most popular newspaper company in the city.

There are eleven television stations in the city that are owned and operated by broadcasting networks—ETC TV-4, 9TV TV 5, ABS-CBN TV 2, GMA TV 12/35, 2nd Avenue TV-31, RMN/BEAM 8/33, TV5 Channel 21, Channel 45 Global News Network, GMA News TV Channel 43 ABS-CBN Sports and Action Channel 23, and the twelve television station, is operated by the Cagayan de Oro College Broadcast Network. The Parasat Cable TV Incorporated [clarification needed][citation needed] and Jade Cable TV are the two cable systems in the city.

There are two local newscasts programs in Cagayan de Oro: TV Patrol Northern Mindanao (ABS-CBN Cagayan de Oro), and 24 Oras Northern Mindanao (formerly Testigo Northern MindanaoGMA Northern Mindanao after it was launched in 2013 as Testigo Northern Mindanao and later on November 10, 2014 re-launched as 24 Oras Northern Mindanao).

International relations[edit]

Twin towns or sister cities[edit]

Cagayan de Oro has sister cities worldwide including local, as classified by the city government.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 12 May 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  2. ^ "Province: MISAMIS ORIENTAL". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  3. ^ Cities of the Philippines
  4. ^ http://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/ris/dps/pidsdps9831.pdf
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  6. ^ "Cagayan de Oro’s White Water Rafting". Philippine Postal Corporation. June 18, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c Cagayan De Oro Travel Guide
  8. ^ GMA goes whitewater rafting in Cagayan de Oro - and looks forward to mountain climbing : Philippines : Gov.Ph : News
  9. ^ http://cagayandeoro.elizaga.net/Appendix/meaning-of-cagayan.html
  10. ^ Montalvan, Antonio J. II (October 16, 2009). "History of Cagayan de Oro". Heritage Conservation Advocates. p. 2. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Unsung Heroes of the Philippine Revolution: Ang mga Pilipino sa Ating Kasaysayan, a Centennial Resource Book". MSC Institute of Technology. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  12. ^ Berlow, Alan (July 4, 1996). "The Independence Day That Wasn't". Philippine Centennial Series. Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  13. ^ The 1st Congress of the Philippines (June 15, 1948). "R.A. No. 268, An Act Creating the Municipality of El Salvador, Province of Misamis Oriental". Philippine Law Info. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  14. ^ The 2nd Congress of the Philippines (June 15, 1950). "R.A. No. 524, An Act Creating the Municipality of Opol, Province of Misamis Oriental". Philippine Law Info. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ The 2nd Congress of the Philippines (June 15, 1950). "R.A. No. 521, Cagayan de Oro City Charter". Philippine Law Info. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  16. ^ Roa, A. Paulita (June 15, 2012). "The City of Cagayan de Oro". Feature. Sun.Star Cagayan de Oro. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  17. ^ Bullit Marquez and Jim Gomez (December 19, 2011). "Hundreds killed as flash floods hit Philippines". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 19, 2011. 
  18. ^ Whaley, Floyd (December 17, 2011). "Floods in Southern Philippines Leave Hundreds Dead". Asia Pacific. The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2011. 
  19. ^ Ressa, Maria (December 19, 2011). "Storm death toll tops 650 in Philippines; hundreds missing". Asia. CNN. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  20. ^ "The Official Website of Cagayan de Oro City". The City Government of Cagayan de Oro City. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Cagayan de Oro, Philippines". Weatherbase. 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2007. 
  22. ^ "Cagayan de Oro City: Population growth rate declined to 1.63 percent". National Statistics Office. September 17, 2002. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Cagayan de Oro". Philippine Airlines. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Kagay-an Festival". CDO Guide: Your Online Guide to Cagayan de Oro. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  25. ^ Gardens of Malasag Eco-Tourism Village
  26. ^ http://www.cagayandeoro.cdo.ph/pages/gln_history.htm
  27. ^ "Port of Cagayan de Oro". Philippine Ports Authority. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  28. ^ P250-M rehab for Mindanao’s biggest port completed - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos
  29. ^ Rodriguez, Ma. Cecilia (July 22, 2007). "Waiting for the flight from Laguindingan". Inquirer Headlines - Regions. Inquirer Mobile. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  30. ^ Cabahug-Aguhob, Rutchie (December 14, 2009). "Pres. Arroyo inaugurates 17,000th km-milestone FMR" (Press release). Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  31. ^ "CEPALCO’S 1MWP Photovoltaic Power Plant". Cagayan Electric Power and Light Company. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  32. ^ "Officials in Cagayan de Oro City". Elizaga. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  33. ^ The 14th Congress of the Philippines (January 7, 2009). "R.A. No. 9519, Mindanao University of Science and Technology Charter". Philippine Law Info. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  34. ^ "South Bay Facts". Los Angeles Times. July 31, 1986. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Minutes of the Lawndele City Council Regular Meeting". City Government of Lawndale City. December 19, 2011. p. 8. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  36. ^ Fuentes Ian A. CdeO To Get 5 Fire Trucks Donation From Tainan[dead link], www.cagayandeoro.gov.ph
  37. ^ Jaraula Attends Int\\\'l Trade Fair In Harbin[dead link], www.cagayandeoro.gov.ph
  38. ^ Elson T. Elizaga Neglecting Our Ancient City , Letter.
  39. ^ Cagayan De Oro City adopts Gwangyang, Korea as sister city, Philippine Information Agency

External links[edit]

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GMA News
Thu, 19 Mar 2015 08:42:08 -0700

A fire in a residential area in Cagayan de Oro on Thursday afternoon killed two people before it was put out. The fire occurred at Yacapin Street in Barangay 35 in Cagayan de Oro City, GMA Northern Mindanao reported. Most of the houses were made of ...

GMA News

GMA News
Wed, 25 Mar 2015 19:13:24 -0700

In the name of peace in Mindanao, the chief peace negotiator of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front on Wednesday afternoon paid a visit to Cagayan de Oro Archbishop Antonio Ledesma. Wednesday's meeting was held at the Archbishop's Palace, as shown in ...

Philippine Star

Mon, 16 Mar 2015 06:52:30 -0700

AFTER three tries, former television actress and model Pia Wurtzbach finally nailed the Miss Universe-Philippines crown Sunday night. Representing the city of Cagayan de Oro, Wurtzbach bested 33 other candidates in the Binibining Pilipinas 2015 ...
Mon, 30 Mar 2015 07:15:00 -0700

CAGAYAN DE ORO. An Air Asia passenger plane takes off for Manila as another plane, a Philippine Air Lines Airbus A320, waits its turn at the Laguindingan Airport, Misamis Oriental, Sunday. The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines is hoping the ...
GMA News
Mon, 16 Mar 2015 04:33:01 -0700

Unidentified thieves made off over the weekend with the bronze-plated marker of a bridge inaugurated just last month in Cagayan de Oro City. The marker, worth about P50,000, was unveiled when the J.R. Borja Bridge was inaugurated Feb. 6, GMA Northern ...
GMA News
Sat, 07 Mar 2015 23:15:26 -0800

Disaster management and food research officials in Cagayan de Oro City are eyeing space-age technology in preparing food for victims of calamities. The officials met last week with US-based Filipino scientist Apollo Arquiza to discuss the matter, GMA ...
Thu, 26 Mar 2015 05:56:15 -0700

Dulce Tiro Potenciano said by the start of classes in June, an additional 309 new classrooms await the students in Cagayan de Oro's public schools where more than 93,000 of elementary and about 33,500 high school students are expected to enrol.
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Fri, 06 Mar 2015 02:25:09 -0800

Police have rescued a businesswoman abducted in Cagayan de Oro City Wednesday afternoon, and arrested three of her suspected kidnappers. The police are looking at a P5-million debt as the motive behind the abduction of Genoveva Billanes, GMA ...

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