digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

This article is about the letter of the alphabet. For other uses, see C (disambiguation).
For technical reasons, "C#" redirects here. For C-sharp, see C-sharp.
Cursive.svg
Circle sheer blue 27.png
Circle sheer blue 27.png
Cursive script 'c' and capital 'C'
C cursiva.gif

C is the third letter in the English alphabet, and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems, which inherited it from the Latin alphabet. It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee (pronounced /ˈs/) in English.[1]

History[edit]

Phoenician
gaml
Arabic
ǧīm
Hebrew
gimel
Greek
Gamma
Etruscan 
C
Old Latin
C (G)
Phoenician gimel Arabic Gim Hebrew gimel Greek Gamma Etruscan C Old Latin

'C' comes from the same letter as 'G'. The Semites named it gimel. The sign is possibly adapted from an Egyptian hieroglyph for a staff sling, which may have been the meaning of the name gimel. Another possibility is that it depicted a camel, the Semitic name for which was gamal. Barry B. Powell, a specialist in the history of writing, states "It is hard to imagine how gimel = "camel" can be derived from the picture of a camel (it may show his hump, or his head and neck!)".[2]

In the Etruscan language, plosive consonants had no contrastive voicing, so the Greek 'Γ' (Gamma) was adopted into the Etruscan alphabet to represent /k/. Already in the Western Greek alphabet, Gamma first took a 'Early Etruscan C.gif' form in Early Etruscan, then 'Classical Etruscan C.gif' in Classical Etruscan. In Latin it eventually took the 'c' form in Classical Latin. In the earliest Latin inscriptions, the letters 'c k q' were used to represent the sounds /k/ and /ɡ/ (which were not differentiated in writing). Of these, 'q' was used to represent /k/ or /ɡ/ before a rounded vowel, 'k' before 'a', and 'c' elsewhere.[3] During the 3rd century BC, a modified character was introduced for /ɡ/, and 'c' itself was retained for /k/. The use of 'c' (and its variant 'g') replaced most usages of 'k' and 'q'. Hence, in the classical period and after, 'g' was treated as the equivalent of Greek gamma, and 'c' as the equivalent of kappa; this shows in the romanization of Greek words, as in 'KAΔMOΣ', 'KYPOΣ', and 'ΦΩKIΣ' came into Latin as 'cadmvs', 'cyrvs' and 'phocis', respectively.

Other alphabets have letters homoglyphic to 'c' but not in use and derivation, like the Cyrillic letter Es (С, с) which derives from the lunate sigma, named due to its resemblance to the crescent moon.

Later use[edit]

When the Roman alphabet was introduced into Britain, 'c' represented only /k/ and this value of the letter has been retained in loanwords to all the insular Celtic languages: in Welsh, Irish, Gaelic, 'c' represents only /k/. The Old English or "Anglo-Saxon" writing was learned from the Celts, apparently of Ireland; hence 'c' in Old English also originally represented /k/; the Modern English words kin, break, broken, thick, and seek, all come from Old English words written with 'c': cyn, brecan, brocen, þicc, and séoc. But during the course of the Old English period, /k/ before front vowels (/e/ and /i/) were palatalized, having changed by the tenth century to [tʃ], though 'c' was still used, as in cir(i)ce, wrecc(e)a. On the continent, meanwhile, a similar phonetic change had also been going on (for example, in Italian).

In Vulgar Latin, /k/ became palatalized to [tʃ] in Italy and Dalmatia; in France and the Iberian peninsula, it became [ts]. Yet for these new sounds c was still used before front vowels e, i. The letter thus represented two distinct values. Subsequently, the Latin phoneme /kʷ/ (spelled qv) de-labialized to /k/ meaning that the various Romance languages had /k/ before front vowels. In addition, Norman used the Greek letter 'k' so that the sound /k/ could be represented by either 'k' or 'c' the latter of which could represent either /k/ or /ts/ depending on whether it preceded a front vowel or not. The convention of using both c' and 'k' was applied to the writing of English after the Norman Conquest, causing a considerable re-spelling of the Old English words. Thus while Old English candel, clif, corn, crop, cú, remained unchanged, Cent, cæ´ᵹ (cé´ᵹ), cyng, brece, séoce, were now (without any change of sound) spelled 'Kent', 'keȝ', 'kyng', 'breke', and 'seoke'; even cniht ('knight') was subsequently changed to 'kniht' and þic ('thick') changed to 'thik' or 'thikk'. The Old English 'cw' was also at length displaced by the French 'qu' so that the Old English cwén ('queen') and cwic ('quick') became Middle English 'quen' 'quik', respectively. [tʃ] to which Old English palatalized /k/ had advanced, also occurred in French, chiefly from Latin /k/ before 'a'. In French it was represented by 'ch', as in champ (from Latin camp-um) and this spelling was introduced into English: the Hatton Gospels, written about 1160, have in Matt. i-iii, child, chyld, riche, mychel, for the cild, rice, mycel, of the Old English version whence they were copied. In these cases, the Old English 'c' gave place to 'k qu ch' but, on the other hand, 'c' in its new value of /ts/ came in largely in French words like processiun, emperice, grace, and was also substituted for 'ts' in a few Old English words, as miltse, bletsien, in early Middle English milce, blecien. By the end of the thirteenth century both in France and England, this sound /ts/ de-affricated to /s/; and from that time 'c' has represented /s/ before front vowels either for etymological reasons, as in lance, cent, or (in defiance of etymology)[citation needed] to avoid the ambiguity due to the "etymological" use of 's' for /z/, as in ace, mice, once, pence, defence.

Thus, to show the etymology, English spelling has advise, devise, instead of advize, devize, which while advice, device, dice, ice, mice, twice, etc., do not reflect etymology; example has extended this to hence, pence, defence, etc., where there is no etymological necessity for 'c'. Former generations also wrote sence for sense. Hence, today the Romance languages and English have a common feature inherited from Vulgar Latin where 'c' takes on either a "hard" or "soft" value depending on the following vowel.

Use in orthographies[edit]

English[edit]

In English orthography, 'c' generally represents a "soft" value of /s/ before the vowel letters 'e' (including the Latin-derived digraphs ae and oe), 'i' and 'y' and a "hard" value of /k/ before the vowel letters 'a', 'o' and 'u'. However, there are a number of exceptions in English: "soccer" and "Celt" are words that have /k/ where /s/ would be expected.

The soft c may represent the /ʃ/ sound in the digraph 'ci' when this precedes a vowel, as in the words 'delicious' and 'appreciate'.

The digraph 'ch' most commonly represents //, but can take the value /k/ (mainly in words of Greek origin) or /ʃ/ (mainly in words of French origin); some dialects of English also have /x/ in words like loch where other speakers pronounce the final sound as /k/. The trigraph 'tch' always represents //.

The digraph 'ck' is often used to represent the sound /k/ after short vowels.

Other languages[edit]

In the Romance languages French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian and Portuguese, 'c' generally has a "hard" value of /k/ and a "soft" value, the pronunciation of which varies by language. In French, Portuguese, and Spanish from Latin America and southern Spain, the soft 'c' value is /s/ as it is in English. In the Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain, the soft 'c' is a voiceless dental fricative /θ/. In Italian and Romanian, the soft 'c' is [t͡ʃ].

All Balto-Slavic languages that use the Latin alphabet, as well as Albanian, Hungarian, Pashto, several Sami languages, Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, and Americanist phonetic notation (and those aboriginal languages of North America whose practical orthography derives from it) use 'c' to represent /t͡s/, the voiceless alveolar or voiceless dental sibilant affricate. In romanized Mandarin Chinese, the letter represents an aspirated version of this sound, /t͡sʰ/.

Among non-European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet, 'c' represents a variety of sounds. Yup'ik, Indonesian, Malay, and a number of African languages such as Hausa, Fula, and Manding share the soft Italian value of /t͡ʃ/. In Azeri, Kurdish, Tatar, and Turkish 'c' stands for the voiced counterpart of this sound, the voiced postalveolar affricate /d͡ʒ/. In Yabem and similar languages, such as Bukawa, 'c' stands for a glottal stop /ʔ/. Xhosa and Zulu use this letter to represent the click /ǀ/. in some other African languages, such as Beninese Yoruba, 'c' is used for /ʃ/. In Fijian, 'c' stands for a voiced dental fricative /ð/, while in Somali it has the value of /ʕ/.

The letter 'c' is also used as a transliteration of the Cyrillic 'ц' in the Latinic forms of Serbian, Macedonian, and sometimes Ukrainian (along with the digraph 'ts').

Ch[edit]

There are several common digraphs with 'c', the most common being 'ch', which in some languages such as German is far more common than 'c' alone. 'Ch' takes various values in other languages, such as:

Other digraphs and trigraphs[edit]

As in English, 'Ck', with the value /k/, is often used after short vowels in other Germanic languages such as German and Swedish (but some other Germanic languages use 'kk' instead, such as Dutch and Norwegian). The digraph 'cz' is found in Polish and 'cs' in Hungarian, both representing /t͡ʃ/. The digraph 'sc' represents /ʃ/ in Old English, Italian, and a few languages related to Italian, (however in Italian and related languages this only happens before front vowels, otherwise it represents /sk/). The trigraph 'sch' represents /ʃ/ in German.

Other usage[edit]

As a phonetic symbol, lowercase 'c' is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal plosive, and capital 'C' is the X-SAMPA symbol for the voiceless palatal fricative.

It is used to represent one hundred in Roman numerals.

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character C c
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C   LATIN SMALL LETTER C
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 67 U+0043 99 U+0063
UTF-8 67 43 99 63
Numeric character reference C C c c
EBCDIC family 195 C3 131 83
ASCII 1 67 43 99 63
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "C" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "cee", op. cit.
  2. ^ Powell, Barry B. (27 Mar 2009). Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization. Wiley Blackwell. p. 182. ISBN 978-1405162562. 
  3. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995). New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin (illustrated ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-19-508345-8. 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to C at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of C at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of c at Wiktionary

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C  — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

Top Soccer Shootout Ever With Scott Sterling - Studio C (Original)

A soccer match between the Yale Bulldogs and the North Carolina Tar Heels comes down to Scott Sterling and the most epic penalty kick shootout you'll ever see. Subscribe to Studio C: http://www.yo...

"Oh God, it's Mom." (C-SPAN)

Brothers Brad and Dallas Woodhouse get an unexpected call from their mother during Washington Journal appearance. Watch the complete segment here: ...

Un père veut casser les genoux de son beau-fils - C’Cauet sur NRJ

C'Cauet sur NRJ de 19h à 22h ! Encore plus de vidéos sur Cauet.fr Pour plus de kiff, abonne-toi ! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cauetofficiel Un père veut casser...

Tenny - Action ou Vérité - Live - C'Cauet sur NRJ - C’Cauet sur NRJ

C'Cauet sur NRJ de 19h à 22h ! Encore plus de vidéos sur Cauet.fr Pour plus de kiff, abonne-toi ! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cauetofficiel Tenny - Action ou Vérite...

Action et vérité pour Tenny - C’Cauet sur NRJ

C'Cauet sur NRJ de 19h à 22h ! Encore plus de vidéos sur Cauet.fr Pour plus de kiff, abonne-toi ! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cauetofficiel Action et Vérité...

Une fille kaïra jalouse de Julie - C’Cauet sur NRJ

C'Cauet sur NRJ de 19h à 22h ! Encore plus de vidéos sur Cauet.fr Pour plus de kiff, abonne-toi ! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cauetofficiel Une fille kaïra jalouse...

Un technicien de NRJ torturé à cause d'une panne - C’Cauet sur NRJ

C'Cauet sur NRJ de 19h à 22h ! Encore plus de vidéos sur Cauet.fr Pour plus de kiff, abonne-toi ! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cauetofficiel Un technicien de NRJ...

Pedestrian Question - Will You Try on the C-String?

Jimmy thought the ridiculous “C-String” bathing suit would be a good topic for our Pedestrian Question because it has been very hot here in Hollywood. So we ...

Christmas Comet "C/2014 Q2" On its Way...

Australian Astronomer Terry Lovejoy has discovered an amazing Comet "Q2" and it is increasing in brightness just in time for Christmas http://www.paulbegleyprophecy.com also http://h.churchapp.mobi ...

L'équipe de Cauet à Cannes pour les NMA 2014 - C’Cauet sur NRJ

C'Cauet sur NRJ de 19h à 22h ! Encore plus de vidéos sur Cauet.fr Pour plus de kiff, abonne-toi ! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=cauetofficiel L'équipe de Cauet...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

217022570 news items

New York Times

New York Times
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 10:57:28 -0800

Richard C. Hottelet, who covered the D-Day invasion of Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge for CBS and became the last survivor of the “Murrow Boys,” the network's pioneering World War II radio newsmen who worked under Edward R. Murrow, died on ...

Wall Street Journal

Wall Street Journal
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 14:24:47 -0800

An FDA approval of AbbVie's hepatitis C regimen “will be a welcome breath of fresh air for a company that hasn't really produced anything for 10 years,” said Bernard Munos, a pharmaceutical research-and-development consultant who previously worked at ...

Us Magazine

Washington Post
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:30:39 -0800

Everybody knows that the best part about C-SPAN is the unpredictable nature of the show's call-in segments, where regular hosts and guests do an admirable job of fielding unusual questions with no advance warning. But brothers Brad and Dallas ...
 
Bloomberg
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:26:15 -0800

The currency may weaken to C$1.25 by mid-2015, Charles St-Arnaud, London-based senior economist at Nomura, said in a Dec. 18 note to clients. The median estimate in a Bloomberg survey of 65 economists is C$1.16, with projections ranging from C$1.06 ...
 
Capital New York
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 03:26:15 -0800

ALBANY—New York state's Medicaid program spent $193.2 million during the first six months of 2014 on Sovaldi, the controversial Hepatitis C drug that carries an $84,000-per-patient price tag. Sovaldi cost Medicaid more than any other drug in the ...

BBC News

BBC News
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:20:40 -0800

Infection control experts have started an investigation into a cluster of C. difficile cases at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Two of those infected have died but have been described as having died of "underlying conditions". There have been another ...
 
Reuters
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 07:00:00 -0800

Canadian dollar at C$1.1619 or 86.07 U.S. cents * Bond prices mixed across the maturity curve By Solarina Ho TORONTO, Dec 18 (Reuters) - The Canadian dollar was firmer against the U.S. dollar on Thursday as market appetite for riskier assets returned ...

IHS Jane's 360

IHS Jane's 360
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 02:10:12 -0800

A C-17 in Algerian Air Force (al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Jaza'eriya) markings was reported to have landed at Algiers Houari Boumediene Airport on 10 December, the Secret Difa3 blog reported eyewitnesses as saying. However, it has since emerged that this ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight