Holy Trinity Church
|• Mayor||Damian Bartyla|
|• City||69.44 km2 (26.81 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||330 m (1,080 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||249 m (817 ft)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||41-900 to 41-936|
|Area code(s)||+48 32|
Bytom [ˈbɨtɔm] ( ) (German: Beuthen) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. The central-western district of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - metropolis with the population of 2 million. Bytom is located in the Silesian Highlands, on the Bytomka river (tributary of the Kłodnica).
The city has belonged to the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999. Previously it was in Katowice Voivodeship. Bytom is one of the cities within the conurbation of the Katowice urban area (total population approximately 2.7 million) as well as within a greater Silesian metropolitan area populated by about 5,294,000 people. The population of the city is 183,251 (June 2009). Bytom is home of Polonia Bytom, which played in the Ekstraklasa most recently from 2007 to 2011, winning it twice in 1954 and in 1962.
Bytom is located on the range "Bytomsko-Katowicki", in the Miechowicka Upland, which is in turn a central part of the Silesian Upland. The city straddles between north latitudes 50°19′ i 50°26′ and east longitudes 18°47′ i 18°58′. It reaches 346 m (1,135 ft) at the highest point, in wildlife reserve of Segiet, plunging to the lowest point 249 m (817 ft) above sea level, in a valley of river Bytomka, giving an average altitude of 280 to 290 m (919 to 951 ft) above sea level. The city itself is not placed exclusively in the Miechowicka Upland, where only central part of the town stands. The rest of the city reaches as far as valleys of Drama, Szarlejka and Brynica to the north, the river Bytomka to the south, while to the east borders the Tarnogórski Hill.
The bedrock of the Miechowicka Upland consists primarily of sandstones and slates. The rocks are punctuated with abundant natural resources of coal and iron ore from the Carboniferous period. In the north part of the upland, in the Bytom basin lays the broad range of the triassic rocks, from sandstones to limestones, with rich ore, zinc and lead reserves. The upper layer comprise clay, sand and gravel.
In the region surrounding Bytom and under city itself prevails soil 'bielicowe' and 'brunatnice' raised on
Coat of arms
Bytom is one of the oldest cities of Upper Silesia, having been known as Bitom in 1136 and received German city rights from prince Władysław in 1254 with its first centrally located market square and was written as Beuthen since 1440. The city benefitted economically from its location on a trade route linking Kraków with Silesia from east to west, and Hungary with Moravia and Greater Poland from north to south. The first Roman Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary was built in 1231. In 1259 Bytom was raided by the Mongols. The Duchy of Opole was split and in 1281 Bitom became a separate duchy, since 1289 under overlordship and administration by the Kingdom of Bohemia, a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Because of destruction by the Mongols German settlers came to repopulate and to rebuild. As part of the HRE it came under control of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. The city became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1742 during the Silesian Wars and part of the German Empire in 1871. In the 19th and the first part of the 20th centuries, the city rapidly grew and industrialized. Before 1939, Beuthen, along with Gleiwitz (now Gliwice), was at the southeastern tip of German Silesia. During World War II, the Beuthen Jewish community was liquidated via the first ever Holocaust transport to be exterminated at Auschwitz-Birkenau.
In 1945 the city was transferred to Poland as a result of the Potsdam Conference. Its German population was largely expelled by the Polish and Soviet armies, and populated with repatriated Poles from the eastern provinces annexed by the Soviets. Some of the indigenous Silesian population remained.
In the postwar period the city did not experience significant investments. Bytom is now a typical Polish post-industrial city. The majority of its coal mines are now closed, while its steel mills are slowly fading. The city is struggling to transform its economic profile from industry to services. Bytom cooperates[clarification needed] with two cities with more or less the same problems: Recklinghausen in Germany, and Butte-Silver Bow, United States. The city has a considerable unemployment rate which is centered in the poorest part of the city, the Bobrek subdivision.
Trade is one of main pillars of the economy of Bytom. Being a city with long traditions of commercial trade, Bytom is well fulfilling its new postindustrial role. In the centre of Bytom, and mainly around Station Street and the Market Square, there is the largest concentration of registered shop owners operating in the county. In the spring of 2010, 60 metres from the Market Square - on a new square between the square of Kościuszko and Jainty, Piekarska and Dzieci Lwowskich streets - a new commercial and entertainment centre called "Agora" opened, built by the Scandinavian company Braaten&Pedersen. Once completed, it was to be purchased for 263 million zloty by the British company First Property Group. Moreover, three other new shopping centres and three hypermarkets operate in Bytom.
In 2007, Bytom and its neighbours created the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union, the largest urban centre in Poland.
The tram routes are operated by Silesian Interurbans Tramwaje Śląskie S.A
Bytom's cultural venues include:
- Silesian Opera - ul. Moniuszki 21/23
- Miejska Biblioteka Publiczna (Town's Public Library)
- Silesian Dance Theatre
- Bytomskie Centrum Kultury (Bytom Cultural Centre)
- Kronika - Center of modern art
- City Choir of St. Grzegorz Wielki
Among Bytom's art galleries are: Galeria Sztuki Użytkowej Stalowe Anioły, Galeria "Rotunda" MBP, Galeria "Suplement", Galeria "Pod Czaplą", Galeria "Platforma", Galeria "Pod Szrtychem", Galeria Sztuki "Od Nowa 2", Galeria SPAP "Plastyka" - Galeria "Kolor", Galeria "Stowarzyszenia.Rewolucja.Art.Pl", and Galeria-herbaciarnia "Fanaberia".
- Annual International Contemporary Dance Conference and Performance Festival
- Theatromania - Theatre Festival
- Bytom Literary Autumn
- Festival of New Music
- The list of Bytom universities includes:
- Secondary schools:
- I Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Jana Smolenia
- II Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Stefana Żeromskiego
- IV Liceum Ogólnokształcące im. Bolesława Chrobrego
- 21 other secondary schools
The Confederation of Silesia
Members of 2001-2005 Parliament (Sejm) elected from Bytom/Gliwice/Zabrze constituency
- Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki (1665?-1734), Polish composer and musician
- Heinrich Schulz-Beuthen (1838-1915), German composer
- Ernst Gaupp (1865–1916), German anatomist
- Adolf Kober (1879–1958), rabbi and historian
- Maximilian Kaller (1880–1947), bishop of Warmia (German: Ermland)
- Max Tau (1897–1976), Jewish-German-Norwegian writer, editor and publisher
- Henry J. Leir (1900–1998), American industrialist, financier, and philanthropist
- Friedrich Domin (1902–1961), German film actor
- Michał Matyas (1910–1975), Polish footballer and football manager
- Józef Kachel (1913–1983), head of the pre-war Polish Scouting Association in Germany
- Horst Winter (1914-2001), German/Austrian Jazz musician
- Leo Scheffczyk (1920–2005), German theologian and cardinal
- Haim Yavin (born 1932), Israeli news anchor
- Edward Szymkowiak (1932–1990), Polish footballer, goalkeeper of Polonia Bytom and Polish national team
- Józef Szmidt (*1935), Polish triple jumper
- Jan Liberda (*1936), Polish footballer
- Wiesław Ochman (*1937), Polish opera singer
- Jan Drabina (*1939), Polish historian
- Jan Banaś (*1943), Polish footballer
- Walter Winkler (*1943), Polish footballer
- Zygmunt Anczok (*1946), Polish footballer
- Jerzy Konikowski (*1947), chess player
- Leszek Engelking (*1955), Polish poet, writer, translator and scholar
- Waldemar Legień (*1963), Polish judoka, Olympic champion from Seoul and Barcelona
- Marzena Godecki (*1978), Australian actress
- Paul Freier (*1979), German footballer
- Gosia Andrzejewicz (*1984), Polish pop singer
- Kamil Drozd (*1997), Polish musician
- Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2009, "Population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division, as of June 30, 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-12-31.
- European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) 
Nathan Kaufmann(1921-2010), Jewish educator and a pioneer in Israel
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bytom.|
- Municipality of Bytom
- Old postcards from Bytom
- Jewish Community in Bytom on Virtual Shtetl
- Customs House of Bytom
- Pictures and history of Bytom
- Kino Gloria Foundation
- St. Barbara's Church. Old postcards
- art1900.info BYTOM Art Nouveau in Bytom