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Coordinates: 36°33′31″N 8°45′18″E / 36.558668°N 8.754987°E / 36.558668; 8.754987

Mosaic from the House of Amphitrite, Bulla Regia

Bulla Regia is an archaeological site in northwestern Tunisia, a former Roman city near modern Jendouba. It is noted for its Hadrianic-era semi-subterranean housing, a protection from the fierce heat and effects of the sun. Many of the mosaic floors have been left in situ; others may be seen at the Bardo Museum, Tunis. There is also a small museum connected with the site.


In the unique domus architecture developed in the city, a ground-level storey, open to the warming winter sun, stood above a subterranean level, built round a two-story atrium. Open-bottomed terracotta bottle-shapes were built into vaulting. Water sprinkled on the floors brought the colors of the mosaics to life while they provided cooling by evaporation.

Entrance to the site

In the House of the Hunt, the basilica, with an apse at its head, a transept and dependent spaces opening into what would be the nave if it were a church, has been instanced (Thébert) as an example of the conjunction between public architecture and the domus of the ruling class in the fourth century, spaces soon to be Christianized as churches and cathedrals.

The subtle colors and shading and the modelling of three-dimensional forms of the finest mosaics at Bulla Regia are not surpassed by any in North Africa, where the Roman art of mosaic floors reached its fullest development. The mosaic of a haloed Amphitrite (House of Amphitrite) is often illustrated (above, right).



The Berber origins of Bulla Regia probably pre-dated its Punic culture: imported Greek ceramics of the fourth century BCE have been found; it came under the hegemony of Carthage during the third century, when inscriptions reveal that the inhabitants venerated Baal Hammon and buried their dead in urns, Punic style. A capital from a temple of Tanit is preserved at the site's museum.

Later history[edit]

Broadly speaking, Bulla Regia was part of the territory conquered for Rome in 203 BCE by Scipio Africanus, but in 156 BCE it became the capital of the Numidian king Massinissa, who "recovered the lands of his ancestors", according to an inscription, and gave to the site its epithet Regia ("Royal"); later, one of his sons had a residence in the city. Under the Numidians, a regularized orthogonal grid street plan in the Hellenistic manner [1] was imposed on at least part of the earlier irregular system of alleys and insulae (Thébaut). The Romans assumed direct control in 46 BCE, when Julius Caesar organized the province of Africa Nova and rewarded the (perhaps simply neutral) conduct of Bulla Regia in the Civil Wars by making it a free city. Under Hadrian, it was refounded as Colonia Aelia Hadriana Augusta Bulla Regia, giving its citizens full Romanitas.

Its small amphitheatre, the subject of a reproach in a sermon of Augustine of Hippo, retains the crispness of its edges and steps because it lay buried until 1960-61. To this day, the Roman Catholic Church retains this site as a bishopric, a titular see, Bullensium Regiorum.

Decline and destruction[edit]

After its season of flourishing[vague], Bulla Regia was slowly degraded under Byzantine rule. As elsewhere in the Late Empire, the local aristocracy found themselves in a position to increase the extent of their houses at the expense of public space: the House of the Fisherman was adapted to link two separate insulae turning a thoroughfare into a dead end. Finally an earthquake destroyed Bulla Regia, collapsing its first floors into the subterranean floors.


Drifting sand protected the abandoned sites, which were forgotten until the first excavations were begun, in 1906, in part spurred by the destruction of the monumental entrance to the Roman city. The forum, surrounded by porticoes, was excavated in 1949-52. Its public basilica had an apse at each end. As a cathedral it had a highly unusual cruciform baptismal font inserted the center of the rear (west end) of its nave (Jensen).


  1. ^ Perhaps initiated at the founding of Alexandria.

Further reading[edit]

The excavations at Bulla Regia were published as Les ruines de Bulla Regia, A. Besaouch, R. Hanoune, and Y. Thébert, Rome, 1977.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulla_Regia — Please support Wikipedia.
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140 news items

Mon, 27 Apr 2015 00:46:36 -0700

Create industrial zones in North Jendouba, Fernana, Boussalem (Erroumani zone) and Ghardimaou, in addition to the extension of the industrial zones of Ben Bchir and El irtiyah in Bulla Regia. Strengthen the Jendouba regional hospital by three ...
Sun, 20 May 2012 16:15:00 -0700

Since 2009, the WMF, an international nonprofit dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and sites, has been helping to stabilize and safeguard the ruins of Bulla Regia, a once prosperous colony-city not far from Carthage, the home of ...

Leaders Tunisie

Leaders Tunisie
Mon, 18 May 2015 06:30:00 -0700

A Bulla Regia, un antiquarium a été inauguré en 1987. Il est vidé et fermé depuis de longues années. Un projet de centre d'interprétation avait été bouclé la veille de la Révolution. Depuis cinq ans, le silence est total. La société civile de la région ...


Sat, 25 Apr 2015 10:26:15 -0700

Créer des zones industrielles à Jendouba Nord, Fernana, Bousselem (zone Erroumani) et Ghardimaou, outre l'extension des zones industrielles Ben Bchir et El irtiyah à Bulla Regia. – Renforcer l'hôpital régional de Jendouba par trois ambulances.

Kapitalis.com (Communiqué de presse) (Blog)

Kapitalis.com (Communiqué de presse) (Blog)
Fri, 17 Apr 2015 03:15:30 -0700

Le coup d'envoi de cette manifestation, placée cette année sous le thème «Patrimoine et Développement durable», sera donné par Salma Elloumi Rekik, ministre du Tourisme et de l'Artisanat. Parmi les moments forts de ce mois, on notera des visites au ...
Mon, 11 May 2015 05:00:00 -0700

... quella della Kroumirie et Mogods, ricca di siti archeologici (Bulla Regia) e con un patrimonio naturalistico - il Parco di El Feija dichiarato patrimonio dell'UNESCO e artigianale alternativo non meno affascinante della più che nota Tunisia delle ...
The National Student
Fri, 20 Feb 2015 08:07:12 -0800

With stunning views of hazy valleys punctuated by brilliantly preserved Roman cities like Bulla Regia and Dougga it is an unexpected joy. Linking the north and the south, the central region is among the most fascinating, offering the vibrancy of Sousse ...


Wed, 22 Apr 2015 03:57:26 -0700

La deuxième convention devrait porter sur l'aménagement muséographique de l'une des trois salles: Mahdia, Bulla Régia ou Thuburbo Majus » a déclaré à l'agence TAP Jean Luc Martinez, président directeur du musée du Louvre à Paris. Dans le cadre de ...

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