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Bulgarian Empire
ц︢рьство бл︢гарское
681–1018
1185 - 1396
Flag of king Kaloyan Imperial Coat of arms
Bulgaria during the reign of Simeon the Great, 10th century
Capital Pliska
(681–893)
Preslav
(893–972)
Skopje
(972–992)
Ohrid
(992–1018)
Tarnovo
(1185–1393)
Vidin & Nikopol
(1393–1396/1422)
Languages Bulgar, Greek
(681–893)
Old Bulgarian
(893–1018)
Middle Bulgarian
(1185-1396/1422)
Religion Tengrism, Paganism
(681–864)
Bulgarian Orthodox
(864–1018)
Bulgarian Orthodox
(1185–1204)
Roman Catholic
(1204–1235)
Bulgarian Orthodox
(1235–1396/1422)
Government Autocracy
Monarch
 -  681–700 Asparukh (first)
 -  1396-1422 Constantine II (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 681
 -  Disestablished 1018
1185 - 1396
Today part of

In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Българско царство, Balgarsko tsarstvo [ˈbəlɡɐrskʊ ˈt͡sarstvʊ]), wherein it acted as a key regional power (particularly rivaling Byzantium in Southeastern Europe[1]) occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory.

First Bulgarian Empire[edit]

Kanasubigi Omurtag (814-831)

The First Bulgarian Empire was established on the territory both north and south of the lower course of Danube River, and is usually described as having lasted between 681[2][3][4] and 1018, when it was subjugated by the Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus' despite Samuel's fierce resistance. It gradually reached its cultural and territorial apogee in the 9th century and early 10th century under Boris I and Simeon the Great, when it developed into the cultural and literary centre of Slavic Europe, as well as one of the largest states in Europe.

Second Bulgarian Empire[edit]

Tsar Ivan Alexander (1331-1371)

The medieval Bulgarian state was restored as the Second Bulgarian Empire after a successful uprising of two nobles from Tarnovo, Asen and Peter, in 1185, and existed until it was conquered during the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the late 14th century, with the date of its subjugation usually given as 1396. The Empire became vassal of the Mongolian Empire, particularly Golden Horde, in the 13-14th century.[5][6] Under Ivan Asen II in the first half of the 13th century it gradually recovered much of its former power, though this did not last long due to internal problems and foreign invasions.

Maps[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ War in the Balkans, 1991-2002 - R. Craig Nation - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  2. ^ A Concise History of Bulgaria, R. J. Crampton, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521616379, pp. 8-9.
  3. ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 1, c.500-c.700, Paul Fouracre, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521362911, p. 301.
  4. ^ Мутафчиев, П. Гюзелев. В, История на българския народ 681-1323. Българска Академия на науките, 1986. стр. 106-108.
  5. ^ Peter Jackson The Mongols and the West, p.204
  6. ^ Denis Sinor, "The Mongols in the West", Journal of Asian History v.33 n.1 (1999).
  7. ^ Map of late 9th century eastern central Europe

Further reading[edit]

  • Zlatarski, Vasil N. (2006) [1918]. Medieval History of the Bulgarian State (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Science and Arts Publishers, 2nd Edition (Petar Petrov, Ed.), Zahari Stoyanov Publishers, 4th Edition, 2006. ISBN 978-954-739-928-0. 
  • Бакалов, Георги; Милен Куманов (2003). Електронна издание – История на България (in Bulgarian). София: Труд, Сирма. ISBN 978-954-528-613-1. 
  • Делев, Петър; Валери Кацунов; Пламен Митев; Евгения Калинова; Искра Баева; Боян Добрев (2006). История и цивилизация за 11. клас (in Bulgarian). Труд, Сирма. 
  • Българите и България (in Bulgarian). Министерство на външните работи на България, Труд, Сирма. 2005. 
  • Fine, Jr., John V.A. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3. 

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Focus News
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:56:15 -0700

If the name of Blagoevgrad is changed at some point in the future, it will honour Tsar Samuil (997 – 1014), who was among the last rulers in the so-called First Bulgarian Empire and at the end of July 2014 Bulgaria marked 1,000 years since the Battle ...
 
Focus News
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:28:47 -0700

Sofia. ”State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission (SEWRC) will be an institution which from now on, whatever it may do, will cause a fresh groundswell of public discontent,” said interim Prime Minister, Professor Georgi Bliznashki, speaking in ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Fri, 15 Aug 2014 02:45:00 -0700

Cruise to the former Roman town of Svishtov in Bulgaria where your ship will dock for an excursion to the clifftop town of Veliko Tarnovo, the former capital of the Bulgarian empire . Th is is followed by a visit to the historic town of Arbanassi, w ...
 
Cleveland Jewish News (blog)
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 01:37:30 -0700

This was a plus for the Jews since Jews had been moving to the Bulgarian Empire since the 7th century to avoid the persecution they were enduring under the Byzantines. 1000: The foundation of the Hungarian state, Hungary is established as a Christian ...
 
Cleveland Jewish News (blog)
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 19:03:45 -0700

681: Founding of the first Bulgarian Empire. Archaeologists have found traces of Jewish communities in the area that pre-dated the formation of Bulgaria. The first major movement of Jews into Bulgaria took place early in the 8th century when Jews fled ...
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