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A building envelope is the physical separators between the conditioned and unconditioned environment of a building including the resistance to air, water, heat,[1] light, and noise[2] transfer. The three basic elements of a building envelope are a weather barrier, air barrier, and thermal barrier.[3] The weather barrier may be in a different location than the air and thermal barriers such as in house with an unheated attic. The term building envelope is sometimes used synonymously with building enclosure but the latter term also includes the broader aspects of appearance, structure, safety from fire[4] and security. The act of creating a building envelope is sometimes called weatherization.

Discussion[edit]

The building envelope is all of the elements of the outer shell that maintain a dry, heated or cooled indoor environment and facilitate its climate control. Building envelope design is a specialized area of architectural and engineering practice that draws from all areas of building science and indoor climate control.[2]

The many functions of the building envelope can be separated into three categories:[5]

  • Support (to resist and transfer mechanical loads)
  • Control (the flow of matter and energy of all types)
  • Finish (to meet human desires on the inside and outside)

The control function is at the core of good performance, and in practice focuses, in order of importance, on rain control, air control, heat control, and vapor control.[citation needed]

Water and water vapor control[edit]

Control of rain is most fundamental, and there are numerous strategies to this end, namely, perfect barriers, drained screens, and mass / storage systems.[6] Damp proofing and

One of the main purposes of a roof is to resist water. Two broad categories of roofs are flat and pitched. Flat roofs actually slope up to 10° or 15° but are built to resist standing water. Pitched roofs are designed to shed water but not resist standing water which can occur during wind-driven rain or ice damming. Typically residential, pitched roofs are covered with an underlayment material beneath the roof covering material as a second line of defense. Domestic roof construction may also be ventilated to help remove moisture from leakage and condensation.

Walls do not get as severe water exposure as roofs but still leak water. Types of wall systems with regard to water penetration are barrier, drainage and surface-sealed walls.[7] Barrier walls are designed to allow water to be absorbed but not penetrate the wall, and include concrete and some masonry walls. Drainage walls allow water that leaks into the wall to drain out such as cavity walls. Drainage walls may also be ventilated to aid drying such as rainscreen and pressure equalization wall systems. Sealed-surface walls do not allow any water penetration at the exterior surface of the siding material. Generally most materials will not remained sealed over the long term and this system is very limited, but ordinary residential construction often treats walls as sealed-surface systems relying on the siding and an underlayment layer sometimes called housewrap.

Moisture can enter basements through the walls or floor. Basement waterproofing and drainage keep the walls dry and a moisture barrier is needed under the floor.

Air control[edit]

Main article: Air barrier

Control of air flow is important to ensure indoor air quality, control energy consumption, avoid condensation (and thus help ensure durability), and to provide comfort. Control of air movement includes flow through the enclosure (the assembly of materials that perform this function is termed the air barrier system) or through components of the building envelope (interstitial) itself, as well as into and out of the interior space, (which can affect building insulation performance greatly). Hence, air control includes the control of windwashing and convective loops.[citation needed]

The physical components of the envelope include the foundation, roof, walls, doors, windows, ceiling, and their related barriers and insulation. The dimensions, performance and compatibility of materials, fabrication process and details, connections and interactions are the main factors that determine the effectiveness and durability of the building enclosure system.[citation needed]

Common measures of the effectiveness of a building envelope include physical protection from weather and climate (comfort), indoor air quality (hygiene and public health), durability and energy efficiency. In order to achieve these objectives, all building enclosure systems must include a solid structure, a drainage plane, an air barrier, a thermal barrier, and may include a vapor barrier. Moisture control (e.g. damp proofing) is essential in all climates, but cold climates and hot-humid climates are especially demanding.[citation needed]

Thermal envelope[edit]

The thermal envelope, or heat flow control layer, is part of a building envelope but may be in a different location such as in a ceiling. The difference can be illustrated by understanding that an insulated attic floor is the primary thermal control layer between the inside of the house and the exterior while the entire roof (from the surface of the shingles to the interior paint finish on the ceiling) comprises the building envelope.[citation needed]

Building envelope thermography involves using an infrared camera to view temperature anomalies on the interior and exterior surfaces of the structure. Analysis of infrared images can be useful in identifying moisture issues from water intrusion, or internal condensation.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cleveland, Cutler J., and Christopher G. Morris. "Building envelope (HVAC)". Dictionary of Energy. Expanded Edition. Burlington: Elsevier, 2009. Print.
  2. ^ a b Syed, Asif. Advanced building technologies for sustainability. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. 115. Print.
  3. ^ Wilson, Jeff. The Greened House Effect: Renovating Your Home with a Deep Energy Retrofit. Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction. 2013. 42. print.
  4. ^ Wong, Wah. Building enclosure in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1998. 1. Print.
  5. ^ Straube, J.F., Burnett, E.F.P. Building Science for Building Enclosures. Building Science Press, Westford, 2005.
  6. ^ 11. Straube, J.F. and Burnett, E.F.P., "Rain Control and Design Strategies". Journal Of Thermal Insulation and Building Envelopes, July 1999, pp. 41-56.
  7. ^ various authors. Guideline for condition assessment of the building envelope. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000. 4. Print.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_envelope — Please support Wikipedia.
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511 news items

 
GlobeNewswire (press release)
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 08:44:56 -0700

NEW YORK, Oct. 14, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Vidaris, Inc., a leading building envelope and sustainability consultancy firm, announces that Peter Arbour, Associate AIA, has joined the team as a Senior Consultant in Vidaris' Wall/New Construction ...

ECO/Huff Strategy (press release)

ECO/Huff Strategy (press release)
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 06:18:45 -0700

As this year's winter season approaches and many Canadians plan to spend an increased amount of time indoors, NAIMA Canada would like to remind homeowners that the most effective home protection from winter is a tight building envelope.
 
Rome Sentinel
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 12:52:30 -0700

... in the 6,400 square foot building. The entire project will include roofing and structural repairs, a paint job for the entire exterior and overall repairs to the building's envelope, as well as work inside — limited electrical, plumbing ...

MinnPost

MinnPost
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 06:46:32 -0700

And according to city standards for historic buildings, original materials can be replaced only when they are “too deteriorated to provide a sound building envelope.” New windows must be “compatible in material, type, style, operation, sashes, size of ...

REjournals.com

REjournals.com
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 13:03:45 -0700

PREMIER Design + Build Group announced the recent completion of a new industrial warehouse facility. Bridge Development Partners, LLC, in partnership with Wanxiang America Real Estate Group and Hillwood Investment Properties, hired PREMIER in ...

Chicagomag.com

Chicagomag.com
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 09:18:45 -0700

All of his homes are implanted in the landscape, with devices to bring the outside in, and this one does it tremendously well: outcroppings of rock engulf portions of façade; wood beams break the building's envelope to dangle outside; the roofline is ...

Bangor Daily News

Bangor Daily News
Thu, 02 Oct 2014 12:07:30 -0700

The approximately 2-foot diameter drone was being used by Building Envelope Specialists of South Portland to determine the condition of the courthouse building. The county had contracted with the firm to assess the building. BES President Scott ...
 
Wayne Post
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 06:04:09 -0700

Supervisor Bill Hammond told Morell to get ahold of the original paperwork when the conservation easement was purchased, to check for the “building envelope” where structure could be placed on the property, a “future farmstead area where you could ...
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