Брянская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||July 5, 1944|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|- Governor||Nikolay Denin|
|- Legislature||Oblast Duma|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||34,900 km2 (13,500 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||36.63 /km2 (94.9 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
Bryansk Oblast (Russian: Бря́нская о́бласть, Bryanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Bryansk. Population: 1,278,217 (2010 Census results).
The territory of what is now Bryansk Oblast has been inhabited since ancient times by Slavic tribes. In the 9th to 11th centuries they lived along the banks of the Desna and in the forests of the land between the Desna and the Oka River. The city of Bryansk was established in 985.
Bryansk remained poorly attested until the Mongol invasion of Russia. It was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids and the principality of Novgorod-Seversky. After Mikhail of Chernigov was murdered by the Mongols and his capital was destroyed, his son moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the principality of Smolensk. After the demise of Chernigov by the Mongols, the Principality of Bryansk was formed. In 1356 Bryansk territory was under the authority of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Great Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress which played a major role during the Time of Troubles. In 1618 the Deulino Armistice saw the southern and western area of the Bryansk region temporarily ceded to Poland. Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into Kiev Governorate, but Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to the Oryol Governorate in 1779. She also promulgated the town's coat of arms. Bryansk became the duchy's south-western outpost in the fight against Lithuania, Poland and Crimean Khanate.
After the expulsion of the Poles and reunification with Russia in 1654, all the left bank of the Dnieper (Malorossiya), including the south-western area of Bryansk, was divided into hundreds of administrative regiments. One of the largest was Starodubaka. In 1781, these regiments merged into districts and several territories.
The 17th and 18th centuries were a period of significant regional economic development. The industrial revolution began in the 18th century, particularly in the eastern part of Bryansk and due to its reserves of sand and saw the growth of the glass industry.
On April 1, 1920, Bryansk Oblast was established but on October 1, 1929 it was incorporated into the Western Oblast. On September 27, 1937 the Central Executive Committee decided to abolish the Western Krai, dividing it into Smolensk and Oryol Oblasts. The current territory of Bryansk Oblast became a part of Oryol Oblast.
In August–October 1941 the region was occupied by Nazi troops. From the first days of occupation, the struggle against the invaders took the character of a popular movement. In the Bryansk there were about 60,000 guerrillas from the guerrilla compounds of SA Kovpak, AF Fedorov and AN Saburov. It resulted in the destruction and burning of many towns and villages, affecting some 111,000 homes and many important industrial enterprises. After the liberation of territory (August–September 1943), extensive restoration work commenced.
The modern Bryansk Oblast was established by the Decree Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on July 5, 1944.
Bryansk Oblast lies in western European Russia in the western part of the East European Plain, occupying the middle part of the Desna River basin. The area, covering 34,900 km² is bounded to the north with Smolensk Oblast,to the northeast with Kaluga Oblast and Orel Oblast in the south and southeast and borders, Chernihiv and Sumy with the Ukraine to the southwest and Gomel and Mogilev in Belarus to the northwest.
The climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is -7 - -9°C. The average July temperature is between +18 and +20°C. About a quarter of the total area is covered by forests, mainly coniferous, mixed and deciduous, as well as forest-steppe.
As a result of the Chernobyl disaster on April 26, 1986, part of the territory of Bryansk Oblast has been contaminated with radionuclides (mainly Klimovsky, Klintsovsky, Krasnogorsky, Surazhsky, and Novozybkovsky Districts). In 1999, some 226,000 people lived in areas with the contamination level above 5 Curie/km2, representing approximately 16% of the Oblast's population.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Bryansk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Bryansk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Bryansk Oblast Duma is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Bryansk Oblast is a highly developed region with great industrial potential. Companies in the region manufacture products for export throughout Russia, as well as abroad. The most developed industries include woodworking and pulp and paper, building materials, engineering and metalworking, electronics, chemicals, forestry, light industry and textiles. The engineering industry produces cars, diesel locomotives, machine tools, refrigeration units, graders, asphalt spreaders, excavators, road harrows, woodworking equipment, heat generators, marine and other diesel engines, bicycles, and agricultural machinery.
Agriculture. Fertile soils and a long growing period favor the development of agriculture in Bryansk Oblast, which is one of the leading agricultural regions of the Russian Federation.
More than half of the Oblast's land supply is used for agriculture. Most of this land (72%) is arable land, 27% consists of meadows and pastures, and 1% consists of gardens and berry fields. Livestock breeding, crop cultivation, and market gardening form the basis of the region's diversified agriculture.
Livestock breeding is Bryansk Oblast's leading agricultural sector. It provides most of the agricultural commodities; and provision of food products, the profitability of businesses, and living standards of rural residents depend on the efficient operation of this branch of the economy. Livestock breeding for meat and dairy products, poultry farming, horse breeding, fur farming, and beekeeping are all developed in the region.
Grain is cultivated on more than half the sown area, mainly in southern and central districts with more favorable climatic conditions.
Potatoes are the second most important crop after grain. After Peter the Great brought them to Russia in the early 18th century, they became the country's "second bread". Potatoes are unique in that they are simultaneously an industrial, feed, and food crop. Russia's largest potato granulating mill outfitted with modern equipment is located in Bryansk Oblast.
Other vegetables besides potatoes are also grown, and certain districts are noted for hothouse farming. Potatoes and vegetables are the most profitable of all agricultural products.
The Flag of Bryansk Oblast represents a panel burgundy with a ratio of 1:1,5. In the center of the cloth is placed coat of arms of the Bryansk region. The coat of arms is a blue shield representing Slavic unity between the states of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. In the upper part of the shield is a stylized golden spruce with a three-tiered crown representing the forests of Bryansk. The flag is burgundy in color, representing the color of the banners under which the army and guerrillas fought for the liberation of Bryansk.
- Births (2012): 14 376 (11.4 per 1000)
- Deaths (2012): 20 356 (16.1 per 1000)
- Total fertility rate: 2009 - 1.49 | 2010 - 1.42 | 2011 - 1.46 | 2012 - 1.56 | 2013 - 1.54(e)
- Russians - 96.7%
- Ukrainians - 1.1%
- Belarusians - 0.4%
- Armenians - 0.4%
- Romani people - 0.3%
- Jews - 0.1%
- Others - 1%
- 26,825 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 official survey 49.5% of the population of Bryansk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 1% to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism). In addition, 36% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 5% is atheist, and 2.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Bryansk was one of the cultural centers of Rus in the Middle Ages. Painters, architects, carvers, jewelers, smiths, and embroideresses all worked in Bryansk. In each century, they beautified the churches, houses, and streets in their own way. Few of their names are known, but their works are. Bryansk itself is connected with the golden age of Russian national culture.
There are seventeen museums in Bryansk Oblast. The main cities have many major architectural and archeological monuments. In Bryansk is the Svenski monastery, Chashin mound (the birthplace of Bryansk), the ancient Kremlin of Bryansk on Pokrovskaya Mountain, Peter and Paul monastery etc. Main churches include the Voksresenskaya, Vvedenskaya and Spaso-Grobovskaya, Pokrovskaya and Gorne-Nikolskaya.
Klintsy is the second largest city of Bryansk oblast and was one of the Old Believers’ centers, now known for its textile industry and its ancient temples. Trubchevsk is noted for its archeological and architectural monuments, in particular the Trinity Cathedral of the 13th-19th centuries with its tomb. The museum contains some valuable items dated to the 6th-7th centuries.
A large railway junction is located in the capital of Bryansk. Most rail lines in the oblast are electrified, using AC power. In connection with the border situation, Bryansk there are several major customs terminals.
The oblast is crossed by the M3 Moscow—Kiev highway and the M13 Bryansk-Novozybkov-Boundary Belarus—(Kobrin), and fourteen kilometers from the administrative center of the oblast is Bryansk International Airport.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of Bryansk Oblast. Nikolay Vasilyevich Denin, Governor of Bryansk Oblast (Russian)
- Charter, Article 41.3b
- Charter, Article 41.3a
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- "Bryansk Oblast". Chernobyl Info. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- Bryansk Region[dead link]
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Брянская областная Дума. №7-З 26 января 1996 г. «Устав Брянской области», в ред. Закона №31-З от 4 мая 2009 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. #7-Z January 26, 1996 Charter of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #31-Z of May 4, 2009. ).
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