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Track gauges
By transport mode
Tram · Rapid transit
Miniature · Scale model
By size (list)
Graphic list of track gauges

Minimum
  Fifteen inch 381 mm (15 in)

Narrow
  Two foot and
600 mm
597 mm
600 mm
603 mm
610 mm
(1 ft 11 12 in)
(1 ft 11 58 in)
(1 ft 11 34 in)
(2 ft)
  750 mm,
Bosnian,
Two foot six inch,
800 mm
750 mm
760 mm
762 mm
800 mm
(2 ft 5 12 in)
(2 ft 5 1516 in)
(2 ft 6 in)
(2 ft 7 12 in)
  Swedish three foot,
900 mm,
Three foot
891 mm
900 mm
914 mm
(2 ft11 332 in)
(2 ft 11 716)
(3 ft)
  Metre 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)
  Three foot six inch,
Cape, CAP, Kyōki
1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
  Four foot six inch 1,372 mm (4 ft 6 in)

  Standard 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

Broad
  Russian,
Five foot
1,520 mm
1,524 mm
(4 ft 11 2732 in)
(5 ft)
  Irish 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in)
  Iberian 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in)
  Indian 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)
  Brunel 2,140 mm (7 ft 14 in)
Change of gauge
Break-of-gauge · Dual gauge ·
Conversion (list) · Bogie exchange · Variable gauge
By location
North America · South America · Europe
World map, rail gauge by region

Bogie exchange is a system for operating railway wagons on two or more gauges to overcome difference in the track gauge. To perform a bogie exchange, a car is converted from one gauge to another by removing the chassis containing the wheels and axles of the car, and installing a new chassis with differently spaced wheels. It is generally limited to wagons and carriages, though diesel engines can be exchanged if enough time is available.

Bogies exchange operation in Ussuriisk (near Vladivostok) at the ChineseRussian border
Bogie change station at Chop, Ukraine station, Ukraine, which connects to Hungary and Slovakia

Wagons and carriages[edit]

Bogie wagons can have their gauge changed by lifting them off one set of bogies and putting them back down again on another set of bogies. The pin that centres the bogies and the hoses and fittings for the brakes must be compatible. A generous supply of bogies of each gauge is needed to accommodate the ebb and flow of traffic. The bogies and wagons also need to have standardized hooks, etc., where they may be efficiently lifted. Four-wheel wagons are not suitable for gauge change.

Engines[edit]

Steam[edit]

Steam engines can be designed for more than one gauge, by having, for example, reversible wheel hubs that suit two alternative gauges. This was done in the 1930s and beyond in Victoria for possible gauge conversion, though no engines were ever converted in this manner other than one heritage engine (R766). Some 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) Garratt locomotives of East Africa were designed for easy conversion to 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge, though again none ever was.

In the southern United States, some steam locomotives built by Baldwin were designed for easy conversion from 1,524 mm (5 ft) to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in).

Diesel[edit]

Diesel locomotives have bogies like wagons and carriages, only with more cables for the traction motors and take a little longer to convert. In Australia, some classes of diesel locomotives are regularly gauge-converted[citation needed] to suit traffic requirements on the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in), 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in), and 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) networks.

Since the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) networks are not all connected to each other, being separated by deserts or lines of other gauges, they are bogie-exchanged or piggybacked on road or rail vehicles when transferred between these networks.

Raising or lowering[edit]

Raise[edit]

The simplest way to carry out bogie exchange is to lift the wagons off the bogies and replace them back on new bogies. This may require the wagons in a train to be uncoupled, and continuous brakes disconnected. As the bogies are swung out of the way, they sway, which wastes time settling them down.

Lower[edit]

Another way of carrying out bogie exchange is to lower the bogies onto a trolley in a pit, after which the trolleys are rolled out of the way and others return. This keeps the train couplings and continuous brakes connected. In addition, the bogies never need leave a solid surface, so they can be wheeled in and out more quickly. This method was used at Dry Creek railway station, Adelaide.[1]

International[edit]

Australia[edit]

Between 1961 and 1995, Australia had five bogie exchange centres, which opened and closed as gauge conversion work proceeded. The gauges served were 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in), though the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) Queensland did acquire 100 bogie-exchange compatible QLX wagons just in case. All the wagons involved had wagon codes ending in "X", such as VLX.

The centres were:

The busiest facility was that at Dynon, in a typical year (1981–82), 24,110 wagons were bogie exchanged, an average of 66 per day. This was done by one shift of 18 men, compared with the 100 men required if the same amount of freight were transferred wagon to wagon.[6]

Belarus[edit]

  • Brest, Belarus – between 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) at the border to Poland

Bolivia[edit]

Bogie exchange was used between 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) and 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) gauge on the Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia Railway.

Canada[edit]

China[edit]

A bogie exchange station exists at the Chinese border to Mongolia. Both the Moscow-Beijing passenger train (Trans-Siberian) and freight trains get their bogies exchanged. Mongolia has Russian gauge 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in), China has 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in). Also, a bogie exchange station was placed farther east at the Russian/Chinese border crossing at Zabaykalsk/Manzhouli.

Finland[edit]

A bogie exchange station exists in the Port of Turku with a short stretch of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge railway. Freight cars get their bogies exchanged. SeaRail train ferries go from Germany and Sweden. They carry no passenger trains, and passengers must walk by foot to Turku Harbour railway station opposite the ferry terminals. Finland has 1,524 mm (5 ft) broad gauge.

Germany[edit]

A bogie exchange station in the port of Mukran serves train ferries that go to and from Russia, Latvia, and Lithuania, which have 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) broad gauge.

Iran[edit]

  • Iran Azerbaijan Jolfa - c1950, between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) (Russian gauge)
  • Iran Turkmenistan Sarakhs - c1990, between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) (Russian gauge)
  • Iran Pakistan Zahedan - 2009, between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) (Indian gauge)
  • Iran Azerbaijan Baku - 2012, To be developed in Amirabad port, Caspian Sea, between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) (Russian gauge)

Kazakhstan[edit]

  • Kazakhstan Druzhba, KZ - China Alashankou, CN between 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in).

Moldova[edit]

North Korea[edit]

The bogies of the direct sleeping car Moscow - Pyongyang, which runs twice monthly, are exchanged here. [7]

Peru[edit]

Romania[edit]

  • Romania Ukraine Vadul Siret between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) at the border with Ukraine.
  • Romania Ukraine Halmeu between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) at the border with Ukraine.
  • Romania Moldova Ungheni between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) at the border with Moldova.

Russia[edit]

Spain[edit]

  • At Irun, between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in) (Iberian gauge)
  • At Portbou, between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) and 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in)

Tunisia[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

Transfer time[edit]

Bogie exchange conversion times were:

Variable gauge axles[edit]

Variable gauge axles in a automatic track gauge changeover system (ATGCS) is a newer and faster development than bogie exchange. While bogie exchange is "obvious" and brute force, VGA/ATGCS is "subtle, hidden", and elegant. The SUW 2000 ATGCS requires a changeover track about 20 m long, with a shed if snow is around compared to a small marshalling yard required by bogie exchange.

Axle exchange[edit]

An alternative to variable gauge axles and bogie exchange is axle exchange.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogie_exchange — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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6 news items

Silk Road Reporters

Silk Road Reporters
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 07:58:58 -0800

The track variance will require a bogie exchange point, a system for operating railway wagons on two or more gauges to overcome difference in the track gauge currently used for freight wagons. Another potential bottleneck in the route to reaching its ...

RAIL magazine

RAIL magazine
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 03:52:51 -0700

The lifting system means that an entire S-Stock unit can be raised to a height of 1.75 metres, although a height of 1.40 metres is preferred for bogie exchange. With this method, the whole train can be lifted and ready to work on in around 35 minutes ...
 
Global Rail News
Tue, 02 Jul 2013 01:46:21 -0700

A major £60 million overhaul of Virgin Pendolino bogies and wheelsets has been completed at Alstom's Longsight depot. Virgin's entire fleet of 53 9-car trains have now undergone their third heavy overhaul (H3), having travelled around 2.5 million miles ...
 
Crikey (blog)
Thu, 27 Dec 2012 12:52:43 -0800

160km/hr on the train from Budapest to Vienna FFS! What a sick joke Australian long-distance train travel is – even Britain's is much better (if more expensive). Michael R James – actually I think bogie exchange was pioneered in Australia for freight ...
 
Baltic Review
Wed, 17 Nov 2010 16:05:54 -0800

The Baltic States by the end of 2010 are going to sign the intergovernmental trilateral agreement in the sphere of railroad transport. The need of elaborating such document has been discussed for the first time during the annual meeting of the ...
 
Railnews
Mon, 03 Nov 2008 00:00:00 -0800

Equipped with state-of-the-art Italian jacking gear, a four-car Electrostar can now be raised as a complete set for bogie exchange, saving a day-and-a-half on the former method of crane-lifting individual coaches. Team leader Ray Atkinson said: “As ...
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