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Scarification in progress

Body modification (or body alteration, called body mutilation by detractors) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or phenotype.[1] It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among other reasons.[1][2] In its most broad definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures), as well as the modern primitive movement.

Explicit ornaments[edit]

Surgical augmentation[edit]

In contrast to the explicit ornaments, the following procedures are primarily not meant to be exposed per se, but rather function to augment another part of the body, like the skin in a subdermal implant.

Removal or split[edit]

Female genital cutting:

Male genital cutting:

Nipple cutting:

  • Nipple removal[10]
  • Nipple splitting[11]

Nullification involves the voluntary removal of body parts. Body parts that are commonly removed by those practicing body nullification are: penis, testicles, clitoris, labia and nipples. Sometimes people who desire a nullification may be diagnosed with body integrity identity disorder or apotemnophilia.[12]

Tongue cutting:

Applying long-term force[edit]

Body modifications occurring as the end result of long term activities or practices

  • Corsetry or tightlacing - binding of the waist and shaping of the torso
  • Cranial binding - modification of the shape of infants' heads, now extremely rare
  • Breast ironing - Pressing (sometimes with a heated object) the breasts of a pubescent female to prevent their growth.
  • Foot binding - compression of the feet of girls to modify them for aesthetic reasons
  • Anal stretching[14]
  • Non-surgical elongation of organs by prolonged stretching using weights or spacing devices. Some cultural traditions prescribe for or encourage members of one sex (or both) to have one organ stretched till permanent re-dimensioning has occurred, such as:
    • The 'giraffe-like' stretched necks (sometimes also other organs) of women among the Burmese Kayan tribe, the result of wearing brass coils around them. This compresses the collarbone and upper ribs but is not medically dangerous. It is a myth that removing the rings will cause the neck to 'flop'; Padaung women remove them regularly for cleaning etc.
    • Stretched lip piercings - achieved by inserting ever larger plates, such as those made of clay used by some Amazonian tribes.
    • Labia elongation
    • Jelqing



Some sources of controversy stem from the notion of attempting to artificially beautify the natural form of the body, often leading to charges of disfigurement and mutilation. Extreme forms of body modification are frequently viewed as symptomatic of body dysmorphic disorder, other mental illnesses, or as an expression of unchecked vanity.[19] Unlicensed surgery performed outside of a medical environment can often be life-threatening, and is illegal in most countries and states.

"Disfigurement" and "mutilation" (regardless of any appreciation this always applies objectively whenever a bodily function is gravely diminished or lost) are terms used by opponents of body modification to describe certain types of modifications, especially non-consensual ones. Those terms are used fairly uncontroversially to describe the victims of torture, who have endured damage to ears, eyes, feet, genitalia, hands, noses, teeth, and/or tongues, including amputation, burning, flagellation, piercing, skinning, and wheeling[citation needed]. "Genital mutilation" is also used somewhat more controversially to describe certain kinds of socially proscribed modifications to the genitals, such as male circumcision, female circumcision, castration,[citation needed] and surgeries performed to conform the genitals of individuals with intersex conditions to those of typical males or females.[20]

Individuals known for extensive body modification[edit]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_modification — Please support Wikipedia.
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127 news items

Core77.com (blog)

Core77.com (blog)
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 15:41:15 -0700

While there are many designs out there that look to replicate the iconic style of the Eames Chair, I'd bet that there aren't many doing it quite like Bora Hong. Her work always has some sort of cultural connection, and her recent design series ...
Spartan Daily
Thu, 03 Apr 2014 02:11:15 -0700

Much of the tattoo and piercing culture we find in America today come from traditions all over the world. Americans may have been the first to popularize tattoos and piercings in a pop culture context, but the body modification trend extends far beyond ...
Montana Kaimin
Wed, 19 Mar 2014 08:33:45 -0700

In an interview before the presentation Grace said he has been involved in the business of body modification since about 1998. He started off as an amateur giving tattoos out of his dorm room, but turned pro after landing an apprenticeship in Butte ...


Mon, 14 Apr 2014 17:56:15 -0700

Mary soon plunges into the underground life of body modification, performing random operations out of her home. What makes this movie so unnerving and completely fascinating is that most of us don't really know much about these practices. The movie ...
Thu, 27 Mar 2014 17:34:10 -0700

Most likely, there will be a series of fits and starts from various sectors, including the medical world, marketing and body modification subcultures. The medical world. Embedded technology is nothing new in medicine. Pacemakers, bone prostheses and ...

Nerd Reactor

Nerd Reactor
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:45:00 -0700

... fit many different needs. The van will be able to carry up to 15 passengers or fit tons of packages and items for delivery. It's got two wheelbases, three roof heights and three powertrains to accommodate multiple needs without body modification ...

Comic Book Resources

Comic Book Resources
Mon, 14 Apr 2014 17:10:53 -0700

A woman somehow gets body modification done, which angers her lover, but I'm not sure why. What happened? Enoki's delicate line work is stunning, and she lays out the pages wonderfully to create a weird, dream-like story, but I don't know what happens ...

Cornell University The Cornell Daily Sun (blog)

Cornell University The Cornell Daily Sun (blog)
Sun, 13 Apr 2014 22:02:20 -0700

Many of the senior designers this year took on potent issues of cultural identity — from Marianne Dorado's '14 expertly-constructed “TRIBE,” inspired by African and Papa New Guinean practices of tribal tattooing and body modification, to Lesley Young ...

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