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Scarification in progress

Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or phenotype.[1] It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among other reasons.[1][2] In its most broad definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures), as well as the modern primitive movement.

Explicit ornaments[edit]

Surgical augmentation[edit]

In contrast to the explicit ornaments, the following procedures are primarily not meant to be exposed per se, but rather function to augment another part of the body, like the skin in a subdermal implant.

Removal or split[edit]

Female genital cutting:

Male genital cutting:

Nipple cutting:

  • Nipple removal[10]
  • Nipple splitting[11]

Nullification involves the voluntary removal of body parts. Body parts that are commonly removed by those practicing body nullification are: penis, testicles, clitoris, labia and nipples. Sometimes people who desire a nullification may be diagnosed with body integrity identity disorder or apotemnophilia.[12]

Tongue cutting:

Applying long-term force[edit]

Body modifications occurring as the end result of long term activities or practices

  • Corsetry or tightlacing - binding of the waist and shaping of the torso
  • Cranial binding - modification of the shape of infants' heads, now extremely rare
  • Breast ironing - Pressing (sometimes with a heated object) the breasts of a pubescent female to prevent their growth.
  • Foot binding - compression of the feet of girls to modify them for aesthetic reasons
  • Anal stretching[14]
  • Jelqing - penis enlargement
  • Non-surgical elongation of organs by prolonged stretching using weights or spacing devices. Some cultural traditions prescribe for or encourage members of one sex (or both) to have one organ stretched till permanent re-dimensioning has occurred, such as:
    • The 'giraffe-like' stretched necks (sometimes also other organs) of women among the Burmese Kayan tribe, the result of wearing brass coils around them. This compresses the collarbone and upper ribs but is not medically dangerous. It is a myth that removing the rings will cause the neck to 'flop'; Padaung women remove them regularly for cleaning etc.
    • Stretched lip piercings - achieved by inserting ever larger plates, such as those made of clay used by some Amazonian tribes.
    • Labia elongation



Some sources of controversy stem from the notion of attempting to artificially beautify the natural form of the body, often leading to charges of disfigurement and mutilation. Extreme forms of body modification are frequently viewed as symptomatic of body dysmorphic disorder, other mental illnesses, or as an expression of unchecked vanity.[19] Unlicensed surgery performed outside of a medical environment can often be life-threatening, and is illegal in most countries and states.

"Disfigurement" and "mutilation" (regardless of any appreciation this always applies objectively whenever a bodily function is gravely diminished or lost) are terms used by opponents of body modification to describe certain types of modifications, especially non-consensual ones. Those terms are used fairly uncontroversially to describe the victims of torture, who have endured damage to ears, eyes, feet, genitalia, hands, noses, teeth, and/or tongues, including amputation, burning, flagellation, piercing, skinning, and wheeling[citation needed]. "Genital mutilation" is also used somewhat more controversially to describe certain kinds of socially proscribed modifications to the genitals, such as male circumcision, female circumcision, castration,[citation needed] and surgeries performed to conform the genitals of individuals with intersex conditions to those of typical males or females.[20]

Individuals known for extensive body modification[edit]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_modification — Please support Wikipedia.
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209 news items

Daily Nebraskan

Daily Nebraskan
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 03:07:30 -0700

In fact, Starbucks recently updated its policy in regards to body modification: employees are allowed to have tattoos, so long as they're not on the face or throat and so long as they're not offensive. The policy states, “We want our customers to focus ...

Daily Nexus

Daily Nexus
Thu, 09 Oct 2014 05:00:00 -0700

120px-Cojuelo1 Some Americans are able to change their physical and mental states on command, researchers say. According to a study completed at K. A. Applegate Institute last month, more and more Americans are identifying as shape shifters, or beings ...
Medicine Hat News
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:18:45 -0700

What was once the domain of sailors, bikers and sideshow performers, body modification has taken off and has, dare we say it, become mainstream. What was once surprising and shocking is now commonplace that we don't think twice when one of our ...


Mon, 20 Oct 2014 11:39:13 -0700

Writing a year ago for CNN, Dr. Anthony Youn similarly reported that “There is one body modification trend I've been asked very commonly to repair: gauge earrings.” And he tactfully advised, “So if you're considering extreme body modification, think ...
A.V. Club DC
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 21:52:30 -0700

It warrants noting that films amounting to little more than non-consensual exercises in extreme body modification don't deserve to be called “horror,” because, while horrifying, they lack the most essential element of a real horror film—a firm ...

The Eastern Progress Online (subscription)

The Eastern Progress Online (subscription)
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 18:18:43 -0700

What started out as an ancient type of body modification is now a trend in modern-day accessories. A number of Eastern students have undertaken the long and sometimes painful process of ear lobe stretching to wear accessories such as gauges and plugs.

ABC Online

ABC Online
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 23:07:43 -0700

“Have you had work done?”, used to be a question you would ask in a hushed tone. Now you can't walk down the street without noticing the number of shop-fronts advertising all of the ways that you can treat the signs of aging: Botox (or facial muscle ...
Basque Research
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 04:48:45 -0700

For her PhD thesis, Ana Belén Rojo Ojados, graduate in the History of Art and PhD in Sociology from the Public University of Navarre (UPNA), analysed the phenomenon of extreme body modification, which includes tattooing, piercing and other corporal ...

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