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Scarification in progress

Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance.[1] It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among other reasons.[1][2] In its broadest definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures), as well as the modern primitive movement.

Explicit ornaments[edit]

Surgical augmentation[edit]

In contrast to the explicit ornaments, the following procedures are primarily not meant to be exposed per se, but rather function to augment another part of the body, like the skin in a subdermal implant.

Removal or split[edit]

Female genital cutting:

Male genital cutting:

Nipple cutting:

  • Nipple removal[10]
  • Nipple splitting[11]

Nullification involves the voluntary removal of body parts. Body parts that are commonly removed by those practicing body nullification are: penis, testicles, clitoris, labia and nipples. Sometimes people who desire a nullification may be diagnosed with body integrity identity disorder or apotemnophilia.[12]

Tongue cutting:

Applying long-term force[edit]

Body modifications occurring as the end result of long term activities or practices

  • Corsetry or tightlacing - binding of the waist and shaping of the torso
  • Cranial binding - modification of the shape of infants' heads, now extremely rare
  • Breast ironing - Pressing (sometimes with a heated object) the breasts of a pubescent female to prevent their growth.
  • Foot binding - compression of the feet of girls to modify them for aesthetic reasons
  • Anal stretching[14]
  • Jelqing - penis enlargement
  • Non-surgical elongation of organs by prolonged stretching using weights or spacing devices. Some cultural traditions prescribe for or encourage members of one sex (or both) to have one organ stretched till permanent re-dimensioning has occurred, such as:
    • The 'giraffe-like' stretched necks (sometimes also other organs) of women among the Burmese Kayan tribe, the result of wearing brass coils around them. This compresses the collarbone and upper ribs but is not medically dangerous. It is a myth that removing the rings will cause the neck to 'flop'; Padaung women remove them regularly for cleaning etc.
    • Stretched lip piercings - achieved by inserting ever larger plates, such as those made of clay used by some Amazonian tribes.
    • Labia elongation

Others[edit]

Controversy[edit]

Some sources of controversy stem from the notion of attempting to artificially beautify the natural form of the body, often leading to charges of disfigurement and mutilation. Extreme forms of body modification are frequently viewed as symptomatic of body dysmorphic disorder, other mental illnesses, or as an expression of unchecked vanity.[19] Unlicensed surgery performed outside of a medical environment can often be life-threatening, and is illegal in most countries and states.

"Disfigurement" and "mutilation" (regardless of any appreciation this always applies objectively whenever a bodily function is gravely diminished or lost) are terms used by opponents of body modification to describe certain types of modifications, especially non-consensual ones. Those terms are used fairly uncontroversially to describe the victims of torture, who have endured damage to ears, eyes, feet, genitalia, hands, noses, teeth, and/or tongues, including amputation, burning, flagellation, piercing, skinning, and wheeling[citation needed]. "Genital mutilation" is also used somewhat more controversially to describe certain kinds of socially proscribed modifications to the genitals, such as male circumcision, female circumcision, castration,[citation needed] and surgeries performed to conform the genitals of individuals with intersex conditions to those of typical males or females.[20]

Individuals known for extensive body modification[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Thompson, Tim; Black, Sue (2010). Forensic Human Identification: An Introduction. CRC Press. pp. 379–398. ISBN 978-1420005714. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  2. ^ "What Is Body Modification?". Essortment. 16 May 1986. Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "Scrotal Implant". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  4. ^ "Microdermal". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  5. ^ "Dermal Anchoring". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  6. ^ "Silicone Injection". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  7. ^ "Horn Implant". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  8. ^ "Inversion". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  9. ^ "Genital Frenectomy". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  10. ^ "Nipple Removal". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  11. ^ "Nipple Splitting". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  12. ^ Jamie Gadette. "Underground". Salt Lake City Weekly. 
  13. ^ "Tongue Frenectomy". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  14. ^ "Anal Stretching". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Ear Shaping". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  16. ^ "Ear Cropping". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  17. ^ "Ear Pointing". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  18. ^ "Tooth Filing". Retrieved 20 March 2015. 
  19. ^ Freak: Encyclopedia II - Freak - Made freaks
  20. ^ Wilchins, Riki. "A Girl's Right to Choose: Intersex Children and Parents Challenge Narrow Standards of Gender". NOW Times. National Organization for Women. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 

External links[edit]



Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_modification — Please support Wikipedia.
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3479 news items

Bustle

Bustle
Thu, 14 May 2015 12:30:00 -0700

Last week, Kylie Jenner admitted to having lip fillers, which filled my newsfeed with memes and jokes at her expense for a ridiculous amount of time, and opened up conversations about making modifications to your body. Although the question had finally ...

Hull Daily Mail

Hull Daily Mail
Wed, 20 May 2015 02:11:15 -0700

But although even understated piercings would once have drawn comment from passers-by, these days a more extreme look is needed to shock. Body modification is becoming ever-more popular and Anthony Kettley, who runs city centre studio Kathmandu, ...

Scottish Daily Record

Scottish Daily Record
Fri, 01 May 2015 02:26:13 -0700

“I've had a body modification,” she told reporters in Glasgow. “Not a brain transplant.” Gary Cornish (l) and Mike Towell (r) have put their faith in Kellie to lead them to glory. Physically, Kellie is small and unremarkable, looking pretty good for 61 ...

Live Science

Live Science
Wed, 27 May 2015 17:45:00 -0700

After all, everyone who gets a permanent body modification faces the risk that it will turn out ugly, fade in the sun or simply not accurately reflect their personality as they age. "I don't think anyone gets a tattoo because it's totally safe; I think ...

Jewish Journal (blog)

Jewish Journal (blog)
Mon, 11 May 2015 09:45:02 -0700

There's evidence of an explosion of interest in body modification among the twenty-something set all around me. Alex the Cyborg's girlfriend is an adorable young lady with a very pretty face and perfect figure who changes her hair's style and unnatural ...

Weekly Alibi

Weekly Alibi
Wed, 27 May 2015 17:00:00 -0700

From the age of 12, he experimented on himself with a wide variety of body modification techniques. He eventually formed the first body piercing school. From there, one of his apprentices, Allen Falkner, went on to develop the art of body suspension.

Bleeding Cool News

Bleeding Cool News
Wed, 27 May 2015 05:56:15 -0700

A less bulky frame. Able more easily to… “pass”. Look he's even got toes and everything. A modern fable in line with advances in body modification and gender realignment surgery and techniques? Or an excuse to look like the Agents Of SHIELD Deathlok?
 
HealthNewsDigest.com
Wed, 27 May 2015 08:56:15 -0700

(HealthNewsDigest.com) - It may have seemed like a good idea at the time...that double piercing on your left ear, the nose ring your parents warned you about, or the colorful dragon stretched out across your bicep. You may have a case of body art ...
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