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Scarification in progress

Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or phenotype.[1] It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among other reasons.[1][2] In its most broad definition it includes plastic surgery, socially acceptable decoration (e.g., common ear piercing in many societies), and religious rites of passage (e.g., circumcision in a number of cultures), as well as the modern primitive movement.

Explicit ornaments[edit]

Surgical augmentation[edit]

In contrast to the explicit ornaments, the following procedures are primarily not meant to be exposed per se, but rather function to augment another part of the body, like the skin in a subdermal implant.

Removal or split[edit]

Female genital cutting:

Male genital cutting:

Nipple cutting:

  • Nipple removal[10]
  • Nipple splitting[11]

Nullification involves the voluntary removal of body parts. Body parts that are commonly removed by those practicing body nullification are: penis, testicles, clitoris, labia and nipples. Sometimes people who desire a nullification may be diagnosed with body integrity identity disorder or apotemnophilia.[12]

Tongue cutting:

Applying long-term force[edit]

Body modifications occurring as the end result of long term activities or practices

  • Corsetry or tightlacing - binding of the waist and shaping of the torso
  • Cranial binding - modification of the shape of infants' heads, now extremely rare
  • Breast ironing - Pressing (sometimes with a heated object) the breasts of a pubescent female to prevent their growth.
  • Foot binding - compression of the feet of girls to modify them for aesthetic reasons
  • Anal stretching[14]
  • Jelqing - penis enlargement
  • Non-surgical elongation of organs by prolonged stretching using weights or spacing devices. Some cultural traditions prescribe for or encourage members of one sex (or both) to have one organ stretched till permanent re-dimensioning has occurred, such as:
    • The 'giraffe-like' stretched necks (sometimes also other organs) of women among the Burmese Kayan tribe, the result of wearing brass coils around them. This compresses the collarbone and upper ribs but is not medically dangerous. It is a myth that removing the rings will cause the neck to 'flop'; Padaung women remove them regularly for cleaning etc.
    • Stretched lip piercings - achieved by inserting ever larger plates, such as those made of clay used by some Amazonian tribes.
    • Labia elongation



Some sources of controversy stem from the notion of attempting to artificially beautify the natural form of the body, often leading to charges of disfigurement and mutilation. Extreme forms of body modification are frequently viewed as symptomatic of body dysmorphic disorder, other mental illnesses, or as an expression of unchecked vanity.[19] Unlicensed surgery performed outside of a medical environment can often be life-threatening, and is illegal in most countries and states.

"Disfigurement" and "mutilation" (regardless of any appreciation this always applies objectively whenever a bodily function is gravely diminished or lost) are terms used by opponents of body modification to describe certain types of modifications, especially non-consensual ones. Those terms are used fairly uncontroversially to describe the victims of torture, who have endured damage to ears, eyes, feet, genitalia, hands, noses, teeth, and/or tongues, including amputation, burning, flagellation, piercing, skinning, and wheeling[citation needed]. "Genital mutilation" is also used somewhat more controversially to describe certain kinds of socially proscribed modifications to the genitals, such as male circumcision, female circumcision, castration,[citation needed] and surgeries performed to conform the genitals of individuals with intersex conditions to those of typical males or females.[20]

Individuals known for extensive body modification[edit]

See also[edit]


External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_modification — Please support Wikipedia.
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200 news items

Daily Nexus

Daily Nexus
Thu, 09 Oct 2014 05:00:00 -0700

120px-Cojuelo1 Some Americans are able to change their physical and mental states on command, researchers say. According to a study completed at K. A. Applegate Institute last month, more and more Americans are identifying as shape shifters, or beings ...


Mon, 20 Oct 2014 11:39:13 -0700

Writing a year ago for CNN, Dr. Anthony Youn similarly reported that “There is one body modification trend I've been asked very commonly to repair: gauge earrings.” And he tactfully advised, “So if you're considering extreme body modification, think ...
MetroNews Canada
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 14:00:00 -0700

A colourful character who sings in punk rock bands, likes comics and tattoos and is sponsored by a local skateboarding shop, Fili wears tape on his earlobes in the cage to cover up holes stretched by spacers. A fan of body modification, he has eight ...
Medicine Hat News
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:18:45 -0700

What was once the domain of sailors, bikers and sideshow performers, body modification has taken off and has, dare we say it, become mainstream. What was once surprising and shocking is now commonplace that we don't think twice when one of our ...

Sioux City Journal

Sioux City Journal
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 01:03:45 -0700

That didn't stop Neito from opening her own body modification business on Pearl Street that specializes in body piercing, tattooing and body branding. The latter, she said, is starting to catch on as the tattoo scene becomes less taboo. "I've been in ...


Thu, 23 Oct 2014 08:11:15 -0700

Not only are the stretched ear lobes a turn-off for employers, but people have found that some professions, ranging from a soldier in the army to a pro golfer, outright disallow the body modification. The minor surgery removes the patient's stretched ...
Bedfordshire News
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 02:22:30 -0700

Katie will also be uncovering the latest bizarre beauty procedures in Britain, from massive tattoos, piercings and surgical enhancement, before meeting people addicted to extreme body modification. Katie said:“I'm so excited to be presenting the second ...
Basque Research
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 04:48:45 -0700

For her PhD thesis, Ana Belén Rojo Ojados, graduate in the History of Art and PhD in Sociology from the Public University of Navarre (UPNA), analysed the phenomenon of extreme body modification, which includes tattooing, piercing and other corporal ...

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