||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (June 2014)|
||This article has been nominated to be checked for its neutrality. (October 2014)|
|බොදු බල සේනා|
|Type||Monastic organization (Sinhala nationalism)|
|Headquarters||Sri Sambuddha Jayanthi Mandira, Colombo, Sri Lanka|
|Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara|
Wimalajothi Thero and Gnanasara Thero are leader and general secretary of BBS respectively. Its headquarters are located at Sri Sambuddha Jayanthi Mandira in Colombo. Sri Sambuddha Jayanthi Mandira is owned by the Buddhist Cultural Centre, an organisation also founded by former leader Kirama Wimalajothi. The Buddhist Cultural Centre was opened by President Mahinda Rajapaksa on 15 May 2011.
The BBS was founded by monks Kirama Wimalajothi and Galagoda Aththe Gnanasaara after they broke away from Jathika Hela Urumaya (JHU). Gnanasara had been one of the JHU candidates in Colombo District at the 2004 parliamentary election.
One of the earliest campaigns by BBS was in respect of Buddhist Sri Lankans working in the Middle East who, according to BBS, were prevented from practising their religion and punished harshly if found to be doing so.
The BBS held its first national convention at the Bandaranaike Memorial International Conference Hall on 28 July 2012. The convention passed five resolutions which, amongst other things, called for a ban on vasectomy and tubal ligation in government health facilities, replacement of the various legal systems used in the country with a single legal system, preferential treatment in university admission for students who attended Buddhism classes, use of monks in government schools to teach history and other classes, and the avoidance of any race- or religion-based solution for the country's ethnic problems.
The BBS held a protest at the Bangladeshi High Commission in Colombo on 4 October 2012 against the anti-Buddhist riots in Bangladesh. Some of the protesters threw stones and bottles at the High Commission.
On 14 October 2012 BBS stormed a house in Batakettara, Homagama, Piliyandala where it alleges a Christian pastor called Dinesh and others from an evangelical group called The Name of Lord Jesus were trying to convert Sinhalese Buddhists. The pastor was later released, but seven people were arrested on charges of abduction after complaints were made by the pastor's family. The following day BBS held a protest outside Piliyandala Police Station demanding that the seven arrested be released.
The BBS held a protest rally in Badulla on 25 October 2012 against alleged conversion, vandalism of Buddhist sites and Islamic terrorism. They held a protest at the Department of Archeology on 29 November 2012 urging the authorities to protect archaeological sites in the Eastern Province.
The BBS stormed Sri Lanka Law College in Hultsdorf, Colombo on 7 January 2013, alleging that exam results were being distorted in favour of Muslim students. The allegations were not true but the college was forced to delay new student registration by one week in order to investigate the allegations.
The BBS stormed the Cinnamon Bay Hotel in Moragalla, Beruwala on 21 January 2013, alleging that the premises contained a "Buddha bar" (associating sacred symbols with such places as bars is considered sacrilege). Two hotel managers were arrested by the police for organising the "Buddha bar" event.
President Mahinda Rajapaksa and government ministers met with the BBS on 27 January 2013 at Temple Trees, Colombo. After the meeting the President issued a statement which urged the BBS and other monks to avoid conflicts with other religious communities but this statement was only issued in English, not Sinhala which is the language of most BBS supporters.
The BBS organised a meeting in Maharagama, Colombo on 17 February 2013 which was attended by around 16,000 people including 1,300 monks. At the rally the BBS general secretary Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara stated "This is a government created by Sinhala Buddhists and it must remain Sinhala Buddhist. This is a Sinhala country, Sinhala government. Democratic and pluralistic values are killing the Sinhala race". He also told the crowd at the rally that they "must become an unofficial civilian police force against Muslim extremism. These so-called democrats are destroying the Sinhala race". At the rally the BBS unveiled the "Maharagama Declaration", a ten-point resolution which, other than an end to halal certification, called for a ban on Sri Lankan women going to work in the Middle East; end of mosque building financed by the Middle East; and ban some contraceptives.
The BBS met with the of the Lieutenant General Jagath Jayasuriya, Major General Shavendra Silva and others from the Sri Lanka Army in late February 2013 to discuss extremist Muslim groups that the BBS alleged were operating in the country. BBS also met with IGP N. K. Illangakoon from the police on 1 March 2013 to discuss the same issues.
Meth Sevana, the BBS' cultural and training centre in Pilana, Wanchawala, Galle District, was officially opened on 9 March 2013 by chief guest Defence Secretary Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, brother of President Mahinda Rajapaksa.
The BBS held a rally in Kandy on 17 March 2013 at which it announced that it would work to remove a 10th-century mosque at the Kuragala Buddhist monastery complex in Ratnapura District. At the rally BBS alleged that Muslim fundamentalists had taken over the site and destroyed Buddhist heritage. BBS general secretary Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara accused the Muslim owned Fashion Bug and No Limit retail chains of converting its Buddhist Sinhalese employees to Islam.
The BBS held a rally in Panadura on 24 March 2013 at which it called on the country to rally against Christian and Muslim extremists, insisting Sri Lanka was a Sinhala Buddhist country, not a multiracial or multi-religious country. At the rally BBS called for High Commissioner Ferial Ashraff to be recalled from Singapore for allegedly carrying out anti-Sinhala activities. At the rally BBS announced that a ringtone could be downloaded from Mobitel, the state-owned mobile phone operator, which would raise funds for BBS. This caused protests from Mobitel customers and the company was forced to apologise for causing "emotional distress".
A nationwide protest by Muslims against the anti-Muslim campaigns being carried out by the BBS and JHU was held on 25 March 2013. The protests were organised by the Muslim Rights Organization (MRO). A hartal was observed in the Eastern Province on the same day against the BBS' anti-Muslim stance.
The Muslim owned Fashion Bug clothes shop in Pepiliyana, Colombo District was attacked on 28 March 2013 by a mob led by Buddhist monks. Some reports suggested that BBS was behind the attack. BBS denied any involvement and condemned the attack.
On 31 March 2013 it was reported that the government was going to ban a number of extremist groups including the BBS. Reacting to the reports, BBS general secretary Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara described Minister of National Languages and Social Integration Vasudeva Nanayakkara as a disgrace and a peacenik, saying "Such ministers should be sent to Angoda once in three months, to have their heads examined". Nanayakkara denied the reports, saying that the government wasn't going to ban extremist groups like the BBS, it was only considering banning hate speech.
Halal certification issue
In February 2013 the BBS started a campaign against the halal certifying system in the country. In Sri Lanka halal certification is carried out by the All Ceylon Jamiyyathul Ulama (ACJU), the group of Islamic clerics. Certificates are only issued to businesses that request it, and the certificate is issued for a fee where the contributions are used by the ACJU to fund Islamic religious activities. The BBS initially threatened to take the ACJU to court. Later they threatened to launch a campaign of agitation against halal certification, stating "they [the Muslims] are trying to impose their ritualistic food products upon this country. The next plan is to bring about Sharia law. Already there is Muslim banking system in the country." At the rally in Maharagama on 17 February 2013 the BBS announced that it was calling for the abolition of the halal certifying system, demanding that shops be cleared of halal meat by April.
In late February 2013 the ACJU offered to hand over responsibility for halal certifying to the government but this was rejected by the BBS who called for the complete eradication halal certification in the country. The BBS slammed the ACJU as "arrogant, corrupt, thieving, underworld thugs". The government also refused to take over halal certification due to the pressure exerted by the BBS.
The BBS stormed a meat inspection facility in Dematagoda run by Colombo Municipal Council (CMC) on 1 March 2013, alleging that young calves, pregnant cows and water buffaloes were being slaughtered at the premises. The slaughter of calves is illegal in Colombo. The BBS were incorrect – the premises were being used by CMC officials to inspect meat prior to being distributed around the city.
Meetings were held between the ACJU, the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce (CCC) and Buddhist clergy and a compromise was announced on 11 March 2013. The ACJU would stop adding the halal logo on products for local consumption but continue to use them for products being exported to Islamic countries where it is compulsory. This offer was also rejected on 12 March 2013 by the BBS who continued to demand "the eradication of the entire Halal process". The BBS went on to attack those responsible for the compromise. They accused Milinda Moragoda, a government minister, of "creating an unholy inter-religious alliance, and attempting to destroy our learned monks. These revered bhikkus are now in the grasp of infidels". They branded the Buddhist clergy as "pseudo Buddhist leaders who never stood against Muslim extremism and Christian fundamentalism." They accused the CCC chairman Susantha Ratnayake of having a "Buddha bar" at a hotel he runs.
The government pronounced on 13 March 2013 that the ACJU had no power to issue halal certificates and that a new way to certify halal products would need to be formulated. On 17 March 2013 the BBS declared victory in its battle against halal, saying it wouldn't talk about halal in the future.
2014 anti-Muslim riots
On Poson Poya (12 June 2014) Buddhist monk Ayagama Samitha and his driver were allegedly assaulted by Muslims in Dharga Town. A mob from Samitha's temple, together with the priest, stormed Aluthgama Police Station demanding that immediate action be taken. Three Muslims were arrested and remanded until 25 June 2014 by the courts. That evening a tense situation arose in Aluthgama as a group of Sinhalese Buddhists started protesting against the alleged assault. The protest turned violent and the mob started throwing stones at the police and attacking Muslim shops. Three people were arrested over the violence.
On 15 June 2014 the BBS staged rallies in Aluthgama, Beruwala and Dharga Town in Kalutara District. Addressing a cheering crowd in Aluthgama, BBS leader Galagoda Aththe Gnanasaara threatened "In this country we still have a Sinhala police; we still have a Sinhala army. After today if a single Marakkalaya [Muslim, in context used derogatorily] or some other paraya [alien, outcast, also a derogatory term] touches a single Sinhalese…..it will be their end."
After its rally the BBS drove into Dharga Town chanting anti-Muslim slogans. Reportedly local Muslim residents started throwing stones at the BBS convoy which resulted in violent clashes erupting between the two groups. Eyewitnesses reported Muslim homes and a mosque being stoned. Muslims were pulled off buses and assaulted whilst the Buddhist mob threw Molotov cocktails, burning and looting Muslim shops and homes. Muslim residents were forced to flee from their homes and seek shelter in mosques and community centres. There was rioting in Beruwala as well. At least four people were killed and 80 injured. Hundreds were made homeless following attacks on homes, shops, factories, mosques and a nursery. 10,000 people (8,000 Muslims and 2,000 Sinhalese) were displaced by the riots. The BBS was widely blamed for inciting the riots but it has denied responsibility.
Attacks on media
The BBS general secretary Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara has accused the majority of the English language media in the country of "working on foreign agendas" and of being "kalu suddho" (traitors) to the Sinhala Buddhist cause.
A BBC News crew filming the BBS rally at Maharagama on 17 February 2013 were surrounded by a mob of twenty young men who threatened them and verbally abused a Sri Lankan member of the crew, accusing him of being a "traitor", having "foreign parents" and working for a "foreign conspirator" who was "against Sri Lanka". The police seemed to be helping the crew by barricading the crew and ordering them not to leave. The mob threatened it would "be the end" of the crew if they returned to Maharagama. A reporter from the Muslim newspaper Navamini was also harassed at the rally by a mob who handed him over to the police who in turn detained the reporter for 4½ hours.
Criticism and controversies
The BBS has received criticism from politicians, human rights groups, other Buddhist clergy and Muslims from Sri Lanka and abroad.
Bodu Bala Sena has drawn criticism from notable representatives of every political party which represent the Sri Lankan parliament except Jathika Hela Urumaya, a Sinhala nationalist political party, for its ideology and actions. Some believe BBS is a front group for Western countries who wish to divide the Sri Lankan population in order to serve western interests. For example, Wimal Weerawansa, a Sri Lankan government minister, has asked that BBS challenge "the Norway agent in its organization" in response to BBS's challenge to him to prove BBS has received funds from a Norwegian NGO.
Minister of National Languages and Social Integration Vasudeva Nanayakkara has described BBS as "an extremist group that comes up with provoking statements". Opposition MP and former Foreign Minister Mangala Samaraweera has accused the BBS of being "a representation of ‘Taliban’ terrorism’" and of spreading extremism and communal hatred against Muslims. Samaraweera has also alleged that the BBS is secretly funded by the Ministry of Defence. The BBS demanded a public apology for Samaraweera's comments, calling him bankrupt and accusing him of supporting separatists. Former ambassador Dayan Jayatilleka has described the BBS as an "ethno-religious fascist movement from the dark underside of Sinhala society". Vikramabahu Karunaratne, leader of the Nava Sama Samaja Party, has labelled the BBS as an extremist religious group.
The International Crisis Group has stated that the BBS' attacks on the Muslim community will lead to an increase in Islamic fundamentalism in the country. The Islamic Human Rights Commission has accused the BBS of "spreading religious hatred" and urged the Sri Lankan government to take legal action against organisations which attack minority groups. The Asian Human Rights Commission has described the BBS as an "expression of the widespread lawlessness in the country", claiming that the government's failure to take action against groups such as the BBS demonstrated the government's connivance. Minority Rights Group International has accused BBS of being the main group behind the recent spate of attacks against Muslims in the country. In its 2012 human rights report, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office accused BBS of increasing "campaigns against religious minorities".
The views of the BBS have been disowned by some of the mainstream Buddhist clergy. Anunayake Bellanwila Wimalaratana has stated that "The views of the Bodu Bala Sena are not the views of the entire Sangha community".
Opposition provincial councillor and MRO president Mujeebur Rahuman has stated that the unfettered activities of the BBS will mean an "ethnic riot will start between Sinhalese and Muslims". The Eastern Provincial Council passed a motion unanimously on 20 February 2013 censuring the BBS for its anti-Muslim stance. Kalmunai Municipal Council passed a motion on 4 April 2013 against extremist groups including the BBS, urging crackdown on these groups.
A group calling itself "Buddhists Questioning Bodu Bala Sena" staged a peaceful candle-lit vigil on 12 April 2013 outside the BBS' headquarters at Sri Sambuddha Jayanthi Mandira. The vigil was broken up by the police.
In July 2014, Galagoda Aththe Gnanasara, the secretary general of the group, demanded that Pope Francis apologize to the Buddhists of Sri Lanka for various "atrocities committed by Christian colonial governments in South Asia" after it was announced that he would visit Sri Lanka in January 2015. After Gnanasara made this demand, a group of Buddhists stormed a meeting at Centre for Society and Religion in Colombo. In doing so they disrupted a meeting over the search for people missing from the civil war and began hurling insults and threats to destroy the center. On 22 July 2014, Gnanasara denounced the 14th Dalai Lama after he called for the Buddhist monks in Myanmar and Sri Lanka to end violence towards Muslims in their countries. He asserted that they didn't recognize the Dalai Llama as the leader of Buddhists worldwide and stated that the Dalai Lama was being fed false information from Muslim extremists.
- 969 Movement
- Patriotic Association of Myanmar
- Buddhism and violence
- Criticism of Buddhism#War and violence
- Rasooldeen, M. D. (8 July 2012). "Lankan mission slams false report on jailed maid". Arab News.
- Beech, Hannah (1 July 2013). "When Buddhists go Bad". Time (New Zealand edition) 182 (1): 19.
- Edirisinghe, Dasun (28 January 2013). "Bodu Bala Sena regrets acts committed by others in its name". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- "Bodu Bala Sena to accept guardianship of orphans". mirror.lk. 27 March 2013.
- Rajasingham, K. T. (18 March 2013). "Bodu Bala Sena to tone down its stance on Muslims". Asian Tribune.
- "Buddhist Cultural Centre opened; Havelock Rd. renamed ‘Sambuddha Jayanthi Mawatha’". The Island (Sri Lanka). 15 May 2011.
- Kumarasinghe, Uditha (15 May 2011). "Buddhist Cultural Centre: Grand opening today". Sunday Observer (Sri Lanka).
- Gamini Karunasena; Wasantha Rupasinghe (9 January 2013). "Sri Lankan Buddhist chauvinists provoke violence against Muslims". World Socialist Web Site.
- "General Election 2004 Preferences" (PDF). Department of Elections, Sri Lanka.
- "Arrested for idol worship". Ceylon Today. 6 July 2012.
- Wimalasurendre, Cyril (9 August 2012). "Asgiriya Nayake Thera welcomes Bodu Bala Sena". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- Edirisinghe, Dasun (29 July 2012). "Buddhist clergy wants birth control operations banned". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- "Protest today against attacks in B’desh on Buddhist shrines". The Island (Sri Lanka). 4 October 2012.
- "Monks protest over Bangladeshi incidents". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 4 October 2012.
- Suriyaarachchi, Binoy (5 October 2012). "Protest pandemonium". Ceylon Today.
- "Tense situation outside Bangladesh High Commission". adaderana.lk. 4 October 2012.
- Fernando, J. A. (14 October 2012). "Police arrests fundamental conversion group attempted to convert Buddhists". Asian Tribune.
- Fernando, J. A. (18 October 2012). "Sri Lanka Buddhists Bodu Bala Sena says will continue to act against fundamental conversion groups – International Church of the Foursquare Gospel". Asian Tribune.
- Wijeratne, Premalal (16 October 2012). "Bodubala Sena protest in Piliyandala". Ceylon Today.
- "Bodu Bala Sena in sit down protest". mirror.lk. 15 October 2011.
- "Bodu Bala Sena protest". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 25 October 2012.
- "Protest in front of Archeological Dept". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 29 November 2012.
- Edirisinghe, Dasun (8 January 2013). "Law College registrations put off by one week". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- "The hardline Buddhists targeting Sri Lanka's Muslims". BBC News. 25 March 2013.
- de Mel, Kithsiri (8 January 2013). "Law College registration postponed". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka).
- "Hotel managers arrested over 'Nirvana style' dinner event". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 27 January 2013.
- "Monks storm Buddha bar lounge in Beruwala". Colombo Gazette. 22 January 2013.
- "The Slow Spread of Discord". The Sunday Leader. 3 February 2013.
- "Tourism industry of Sri Lanka concerned over rising Buddhist extremism". Colombo Page. 25 January 2013.
- Edirisinghe, Dasun (28 January 2013). "President Rajapaksa stresses need for respecting rights of all communities". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- "MR meets Bodu Bala Sena". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 27 January 2013.
- "Islamophobia and attacks on Muslims in Sri Lanka". Minority Rights Group International. 18 March 2013.
- Bastians, Dharisha (13 February 2013). "UNP, Bodu Bala Sena in pow-wow". Daily FT.
- "Ban Halal certification". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 17 February 2013.
- Al Maeena, Tariq A. (23 February 2013). "Neo-fascism on the rise in Sri Lanka". Gulf News.
- "Bodu Bala Sena gives ultimatum to Ban Halal certification". mirror.lk. 18 February 2013.
- Bastians, Dharisha (18 February 2013). ""This is a Sinhala country, Sinhala Government": Bodu Bala Sena". Daily FT.
- "Ban the burqa". Ceylon Today. 17 February 2013.
- Bastians, Dharisha (14 March 2013). "Losing the ideas battle". Daily FT.
- Serasinghe, Sharmini (24 March 2013). "BBS's Latest Target- Muslim Dress Code". Colombo Telegraph.
- Sri Aravinda, Indika (3 March 2013). "Army Asks For Evidence". The Sunday Leader.
- Siri Ananda, W. (10 March 2013). "Gota inaugurates BBS Meth Sevana". Ceylon Today.
- Gunasekara, Tisaranee (14 March 2013). "Gotabhaya Rajapaksa And His Bala Sena". Colombo Telegraph.
- "BBS vows to remove Muslim mosque from Kuragala". Lakbima News.
- "Eviction notice for Muslims in Kuragala". mirror.lk. 27 March 2013.
- "Sri Lanka's Buddhist extremists vow to remove Muslim mosque in Kuragala". Colombo Page. 18 March 2013.
- "Video Evidence BBS Encourages Violence Against Muslim Owned Fashion Bug". Colombo Telegraph. 29 March 2013.
- Rutnam, Easwaran (24 March 2013). "BBS insists Lanka not multiracial". Colombo Gazette.
- Bastians, Dharisha (28 March 2013). "The reconciliation gap". Daily FT.
- "Mobitel apologises for causing 'emotional distress'". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 28 March 2013.
- "Rally to mobilize public support against anti-Muslim campaigns in Sri Lanka". Arab News. 25 March 2013.
- "Sri Lanka Muslims to protest anti-Muslim campaigns". Colombo Page. 25 March 2013.
- M. A. Kaleel; A. M. Jazeel (25 March 2013). "Hartal in East". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- "Sri Lanka crowd attacks Muslim warehouse in Colombo". BBC News. 29 March 2013.
- "Sri Lanka violence prompts security measures". Al Jazeera. 29 March 2013.
- Wickrematunge, Raisa (31 March 2013). "Hate Rages On". The Sunday Leader.
- "Sri Lanka deploys forces after Muslim store torched in Colombo". The Indian Express/Press Trust of India. 29 March 2013.
- "BBS condemns the attack". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 29 March 2013.
- Sri Aravinda, Indika (31 March 2013). "Ban BBS". The Sunday Leader.
- "Sri Lanka government to crack down on extremist groups". Colombo Page. 31 March 2013.
- Bastians, Dharisha (5 April 2013). "BBS backtracks!". Daily FT.
- "Sri Lankan minister denies cabinet paper aimed at banning extremist organizations". Colombo Page. 7 April 2013.
- "Bodu Bala Sena goes International". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 9 April 2013.
- Wickrematunge, Raisa (14 April 2013). "BBS To Launch 'Counterattack' Programme in the US". The Sunday Leader.
- Panagoda, Charundi (24 February 2013). "Halal: Food for thought". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka).
- Sri Aravinda, Indika (10 February 2013). "Bodu Bala Sena To Take ACJU to court". The Sunday Leader.
- Bastians, Dharisha (16 February 2013). "Bodu Bala Sena anti-Halal agitation to begin in Maharagama tomorrow". Daily FT.
- "Sri Lanka hardline group calls for halal boycott". BBC News. 17 February 2013.
- "Calling for the abolition of Halal certification". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 18 February 2013.
- Olindhi Jayasundere; Lahiru Pothmulla (27 February 2013). "Bodu Bala Sena rejects ACJU proposal". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka).
- Panagoda, Charundi (3 March 2013). "Halal: The ball is in Cabinet Sub-Com court". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka).
- Jabbar, Zacki (28 February 2013). "Govt. rejects ACJU call for taking over issuance of Halal certificates". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- "Bodu Bala Sena storms abattoir". Ceylon Today. 2 March 2013.
- "Slaughter house raided". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). 1 March 2013.
- Jayamanne, Dilanthi (1 March 2013). "Bodu Bala Sena surrounds Dematagoda abattoir". The Island (Sri Lanka).
- Bastians, Dharisha (2 March 2013). "Bodu Bala Sena storms Dematagoda ‘slaughterhouse’". Daily FT.
- "Biz chambers on Halaal certification". The Island (Sri Lanka). 11 March 2013.
- "Halal logo to be withdrawn from all Sri Lankan products". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 11 March 2013.
- Jayashika Padmasiri; Olindhi Jayasundara; Lahiru Pothmulla (12 March 2013). "JHU and BBS say it is eyewash". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka).
- Bastians, Dharisha (13 March 2013). "BBS fires all cylinders". Daily FT.
- Bandara, Kelum (14 March 2013). "Govt. to formulate new Halal mechanism". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka).
- Bastians, Dharisha (18 March 2013). "BBS slams Daily FT at key rally in Kandy". Daily FT.
- "Bodu bala sena gives up Halal". Hiru News. 17 March 2013.
- Siriwardana, Sarath (12 June 2014). "Police tear gas protesters". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka).
- "Need for calm, say both sides". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 22 June 2014.
- Bastians, Dharisha (13 June 2014). "Tensions flare in Aluthgama". Daily FT.
- "Tense situation prevails in Sri Lanka's multi ethnic town following protest". Colombo Page. 12 June 2014.
- "Three arrested over Aluthgama clash". Colombo Gazette. 12 June 2014.
- "Sri Lanka imposes curfew after Buddhist-Muslim clashes". BBC News. 15 June 2014.
- Gunasekara, Tisaranee (16 June 2014). "Horror in Aluthgama: Their Crime; Our Shame". Sri Lanka Guardian.
- "Extremist Buddhist monk's fiery speech instigates communal violence in Sri Lanka". Colombo Page. 16 June 2014.
- "BBS speech in Aluthgama". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 16 June 2014.
- "Fresh anti-Muslim riots erupt in Sri Lanka". Arab News. 16 June 2014.
- "Updated: Curfew imposed in Sri Lanka coastal town as Buddhist extremists and Muslims clash". Clombo Page. 15 June 2014.
- "Sri Lankan town under curfew over fears of communal violence". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 15 June 2014.
- Domínguez, Gabriel (18 June 2014). "Sri Lanka's 'worst communal violence in years'". Deutsche Welle.
- "Authorities impose curfew after Buddhists and Muslims clash in the south". AsiaNews. 16 June 2014.
- "Lanka curfew extended as religious clashes spread". Hindustan Times. Agence France-Presse. 16 June 2014.
- "Three killed, 75 injured, houses set ablaze in Sri Lanka ethnic clashes". Australia Network. Reuters. 17 June 2014.
- Colombage, Dinouk (17 June 2014). "n Pictures: Sri Lanka hit by religious riots". Al Jazeera.
- "Sri Lankan riots spark international concern". Gulf Times. Agence France-Presse. 16 June 2014.
- Karunarathne, Waruni (22 June 2014). "The Human Tragedy Of Aluthgama". The Sunday Leader.
- Athas, Iqbal; Hume, Tim (20 June 2014). "Fear, shock among Sri Lankan Muslims in aftermath of Buddhist mob violence". CNN.
- "Sri Lanka police hit back after media flak over deadly riots". The Times of India. Agence France-Presse. 22 June 2014.
- "Muslim businesses stay shut in Colombo after ethnic riots". Oman Tribune. Agence France-Presse. 19 June 2014.
- "BBC journalist threatened at Bodu Bala Sena rally". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 19 February 2013.
- "Mob turns on BBC crew, Muslim newspaper journalist detained by police". Daily FT. 18 February 2013.
- "'Bodu Bala Sena is an extremist group'". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka) via HT Syndication. 15 March 2013.
- Bandara, Hansani (17 February 2013). "BBSO challenges Mangala equating it to a terrorist outfit". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka).
- "'Western role in the Bodu Bala Sena (BBS) of Sri Lanka'". 18 May 2013.
- "Genesis of Bodu Bala Sena". Asian Times. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "Wimal Counter-challenges BBS on BBS-Norway Link". Ceylon today. 27 May 2013.
- Bastians, Dharisha (15 February 2013). "Mangala says anti-Muslim campaign is ‘playing with fire’". Daily FT.
- "BBS wants public apology to all Buddhists from Mangala". Daily FT. 16 February 2013.
- Jayatilleka, Dayan (19 February 2013). "Emergence of Ethno-Religious Fascist Movement from the Dark Underside of Sinhala Society". dbsjeyaraj.com.
- Bastians, Dharisha (12 February 2013). "Joint Opposition becomes official". Daily FT.
- Asia Report N°243 – Sri Lanka's Authoritarian Turn: The Need for International Action (PDF). International Crisis Group. 20 February 2013. p. 24.
- "Action Alert: Sri Lanka – Demand an end to violence against the Muslim and Christian community in Sri Lanka". Islamic Human Rights Commission. 11 March 2013.
- "Sri Lanka: A monk leads mob violence at Maligawatta with the connivance of the police". Asian Human Rights Commission. 4 March 2013.
- "Human Rights and Democracy: The 2012 Foreign & Commonwealth Office Report" (PDF). Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
- "BBS condemns HR report by UK govt". Lakbima News.
- "BBS does not represent entire Sangha". Daily FT. 12 March 2013.
- "EPC censures Bodu Bala Sena". The Island (Sri Lanka). 20 February 2013.
- "Kalmunai Resolution Names BBS As Extremists". The Sunday Leader. 7 April 2013.
- "Kalmunai MC adopts resolution against hardline religious groups". Lakbima News.
- "Resolution passed against BBS". Colombo Gazette. 4 April 2013.
- "Police disperse anti-BBS protest". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 12 April 2013.
- "On ‘Nightclub Buddhists’: The Disrupted Vigil". The Sunday Leader. 21 April 2013.
- "Lanka blocks anti-hate rally in capital". The Gulf Today/Agence France-Presse. 13 April 2013.
- Yahoo News by the Associated Press: Sri Lanka Buddhists want Pope Francis to apologize
- Al Jazeera: Sri Lanka hardline monk denounces Dalai Lama