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For the Romanian village of Bodoş (Hungarian: Bodos), see Baraolt. For umbrella group of ethnic tribes, see Bodo-Kachari people.
Bodo dance.jpg
Bagurumba, the traditional Bodo dance
Total population
Regions with significant populations
 India (Assam) 4,000,000
Bodo language
Hinduism and Bathouism- Folk Hinduism
minority Christianity and others
Related ethnic groups

The Bodos (pronounced BORO) are an ethnic and linguistic aboriginal group of the Brahmaputra valley in the northeast part of India. The Bodos are recognized as a plains tribe in the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Udalguri and Kokrajhar of Assam are considered the centre of the Bodo area. Historically the great Bodos were known as the Mech. Even today the Bodos living in West Bengal, Nagaland and Nepal are called Mech. The Bodos use the term Bodosa (which is pronounced as Borosa meaning son of Bodo) to describe themselves (not to be confused with the Bodosa clan of the Dimasa people). Even though Bodos are demographically separated they follow the same culture, tradition, language and religion.

The Bodo people[edit]

The Bodos represent one of the largest of the 18 ethnic sub-groups within the Kachari group (or Bodo-Kachari), first classified in the 19th century.[1] The Bodo-Kacharis have settled in most areas of North-East India, and parts of Nepal. The Bodo-Kachari people constitute a diverse range of the indigenous people of North-east India.[2] Among the Dimasas, who speak a related language, "Bodo" refers to solid/lump/piece ( For example Mogong-bodo=> piece of meat where mogong means meat and bodo means piece). Among the 18 groups mentioned by Endle, the Sonowal and Thengal in the eastern part of the Brahmaputra river are closely related. The others have been either Hinduized, or have developed separate identities (e.g. Garo).

Among the Bodo-kacharis the Boros represent one of the largest ethnic and linguistic groups of Northeast India. Some typical Boro last names (surname) are: Brahma, Boro, Basumatary, Bwisumatary, Basumata, Daimary, Swargiary, Goyary, Khakhlary, Mushahary, Mochahari, Mochary, Mohilary, Narzary, Narjinary, Narzihary, Chamframary, Hajowary, Hazowary, Hakhorary, Ramchiary, Baglary, Ishlary, Bodo, Bodosa, Baro, Borgoyary, Banuary, Kachary, Sainary, Wary, Owary, Lahary, Saiba, Karjee. The 1971 census report indicated that Bodos were the 8th largest scheduled-tribe (ST) group in India.

The Bodo language is a member of the Tibeto-Burmese family. The Latin and Assamese scripts were used in the past. Recently, Bodos adopted the Devanagari script.

Very early on, Bodos had introduced rice cultivation, tea plantation, pig and poultry farming, and silkworm rearing in North East India. The traditional favourite drink of the Boros is Zu Mai (Zu: wine; Mai: rice). Rice is a staple food of the Boros and is often accompanied by a non-vegetarian dish such as fish or pork. Traditionally Bodos are non-vegetarians.

Weaving is another integral part of Bodo culture. Many families rear their own silkworms, the cocoons of which are then spun into silk. Bodo girls learn to weave from a young age, and no Bodo courtyard is complete without a loom. Most women weave their own Dokhonas (the traditional dress of the Bodo women) and shawls. The Bodos are also expert craftsmen in bamboo products.


Religion among Bodos[3]
Religion Percent

Bodos have practiced Hinduism[4]since millennia and also folk Hinduism called Bathouism. During 19th and 20th century, they were lured to follow Christianity which was mostly successfully resisted. As of 2001, more than 90% of the Bodos living in Assam were believers of Hinduism. However, the percentage of Christians is growing. In 1991, only 8.58% of the Bodo were Christian, but that percentage had increased to 9.40% by 2001. Similarly, the percentage of Hindus decreased from 91.13% in 1991, to 90.31% in 2001. Only a few Bodos still believe in the Animist religion (2,478 in 1991, 141 in 2001).[citation needed]

In Bathouism is a form of forefather worship called Obonglaoree. The sijwu plant (belonging to the Euphorbia genus), is taken as the symbol of Bathou and worshipped. In the Bodo Language Ba means five and thou means deep. Five is a significant number in the Bathou religion.

Five Philosophies : Earth, Water, Air, Sun and Universe. : These five elements are Bathou and the master of five elements is called Bwrai Bathou or God.

बा सान्थौ: हा, बार, दै, अर आरो अख्रां। बे मोनबा मुवायानो बाथौ आरो बिसोरनि बिगोमाखौनो बोराइ बाथौ एबा इसोर बुंनाय जायो।

A clean surface near home or courtyard is considered as an ideal place for worship. Usually, a pair of areca nut called 'goi' and betel leaf called 'pathwi' could be used as offering. On some occasion, worship offering could include rice, milk and sugar. For the Kherai Puja, the most important festival of the Bodos, the altar is placed in the rice field. Other important festivals of the Bodos include Hapsa Hatarnai, Awnkham Gwrlwi Janai, Bwisagu and Domashi.

Modern Bodos[edit]

The struggle for right to self-determination has its genesis in the period of British rule in India. As early as the 1930s, Gurudev Kalicharan Brahma, the then lone leader of the Bodos, submitted a memorandum to the Simon Commission for a separate political administration for the indigenous and tribal people of Assam. However, his demand for political administration was ignored by the British Raj. Even in the post-independence era, such demands were not met by the successive state government.

In the 1960s, the second wave of Bodoland movement emerged. A section of educated Bodo leaders spearheaded a movement demanding a separate Union Territory called "Udhayachal" in 1967. However, this demand for separate Union territory failed due to lack of willingness on the part of the Central and State government to create a separate political administration for plains tribals of Assam.

Many years later, in the 1980s, the third mass struggle for Bodoland (Boroland) took place. The Bodos led a struggle in the name of self-determination in late 1980s under the leadership of Upendra Nath Brahma, who is now regarded as the Father of the Bodos (Bodofa).

In 1993, for the first time, the Assam government formed the Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) to fulfill socio-economic aspirations of the Bodos. But the peace accord between the leaders of All Bodo Students Union (ABSU), Bodo People's Action Committee (BPAC) and the government of Assam failed due to non-implementation of various provisions of the Accord. The Accord collapsed in just one year of its existence. Moreover, the accord came with certain constrained resulting in administrative bottleneck.

After a decade of long agitation, on 10 February 2003, the Boros were granted the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC), an autonomous administrative body that has within its jurisdiction the present district of Kokrajhar, Chirang, Udalguri and Baksa. The second Bodo peace award was result of negotiation between the Bodo Liberation Tiger (BLT), the Central Government and the Assam Government. Following the peace accord, BLT was required to surrender all their arms and converted into Bodoland People's Front (BPF), a political party now ruling the Council. Whereas, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) another armed outfit are in ceasefire talks with the Central Government. Meanwhile, the All Bodo Student's Union (ABSU) has intensified its democratic movement for a separate state. However, there seemed to lack of consensus on the part of political leaders to solve the Bodo debacle once and for all. As result of which today, the entire Bodoland region is on the volcano of unrest.

During the early 1990s, the Bodos' insurgency had a significant impact on forests and wildlife populations in the Manas National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[5] The poaching of rhinos and swamp deer, in particular, severely diminished the stocks of these endangered species, to the point where they are said to be locally extinct.[6] The damage caused by the insurgency is the main reason why the wildlife sanctuary has been on the World Heritage Council Danger List since 1992.[6]

In 2006, Assam Assembly elections, the former Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) members under Hagrama Mohilary formed an alliance with the Indian National Congress and came to power in Dispur.

In 2012, violence broke in Assam out between Bodos and Bengali-speaking Muslims mainly immigrants from neighbouring country Bangladesh causing the displacement of over 400,000 people. Over 5,000 houses have been razed. According to reports the CBI filed a chargesheet in a Bongaigaon court (in Assam) against a former police official of Assam, Mouhibur Islam, as the mastermind of the 2012 ethnic clashes in the State.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Endle 1911
  2. ^ Bodos - the earliest settlers of Assam, India-north-east.com
  3. ^ Census of India - Socio-cultural aspects, Table ST-14, Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs 
  4. ^ http://www.bgverghese.com/BrahmaLecture.htm
  5. ^ Mission Report: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (India), UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Heritage Convention, Thirty-second session, Quebec, Canada, 2–10 July 2008. WHC-08/32.COM/7B.
  6. ^ a b 3[full citation needed]
  7. ^ Deadline looms, but survivors of Assam bloodshed too scared to go home, Alertnet, 10 Aug 2012, retrieved 10 Aug 2012


  • Endle, Sidney (1911) The Kachari, London
  • Pulloppillil, Thomas and Aluckal, Jacob (1997) The Bodos: Children of the Bhullumbutter,
  • Mushahary, Moniram (1981) Bodo–English Dictionary,

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodo_people — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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396 news items

Assam Times

Assam Times
Thu, 02 Jul 2015 22:19:48 -0700

The Bodo people want NRC forms in their own language which would be comfortable for them. The demand was raised earlier. But only to be ignored. It forced the All Bodo Students Union on stage hunger strike for hours in Kokrajhar on Friday. Hundreds of ...
Times of India
Thu, 11 Jun 2015 22:35:56 -0700

But, it is a matter of concern that the forms have been published only in three languages — Assamese, English and Bengali — which has annoyed the Bodo people. So, we have appealed to the authorities to issue forms in Bodo language and distribute ...
Assam Times
Wed, 01 Jul 2015 01:37:30 -0700

A Reception Committee(RC) was formed with Ardhendra Basumatary as president and Bonti Rabha as general secretary to hold second annual conference of the United Bodo People's Organization (UBPO) and its 'Foundation Day' is scheduled to be held on ...

Calcutta Telegraph

Calcutta Telegraph
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 11:45:00 -0700

"Such a denial would not only be a great injustice to the Bodo people but also dishonour the Constitution of the largest democratic country in the world," he said. The union leaders said if the demands were not fulfilled by end of June, they would ...


Mon, 13 Apr 2015 01:07:21 -0700

The ever increasing gap between the Bodo tribe and non-Bodo people living in the BTAD has also had an impact in the polls unlike the previous one. By A Ghiyasuddin, TwoCircles.net,. Guwahati: After emerging as the single largest party with 20 seats out ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Tue, 06 Jan 2015 16:01:11 -0800

“For now, the Bodo community is very happy that this case has been finally laid to rest. The hope is that this will forge a good relationship with Shell for the future, not only with the Bodo people but with all the Niger Delta communities that have ...

Gulf Times

Tue, 23 Dec 2014 21:42:51 -0800

The guerrillas say they are fighting for a separate homeland for indigenous Bodo people. They complain that the tea-growing state has been flooded with outsiders. Security forces launched a campaign last month against the rebels in their remote ...

The Indian Express

The Indian Express
Mon, 06 Apr 2015 06:12:17 -0700

The Bodo People's Front (BPF), which had won the last two Council elections virtually without any opposition – both Congress and BJP had not contested on the two earlier elections – on the other hand is facing a tough time with several parties joining ...

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