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For the Romanian village of Bodoş (Hungarian: Bodos), see Baraolt. For umbrella group of ethnic tribes, see Bodo-Kachari people.
Bodo
बड़ो
Bodo dance.jpg
Bagurumba, the traditional Bodo dance
Total population
5,000,000
Regions with significant populations
 India (Assam) 4,000,000
Languages
Bodo language
Religion
Hinduism and Bathouism- Folk Hinduism
minority Christianity and others
Related ethnic groups
Bodo-Kachari

The Bodos (pronounced BORO) are an ethnic and linguistic aboriginal group of the Brahmaputra valley in the northeast part of India. The Bodos are recognized as a plains tribe in the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Udalguri and Kokrajhar of Assam are considered the centre of the Bodo area. Historically the great Bodos were known as the Mech. Even today the Bodos living in West Bengal, Nagaland and Nepal are called Mech. The Bodos use the term Bodosa (which is pronounced as Borosa meaning son of Bodo) to describe themselves (not to be confused with the Bodosa clan of the Dimasa people). Even though Bodos are demographically separated they follow the same culture, tradition, language and religion.

The Bodo people[edit]

The Bodos represent one of the largest of the 18 ethnic sub-groups within the Kachari group (or Bodo-Kachari), first classified in the 19th century.[1] The Bodo-Kacharis have settled in most areas of North-East India, and parts of Nepal. The Bodo-Kachari people constitute a diverse range of the indigenous people of North-east India.[2] Among the Dimasas, who speak a related language, "Bodo" refers to solid/lump/piece ( For example Mogong-bodo=> piece of meat where mogong means meat and bodo means piece). Among the 18 groups mentioned by Endle, the Sonowal and Thengal in the eastern part of the Brahmaputra river are closely related. The others have been either Hinduized, or have developed separate identities (e.g. Garo).

Among the Bodo-kacharis the Boros represent one of the largest ethnic and linguistic groups of Northeast India. Some typical Boro last names (surname) are: Brahma, Boro, Basumatary, Bwisumatary, Basumata, Daimary, Swargiary, Goyary, Khakhlary, Mushahary, Mochahari, Mochary, Mohilary, Narzary, Narjinary, Chamframary, Hajowary, Hazowary, Hakhorary, Ramchiary, Baglary, Ishlary, Bodo, Bodosa, Baro, Borgoyary, Banuary, Kachary, Sainary, Wary, Owary, Lahary, Saiba, Karjee. The 1971 census report indicated that Bodos were the 8th largest scheduled-tribe (ST) group in India.

The Bodo language is a member of the Tibeto-Burmese family. The Latin and Assamese scripts were used in the past. Recently, Bodos adopted the Devanagari script.

Very early on, Bodos had introduced rice cultivation, tea plantation, pig and poultry farming, and silkworm rearing in North East India. The traditional favourite drink of the Boros is Zu Mai (Zu: wine; Mai: rice). Rice is a staple food of the Boros and is often accompanied by a non-vegetarian dish such as fish or pork. Traditionally Bodos are non-vegetarians.

Weaving is another integral part of Bodo culture. Many families rear their own silkworms, the cocoons of which are then spun into silk. Bodo girls learn to weave from a young age, and no Bodo courtyard is complete without a loom. Most women weave their own Dokhonas (the traditional dress of the Bodo women) and shawls. The Bodos are also expert craftsmen in bamboo products.

Religion[edit]

Religion among Bodos[3]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
90.31%
Christianity
  
9.40%
Others
  
0.29%

Bodos practice Brahmoism[4] (a Hindu reform movement), Bathouism, Christianity and others. As of 2001, more than 90% of the Bodos living in Assam were believers of Bodo Brahma Dharma. However, the percentage of Christians is growing. In 1991, only 8.58% of the Bodo were Christian, but that percentage had increased to 9.40% by 2001. Similarly, the percentage of Brahmos decreased from 91.13% in 1991, to 90.31% in 2001. Only a few Bodos still believe in the Animist religion (2,478 in 1991, 141 in 2001).[5][citation needed]

In Bathouism is a form of forefather worship called Obonglaoree. The sijwu plant (belonging to the Euphorbia genus), is taken as the symbol of Bathou and worshipped. In the Bodo Language Ba means five and thou means deep. Five is a significant number in the Bathou religion.

A clean surface near home or courtyard is considered as an ideal place for worship. Usually, a pair of areca nut called 'goi' and betel leaf called 'pathwi' could be used as offering. On some occasion, worship offering could include rice, milk and sugar. For the Kherai Puja, the most important festival of the Bodos, the altar is placed in the rice field. Other important festivals of the Bodos include Hapsa Hatarnai, Awnkham Gwrlwi Janai, Bwisagu and Domashi.

Modern Bodos[edit]

The struggle for right to self-determination has its genesis in the period of British rule in India. As early as the 1930s, Gurudev Kalicharan Brahma, the then lone leader of the Bodos, submitted a memorandum to the Simon Commission for a separate political administration for the indigenous and tribal people of Assam. However, his demand for political administration was ignored by the British Raj. Even in the post-independence era, such demands were not met by the successive state government.

In the 1960s, the second wave of Bodoland movement emerged. A section of educated Bodo leaders spearheaded a movement demanding a separate Union Territory called "Udhayachal" in 1967. However, this demand for separate Union territory failed due to lack of willingness on the part of the Central and State government to create a separate political administration for plains tribals of Assam.

Many years later, in the 1980s, the third mass struggle for Bodoland (Boroland) took place. The Bodos led a struggle in the name of self-determination in late 1980s under the leadership of Upendra Nath Brahma, who is now regarded as the Father of the Bodos (Bodofa).

In 1993, for the first time, the Assam government formed the Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) to fulfill socio-economic aspirations of the Bodos. But the peace accord between the leaders of All Bodo Students Union (ABSU), Bodo People's Action Committee (BPAC) and the government of Assam failed due to non-implementation of various provisions of the Accord. The Accord collapsed in just one year of its existence. Moreover, the accord came with certain constrained resulting in administrative bottleneck.

After a decade of long agitation, on 10 February 2003, the Boros were granted the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC), an autonomous administrative body that has within its jurisdiction the present district of Kokrajhar, Chirang, Udalguri and Baksa. The second Bodo peace award was result of negotiation between the Bodo Liberation Tiger (BLT), the Central Government and the Assam Government. Following the peace accord, BLT was required to surrender all their arms and converted into Bodoland People's Front (BPF), a political party now ruling the Council. Whereas, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) another armed outfit are in ceasefire talks with the Central Government. Meanwhile, the All Bodo Student's Union (ABSU) has intensified its democratic movement for a separate state. However, there seemed to lack of consensus on the part of political leaders to solve the Bodo debacle once and for all. As result of which today, the entire Bodoland region is on the volcano of unrest.

During the early 1990s, the Bodos' insurgency had a significant impact on forests and wildlife populations in the Manas National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[6] The poaching of rhinos and swamp deer, in particular, severely diminished the stocks of these endangered species, to the point where they are said to be locally extinct.[7] The damage caused by the insurgency is the main reason why the wildlife sanctuary has been on the World Heritage Council Danger List since 1992.[7]

In 2006, Assam Assembly elections, the former Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) members under Hagrama Mohilary formed an alliance with the Indian National Congress and came to power in Dispur.

In 2012, violence broke in Assam out between Bodos and Muslims causing the displacement of over 400,000 people. Over 5,000 houses have been razed.[8]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Endle 1911
  2. ^ Bodos - the earliest settlers of Assam, India-north-east.com
  3. ^ Census of India - Socio-cultural aspects, Table ST-14, Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs 
  4. ^ http://www.bgverghese.com/BrahmaLecture.htm
  5. ^ Table ST-14, Census of India 2001
  6. ^ Mission Report: Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (India), UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Heritage Convention, Thirty-second session, Quebec, Canada, 2–10 July 2008. WHC-08/32.COM/7B.
  7. ^ a b 3[full citation needed]
  8. ^ Deadline looms, but survivors of Assam bloodshed too scared to go home, Alertnet, 10 Aug 2012, retrieved 10 Aug 2012

References[edit]

  • Endle, Sidney (1911) The Kachari, London
  • Pulloppillil, Thomas and Aluckal, Jacob (1997) The Bodos: Children of the Bhullumbutter,
  • Mushahary, Moniram (1981) Bodo–English Dictionary,

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodo_people — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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636 news items

Eurasia Review

Eurasia Review
Mon, 29 Dec 2014 20:48:41 -0800

The non-Bodos, including migrant Muslims, who constitute the majority, alleged that their failure to vote for the Bodo People's Front (BPF) candidate, Chandan Brahma, resulted in the fatal retaliation. This was linked to the remarks by a BPF leader ...
 
The Shillong Times
Wed, 07 Jan 2015 19:07:52 -0800

... outfits inclu-ding the other factions of the NDFB, now disbanded Bodo Liberation Tiger (BLT) whose leaders formed the political party BPF after signing Bodo Peace Accord in 2003 were notorious for killing innocent non-Bodo people living in BTC areas.

Daily Times Nigeria

Daily Times Nigeria
Fri, 09 Jan 2015 13:11:15 -0800

We congratulate the Bodo people and all who worked on this case.” Bassey also said that the compensation was fairer than the initial amount being proposed by Shell as compensation. The environmentalist, however, lamented that the compensation to each ...
 
The Sentinel
Tue, 06 Jan 2015 11:18:45 -0800

KOKRAJHAR, January 6: The United Bodo People's Organization (UBPO) expressed shock over unwanted political mud–slinging among the Bodo leaders in the aftermath of the 23/12 massacre and appealed to them to stop playing politics over the displaced ...

tce today

Daily Mail
Tue, 06 Jan 2015 16:22:30 -0800

Chief Sylvester Kogbara, chairman of the Bodo council of chiefs and elders, said his community was happy the case had finally been laid to rest. "The hope is that this will forge a good relationship with Shell for the future, not only with the Bodo ...

NDTV

NDTV
Tue, 23 Dec 2014 20:21:07 -0800

ABSU, Bodo People's Progressive Front (BPPF), United People's Democratic Front, People's Joint Action Committee for Bodoland Movement and NDFB (Progressive). To fight against Congress in most states they went with extremist, be it Nagaland, Assam, ...
 
TwoCircles.net
Mon, 19 Jan 2015 09:15:00 -0800

We have seen in the past, especially during the Lok Sabha elections, that miscreants killed innocent people to create a chaotic atmosphere and terror among the non-Bodo people living in the area. So we appeal to the state and central governments to ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Fri, 09 Jan 2015 07:32:42 -0800

If it were not for the resilience of the Bodo people, the support of British law firm Leigh Day, the research of Amnesty International and the persistence of civil society organisations in Nigeria, Shell's culpability would not have been exposed. Shell ...
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