digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

This article is about Buddhism. For the Pradhan poem, see Boddhisattva (poem). For the 2010 film, see Bodhisattva (film). For the song by Steely Dan, see Countdown to Ecstasy.
Twenty-five Bodhisattvas Descending from Heaven. Japanese painting, c. 1300.
Translations of
Bodhisattva
English: Enlightenment Being
Pali: बोधिसत्त
Sanskrit: बोधिसत्त्व
Burmese: ဗောဓိသတ်
(IPA: [bɔ́dḭθaʔ])
Chinese: 菩薩, 菩萨
(pinyinpúsà)
(Wade–Giles: p'u2-sa4
)
Japanese: 菩薩
(rōmaji: bosatsu)
Khmer: ពោធិសត្វ
Korean: 보살, 菩薩
(RR: bosal)
Mon: တြုံလၟောဝ်ကျာ်
([kraoh kəmo caik])
Sinhala: බෝධි සත්ත්‍ව (Bodhi Saththva)
Tibetan: བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའ་
(byang chub sems dpa)
Tamil: போதிசத்துவர்
Thai: โพธิสัตว์
phothisat
Vietnamese: Bồ Tát
Glossary of Buddhism

In Buddhism, a bodhisattva (Sanskrit: बोधिसत्त्व bodhisattva; Pali: बोधिसत्त bodhisatta) is an enlightenment (bodhi) being (sattva). Traditionally, a bodhisattva is anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated bodhicitta, which is a spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.[1] According to Tibetan Buddhism, a Bodhisattva is one of the four sublime states a human can achieve in life (the others being an Arhat, Buddha, or Pratyekabuddha).[2]

The bodhisattva is a popular subject in Buddhist art. Usage of the term bodhisattva has evolved over time. In early Indian Buddhism, for example, the term bodhisattva was primarily used to refer specifically to the Buddha in his former lives.[3][4] The Jatakas, which are the stories of his lives, depict the various attempts of the bodhisattva to embrace qualities like self-sacrifice and morality.[4]

In Theravāda Buddhism[edit]

Bronze statue of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. Sri Lanka, ca. 750 CE

The term "bodhisatta" (Pāli language) was used by the Buddha in the Pāli canon to refer to himself both in his previous lives and as a young man in his current life, prior to his enlightenment, in the period during which he was working towards his own liberation. When, during his discourses, he recounts his experiences as a young aspirant, he regularly uses the phrase "When I was an unenlightened bodhisatta..." The term therefore connotes a being who is "bound for enlightenment", in other words, a person whose aim is to become fully enlightened. In the Pāli canon, the bodhisatta is also described as someone who is still subject to birth, illness, death, sorrow, defilement, and delusion. Some of the previous lives of the Buddha as a bodhisattva are featured in the Jātakas.

In later Theravāda literature, the term "bodhisatta" is used fairly frequently in the sense of someone on the path to liberation.[5] The later tradition of commentary also recognizes the existence of two additional types of bodhisattas: the paccekabodhisatta who will attain Paccekabuddhahood, and the savakabodhisatta who will attain enlightenment as a disciple of a Buddha. According to the Theravāda teacher Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path was not taught by the Buddha.[6]

Kings of Sri Lanka were often described as bodhisattvas, starting at least as early as Sirisanghabodhi (r. 247-249), who was renowned for his compassion, who took vows for the welfare of the citizens, and was regarded as a mahāsatta (Skt. mahāsattva), an epithet used almost exclusively for Mahāyāna bodhisattvas.[7] Many other kings of Sri Lanka from the 3rd century until the 15th century were also described as bodhisattvas, and their royal duties were sometimes clearly associated with the practice of the Ten Pāramitās.[8]

Theravadin bhikkhu and scholar Walpola Rahula (Sri Rahula Maha Thera) has stated that the bodhisattva ideal has traditionally been held to be higher than the state of a śrāvaka not only in Mahāyāna, but also in Theravāda Buddhism. He also quotes an inscription from the 10th Century king of Sri Lanka, Mahinda IV (956-972 CE) who had the words inscribed "none but the bodhisattvas will become kings of a prosperous Lanka," among other examples.[9][10]

There is a wide-spread belief, particularly in the West, that the ideal of the Theravada, which they conveniently identify with Hinayana, is to become an Arahant while that of the Mahayana is to become a Bodhisattva and finally to attain the state of a Buddha. It must be categorically stated that this is incorrect. This idea was spread by some early Orientalists at a time when Buddhist studies were beginning in the West, and the others who followed them accepted it without taking the trouble to go into the problem by examining the texts and living traditions in Buddhist countries. But the fact is that both the Theravada and the Mahayana unanimously accept the Bodhisattva ideal as the highest.

—Walpola Rahula, Bodhisattva Ideal in Buddhism

Paul Williams writes that some modern Theravada meditation masters in Thailand are popularly regarded as bodhisattvas.[11]

Cholvijarn observes that prominent figures associated with the Self perspective in Thailand have often been famous outside scholarly circles as well, among the wider populace, as Buddhist meditation masters and sources of miracles and sacred amulets. Like perhaps some of the early Mahāyāna forest hermit monks, or the later Buddhist Tantrics, they have become people of power through their meditative achievements. They are widely revered, worshipped, and held to be arhats or (note!) bodhisattvas.

Wood carving of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva. China, 907-1125
Mural of Padmapani in Ajanta Caves. India, 5th century
Clay sculpture of a bodhisattva. Afghanistan, 7th century

In Mahāyāna Buddhism[edit]

Bodhisattva ideal[edit]

Mahāyāna Buddhism is based principally upon the path of a bodhisattva. According to Jan Nattier, the term Mahāyāna ("Great Vehicle") was originally even an honorary synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle."[12] The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra contains a simple and brief definition for the term bodhisattva, which is also the earliest known Mahāyāna definition.[13][14] This definition is given as the following.[15]

Because he has enlightenment as his aim, a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called.

Mahāyāna Buddhism encourages everyone to become bodhisattvas and to take the bodhisattva vows. With these vows, one makes the promise to work for the complete enlightenment of all sentient beings by practicing the six perfections.[16] Indelibly entwined with the bodhisattva vow is merit transference (pariṇāmanā).

In Mahāyāna Buddhism life in this world is compared to people living in a house that is on fire. People take this world as reality pursuing worldly projects and pleasures without realizing that the house is on fire and will soon burn down (due to the inevitability of death). A bodhisattva is one who has a determination to free sentient beings from samsara and its cycle of death, rebirth and suffering. This type of mind is known as the mind of awakening (bodhicitta). Bodhisattvas take bodhisattva vows in order to progress on the spiritual path towards buddhahood.

There are a variety of different conceptions of the nature of a bodhisattva in Mahāyāna. According to some Mahāyāna sources a bodhisattva is someone on the path to full Buddhahood. Others speak of bodhisattvas renouncing Buddhahood. According to the Kun-bzang bla-ma'i zhal-lung, a bodhisattva can choose any of three paths to help sentient beings in the process of achieving buddhahood. They are:

  1. king-like bodhisattva - one who aspires to become buddha as soon as possible and then help sentient beings in full fledge;
  2. boatman-like bodhisattva - one who aspires to achieve buddhahood along with other sentient beings and
  3. shepherd-like bodhisattva - one who aspires to delay buddhahood until all other sentient beings achieve buddhahood. Bodhisattvas like Avalokiteśvara and Śāntideva are believed to fall in this category.

According to the doctrine of some Tibetan schools (like Theravāda but for different reasons), only the first of these is recognized. It is held that Buddhas remain in the world, able to help others, so there is no point in delay. Geshe Kelsang Gyatso notes:[17]

In reality, the second two types of bodhicitta are wishes that are impossible to fulfill because it is only possible to lead others to enlightenment once we have attained enlightenment ourself. Therefore, only king-like bodhicitta is actual bodhicitta. Je Tsongkhapa says that although the other Bodhisattvas wish for that which is impossible, their attitude is sublime and unmistaken.

The Nyingma school, however, holds that the lowest level is the way of the king, who primarily seeks his own benefit but who recognizes that his benefit depends crucially on that of his kingdom and his subjects. The middle level is the path of the boatman, who ferries his passengers across the river and simultaneously, of course, ferries himself as well. The highest level is that of the shepherd, who makes sure that all his sheep arrive safely ahead of him and places their welfare above his own.[18]

Ten grounds[edit]

According to many traditions within Mahāyāna Buddhism, on the way to becoming a Buddha, a bodhisattva proceeds through ten, or sometimes fourteen, grounds or bhūmis. Below is the list of the ten bhūmis and their descriptions according to the Avataṃsaka Sūtra and The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, a treatise by Gampopa, an influential teacher of the Tibetan Kagyu school. (Other schools give slightly variant descriptions.)

Before a bodhisattva arrives at the first ground, he or she first must travel the first two of the five paths:

  1. the path of accumulation
  2. the path of preparation

The ten grounds of the bodhisattva then can be grouped into the next three paths

  1. bhūmi 1 the path of insight
  2. bhūmis 2-7 the path of meditation
  3. bhūmis 8-10 the path of no more learning

The chapter of ten grounds in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra refers to 52 stages. The 10 grounds are:

  1. Great Joy: It is said that being close to enlightenment and seeing the benefit for all sentient beings, one achieves great joy, hence the name. In this bhūmi the bodhisattvas practice all perfections (pāramitās), but especially emphasizing generosity (dāna).
  2. Stainless: In accomplishing the second bhūmi, the bodhisattva is free from the stains of immorality, therefore, this bhūmi is named "stainless". The emphasized perfection is moral discipline (śīla).
  3. Luminous: The third bhūmi is named "luminous", because, for a bodhisattva who accomplishes this bhūmi, the light of Dharma is said to radiate for others from the bodhisattva. The emphasized perfection is patience (kṣānti).
  4. Radiant: This bhūmi is called "radiant", because it is said to be like a radiating light that fully burns that which opposes enlightenment. The emphasized perfection is vigor (vīrya).
  5. Very difficult to train: Bodhisattvas who attain this bhūmi strive to help sentient beings attain maturity, and do not become emotionally involved when such beings respond negatively, both of which are difficult to do. The emphasized perfection is meditative concentration (dhyāna).
  6. Obviously Transcendent: By depending on the perfection of wisdom, [the bodhisattva] does not abide in either saṃsāra or nirvāṇa, so this state is "obviously transcendent". The emphasized perfection is wisdom (prajñā).
  7. Gone afar: Particular emphasis is on the perfection of skillful means (upāya), to help others.
  8. Immovable: The emphasized virtue is aspiration. This, the "immovable" bhūmi, is the bhūmi at which one becomes able to choose his place of rebirth.
  9. Good Discriminating Wisdom: The emphasized virtue is power.
  10. Cloud of Dharma: The emphasized virtue is the practice of primordial wisdom.

After the ten bhūmis, according to Mahāyāna Buddhism, one attains complete enlightenment and becomes a Buddha.

With the 52 stages, the Śūraṅgama Sūtra recognizes 57 stages. With the 10 grounds, various Vajrayāna schools recognize 3–10 additional grounds, mostly 6 more grounds with variant descriptions.[19][20]

A bodhisattva above the 7th ground is called a mahāsattva. Some bodhisattvas such as Samantabhadra are also said to have already attained buddhahood.[21]

School doctrines[edit]

Some sutras said a beginner would take 3–22 countless eons (mahāsaṃkhyeya kalpas) to become a buddha.[22][23][24] Pure Land Buddhism suggests buddhists go to the pure lands to practice as bodhisattvas. Tiantai, Huayan, Zen and Vajrayāna schools say they teach ways to attain buddhahood within one karmic cycle.[25][26]

Various traditions within Buddhism believe in specific bodhisattvas. Some bodhisattvas appear across traditions, but due to language barriers may be seen as separate entities. For example, Tibetan Buddhists believe in various forms of Chenrezig, who is Avalokiteśvara in Sanskrit, Guanyin in China, Gwan-eum in Korea, Quan Am in Vietnam, and Kannon in Japan. Followers of Tibetan Buddhism consider the Dalai Lamas and the Karmapas to be an emanation of Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.

Kṣitigarbha is another popular bodhisattva in Japan and China. He is known for aiding those who are lost. His greatest compassionate vow is:

If I do not go to the hell to help the suffering beings there, who else will go? ... if the hells are not empty I will not become a Buddha. Only when all living beings have been saved, will I attain Bodhi.

The place of a bodhisattva's earthly deeds, such as the achievement of enlightenment or the acts of Dharma, is known as a bodhimaṇḍa, and may be a site of pilgrimage. Many temples and monasteries are famous as bodhimaṇḍas. Perhaps the most famous bodhimaṇḍa of all is the Bodhi Tree under which Śākyamuṇi achieved buddhahood. In the tradition of Chinese Buddhism, there are four mountains that are regarded as bodhimaṇḍas for bodhisattvas, with each site having major monasteries and being popular for pilgrimages by both monastics and laypeople. These four bodhimandas are:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Bodhisattva Vow: A Practical Guide to Helping Others, page 1, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-50-0
  2. ^ P. 313 Brilliant Moon: The Autobiography of Dilgo Khyentse by Dilgo Khyentse
  3. ^ Coomaraswamy, Ananda (1975). Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism. Boston: University Books. p. 225. LCCN 64056434. "...the term Bodhisatta, or Wisdom-being, first used of Gautama between the Going-forth and the attainment of Nibbāna, came to mean a Buddha-designate...." 
  4. ^ a b http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/70982/bodhisattva
  5. ^ 南傳菩薩道(上)
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ Holt, John. Buddha in the Crown : Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka. 1991. p. 59
  8. ^ Holt, John. Buddha in the Crown : Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka. 1991. pp. 59-60
  9. ^ "Bodhisattva Ideal in Buddhism". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2010-04-18. 
  10. ^ Holt, John. Buddha in the Crown : Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka. 1991. p. 60
  11. ^ Paul Williams, Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations. Taylor & Francis, 1989, page 328.
  12. ^ Nattier, Jan (2003), A few good men: the Bodhisattva path according to the Inquiry of Ugra: p. 174
  13. ^ Mall, Linnart. Studies in the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita and Other Essays. Motilal Banarsidass. 2005. pp. 53-54.
  14. ^ Hirakawa, Akira. A history of Indian Buddhism: from Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. Motilal Banarsidass. 2007. p. 297.
  15. ^ Conze, Edward. The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines and its Verse Summary. Grey Fox Press. 2001. p. 89.
  16. ^ The Bodhisattva Vow: A Practical Guide to Helping Others, pages 4-12, Tharpa Publications (2nd. ed., 1995) ISBN 978-0-948006-50-0
  17. ^ Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune: the Complete Buddhist Path to Enlightenment, p. 422
  18. ^ Patrul Rinpoche, Words of My Perfect Teacher," page 218, "The king's way, called 'arousing bodhicitta with the great wish,' is the least courageous of the three. The boatman's way, called 'arousing bodhicitta with sacred wisdom,' is more courageous. It is said that Lord Maitreya aroused bodhicitta in this way. The shepherd's way, called 'the arousing of bodhicitta beyond compare,' is the most courageous of all. It is said to be the way Lord Mañjuśrĩ aroused bodhicitta."
  19. ^ 大圆满心性休息颂[dead link]
  20. ^ 吉祥鄔金密嚴寺: 八地在般若乘和金剛乘的分別
  21. ^ 459 因地菩薩和果地菩薩
  22. ^ 三大阿僧祇劫
  23. ^ 成佛的目的是到每一個世界去度眾生.[dead link]
  24. ^ 即身成就與三大阿僧祇劫之修行[dead link]
  25. ^ 顯教與密教
  26. ^ 「無諍之辯」導讀

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhisattva — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
116750 videos foundNext > 

steely dan - bodhisattva

Bodhisattva Would you take me by the hand Bodhisattva Would you take me by the hand Can you show me The shine of your Japan The sparkle of your China Can you...

Steely Dan 2006-Bodhisattva

Steely Dan Bodhisattva The Sugar-Tooth Steelyard McDan Tour 2006.

Alan Watts ~ Living Life As A Bodhisattva

Space and silence are necessary to go beyond the limitations of consciousness, but how can a mind which is so endlessly active in its self-interest be quiet?...

Delhi Teachings 2014 - Day 1 - 37 Practices of a Bodhisattva

The first day of His Holiness the Dalai Lama's three day teaching on "37 Practices of a Bodhisattva" in New Delhi, India on March 22, 2014. Presented by the ...

37 Practices of a Bodhisattva

How to train your mind to cultivate great compassion, bodhicitta, and follow the footsteps of bodhisattvas. 37 Practices of a Bodhisattva is a much beloved t...

Bodhisattva

Bodhisattva en el Metro

Un Bodhisattva es una persona (monje o laico) que está en una posición de lograr Nirvana , pero lleno de gran compasión por el mundo, renuncia a eso y sigue ...

[ The story of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva - Prince Buxuan ] [HQ]

Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva is also known as Guanshiyin Bodhisattva or Guanyin Bodhisattva. He is the attendant accompanying Amitabha Buddha on his left hand ...

Vow of a Bodhisattva - Explained

A Bodhisattva is anyone who is motivated by love and compassion, seeks enlightenment not only for him/herself but also for everyone. When he/she realizes tha...

Steely Dan - Bodhisattva guitar cover

Guitar cover of Steely Dan's Bodhisattva.

116750 videos foundNext > 

381 news items

 
My Sunshine Coast (press release)
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 18:52:30 -0700

A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life is one of the most beloved texts in the Tibetan Buddhist Tra-dition. Composed in the eighth century by the Indi-an Bodhisattva Shantideva, it describes the benefits and process of cultivating bodhicitta, the ...
 
al.com
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 17:12:27 -0700

... of ceremonies, Steely Dan presented signature songs that included "Black Cow," "Hey Nineteen," "Aja," "Black Friday," "Show Biz Kids," "Babylon Sisters," "Razor Boy," "Green Earrings," "My Old School," "Peg," "Josie," "Bodhisattva" and "Kid ...
 
Lankaweb
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 15:52:04 -0700

Ruled by illustrious Buddhist kings, most notably King Kanishka, the Buddhist Kingdom of Kashmir developed to be an exceptional Buddhist region marked by magnificent Buddhist shrines, monasteries, stupes, Buddha and Bodhisattva statues and their ...
 
The New Orleans Advocate
Sun, 27 Jul 2014 14:48:10 -0700

Bodhisattva,” from 1973's “Countdown to Ecstasy” album, was the concert's hottest song. Mostly instrumental, the jazz, rock and Asian music hybrid starred Herington's swift guitar lines — solos that Denny Dias and Jeff “Skunk” Baxter played for the ...

Wall Street Journal (blog)

Wall Street Journal (blog)
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 09:30:00 -0700

Sarah talks about her experience on the ashram and how she discovered she is the Bodhisattva of the earth. It's all full circle. There was an antidote, and Sarah drank it. “I am the antidote, sweetie. I can heal you,” she says. Anything that keeps Anna ...

Korea Times

Korea Times
Sun, 27 Jul 2014 02:09:23 -0700

For this reason, Ven. Hyedam has been re-creating them based on historical records. Ven. Hyedam said the works that she will exhibit at the Louvre include, most notably, the "Water, Moon Gwaneum" of the Bodhisattva known for compassion. The painting is ...
 
The Japan Times
Sat, 26 Jul 2014 06:52:30 -0700

Recently restored, along with the temple's main structure, the Kannon echoes an early Asuka-Period style of the benevolent bodhisattva: male in appearance, with a smartly stylized goatee. As we walk outside the temple's main gate, Takahashi points to ...

Kansas City Star (blog)

Kansas City Star (blog)
Sun, 20 Jul 2014 10:03:45 -0700

Cubano Chant; Black Cow; Aja; Hey Nineteen; Rikki Don't Lost That Number; Black Friday; Show Biz Kids; Time Out of Mind; Two Against Nature; Dirty Work; Bodhisattva; Do It Again; Daddy Don't Live in That New York City No More; Babylon Sisters; I Want ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Bodhisattva

You can talk about Bodhisattva with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!