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Not to be confused with Poor Man's Bible.
Three episodes from a block-book Biblia Pauperum illustrating typological correspondences between the Old and New Testaments: Eve and the serpent, the Annunciation, Gideon's miracle

The Biblia pauperum ("Paupers' Bible") was a tradition of picture Bibles beginning probably with Ansgar, and a common printed block-book in the later Middle Ages to visualize the typological correspondences between the Old and New Testaments. Unlike a simple "illustrated Bible", where the pictures are subordinated to the text, these Bibles placed the illustration in the centre, with only a brief text or sometimes no text at all. Words spoken by the figures in the miniatures could be written on scrolls coming out of their mouths. To this extent one might see parallels with modern cartoon strips.

The tradition is a further simplification of the Bible moralisée tradition, which was similar but with more text. Like these, the Biblia pauperum was usually in the local vernacular language, rather than Latin.


Originally Paupers' Bibles took the form of colourful hand-painted illuminated manuscripts on vellum, though in the fifteenth century printed examples with woodcuts took over. The Biblia pauperum was among the commonest works put out in block-book form, mainly in the Netherlands and Germany, where both text and images were done entirely in a single woodcut for each page. The first of many editions printed using movable type was printed in German, in Bamberg in about 1462 by Albrecht Pfister; there were about eighteen incunabulum editions.[1][2] A Biblia pauperum was not intended to be bought by the poor — some manuscripts were opulent and very expensive, although the block-book versions were far cheaper, and probably affordable by parish priests. The simpler versions were however probably used by the clergy as a teaching aid for those who could not read, which included most of the population. The name Biblia pauperum was applied by German scholars in the 1930s.

Each group of images in the Biblia pauperum is dedicated to one event from the Gospels, which is accompanied by two slightly smaller pictures of Old Testament events which prefigure the central one, according to belief of medieval theologians in typology; these parallels are explained in two blocks of text, and each of the three Biblical scene is introduced with a Latin verse. Four Prophets hold scrolls with quotations from their Books, which prefigure the same event from the Gospels. For example, the scene of Longinus spearing Jesus as he hangs on the Cross is accompanied by God bringing forth Eve from the side of Adam, and Moses striking the rock so that water flowed forth, together with prophecies of Zechariah, the Psalms, the Lamentations and Amos.[3]

The earliest manuscripts of the Biblia Pauperum were made in Bavaria and Austria in the 14th century, they have 34–36 groups. Later versions add more scenes, and one of the most detailed versions is the 50-part blockbook version, produced in the Netherlands in the time 1480-1495


The Biblia was rivalled by the Speculum Humanae Salvationis (Mirror of Human Salvation), another very popular compilation of typological pairings, with rather more text than the Biblia. The iconographical programmes of these books are shared with many other forms of medieval art, including stained glass windows and carvings of biblical subjects. Since books are more portable than these, they may well have been important in transmitting new developments in depicting the subjects. Most subjects, such as the Annunciation to the Shepherds, can be seen in a very similar form at different dates, in different media and different countries.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ J. Victor Scholderer (1912). "'Albrecht Pfister of Bamberg' (book review)". The Library. S3-III: 230–6. doi:10.1093/library/s3-iii.10.230. 
  2. ^ ISTC British Library
  3. ^ http://warburg.sas.ac.uk/vpc/VPC_search/record.php?record=34879 Faksimile].

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblia_pauperum — Please support Wikipedia.
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Fri, 22 May 2015 20:56:15 -0700

Medeltidens Biblia pauperum, Bibel för de fattiga, var en sorts Bibelns Det bästa, ett pedagogiskt propagandamedel uppfunnet av en bayersk munk på 1200-talet. Här mosades Gamla testamentet ihop med det Nya, enligt den typologiska bibeltolkningens ...


Tue, 28 Apr 2015 15:07:30 -0700

A jednocześnie jest to "Biblia Pauperum", czyli biblia w obrazkach dla nieumiejących czytać (po łacinie) - tłumaczy Anna Makać. Wernisażowi, który odbędzie się we wtorek, 5 maja, towarzyszyć będzie koncert zespołu Monsignore Porcellio. Zespół powstał w ...


Sat, 02 May 2015 08:11:15 -0700

Un centinaio d'opere d'arte medioevale in vetro e altri oggetti d'epoca, appartenenti alle straordinarie collezioni dell'Ermitage e ai Musei Riserva Statale di Pavlovsk e di Peterhoff, in dialogo con le creazioni d'arte contemporanea in vetro di 50 ...

Senigallia Notizie

Senigallia Notizie
Thu, 30 Apr 2015 17:03:03 -0700

Si conferma il bello coma espressione di Dio creatore, per un itinerario in quell'arte anche definita Biblia Pauperum, fra quadri, suppellettili, statue ed antichi paramenti. I Musei diocesani aderiscono all'Associazione Musei Ecclesiastici Italiani e ...

The Smart Set

The Smart Set
Wed, 11 Feb 2015 10:58:50 -0800

Masereel's book of hours was more of a Biblia pauperum, a Pauper's Bible. These were common printed block books often used by parish priests as teaching aids. In early Biblia paupera, illustrations were accompanied by little, if any, text. Sometimes ...


Mon, 29 Sep 2014 22:06:36 -0700

They became known as the Biblia Pauperum, or Poor Man's Bible. As the champion and embodiment of the Christian ideal, St. George has been claimed by many states and kingdoms as their patron. He was the saint invoked by soldiers, a symbol of manly ...
Gazeta Wyborcza
Tue, 12 Nov 2013 07:15:44 -0800

Swoistą Biblią pauperum jest także serial "Biblia", który przywołał wspomnienia włoskich filmów, które nam w szkole puszczano. Dzieło owo jest zrobione z prawdziwie tandetnym rozmachem, bohaterowie Starego Testamentu prezentują olśniewająco białe ...
Gazeta Wyborcza
Mon, 15 Apr 2013 02:46:49 -0700

Zapomnijcie o "Grze o tron". Do diabła z "House of Cards". Za Atlantykiem najpopularniejszym serialem jest "Biblia" nadawana przez History Channel. Przy 13 mln widzów "Mad Men" ze swoim 3,4 mln odbiorców może się schować. Ewangeliczna opowieść ...

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