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"Bedtime Story"
An orange flower is held in the palm of a white hand in front of a purple background.
Single by Madonna
from the album Bedtime Stories
B-side "Survival"
Released February 13, 1995
Format
Recorded 1994; Chappell Studios
Genre
Length 4:53
Label
Writer(s)
Producer(s)
Madonna singles chronology
"Take a Bow"
(1994)
"Bedtime Story"
(1995)
"Human Nature"
(1995)
Music video
"Bedtime Story" on YouTube

"Bedtime Story" is a song by American singer Madonna from her sixth studio album Bedtime Stories (1994). It was released as the third single from the album on February 13, 1995, by Maverick Records, and also appears on Madonna's compilation album GHV2 (2001). "Bedtime Story" was written by Björk, Nellee Hooper and Marius De Vries, and was the first time the former wrote a song for Madonna's album. She re-wrote a demo of the song to the current version, which was then produced by Madonna and Nellee Hooper. A mid-tempo electronic song with acid, house, ambient and techno influences, "Bedtime Story" has an underlying skeletal synth melody influenced by minimal trance music. The track was a departure from Madonna's pop-R&B-based repertoire in favor of unconventional and electronic music. Lyrically it talks about the joys of the unconscious world.

"Bedtime Story" received favorable reviews from music critics, who praised the song's hypnotic and electronic style, and deemed it an underrated song which could have had great potential. The song was a moderate international success, reaching the top ten in the United Kingdom, Italy and Australia, but missing the top 40 in United States. However, the song peaked at number one on the Hot Dance Club Songs. The music video for "Bedtime Story" was directed by Mark Romanek and is listed as one of the most expensive music videos of all time at a cost of $5 million ($7.76 million in 2016 dollars[1]). It features surrealistic and new age imagery, with influences from artists such as Remedios Varo, Frida Kahlo and Leonora Carrington. The video received acclaim from critics and is stored in a collection at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City for permanent display.

"Bedtime Story" was performed at the 1995 Brit Awards in London with Madonna wearing a white Versace dress and long hair extensions, becoming one of the 30 best moments of the awards show history according to Marie Claire. A remixed version of the track was also used as a video interlude on her Re-Invention World Tour in 2004. Critics and scholars noted that the song foreshadowed Madonna's move towards electronic music in her future work.

Background and release[edit]

"I think at the time, yes, ['Let's Get Unconscious'] was what I wanted to hear from [Madonna's] mouth. But that's like six years ago, when everything about her seemed very controlled. I think she's a very intuitive person, and definitely her survival instinct are incredible. They're like, outrageous. At the time, the words I thought she'd say were, 'I'm not using words anymore, let's get unconscious honey. Fuck logic. Just to be intuitive. Be more free. Go with the flow.' Right now, she seems pretty much to be going with the flow."

—Björk talking about the creation of "Bedtime Story" in an interview with Nylon magazine in 2001.[2]

According to Lucy O'Brien in her book Madonna: Like an Icon, Madonna wanted to "make an impact" on the soul musical scene, and started working with prominent producers from the R&B market. Aside from this, however, Madonna also wanted to explore the British club musical scene, where genres such as dub had been growing in popularity. In such a way, she decided to work with several European producers and composers within the electronic scene, including Nellee Hooper, who pleased Madonna due to his "very European sensibility". Inviting Hooper over to Los Angeles, sessions started taking place in the Chappell Studios of Encino, California.[3]

"Bedtime Story" was written by Icelandic singer-songwriter Björk, Marius De Vries and Hooper, and co-produced by Madonna and Hooper.[4] According to author Mark Pytlik in his book Björk: Wow and Flutter, Madonna was inspired at that time by Björk's second studio album, Debut (1993). Through her connections with De Vries and Hooper, Madonna got in touch with Björk and offered her a chance to write a track for Bedtime Stories. Björk did not consider herself a fan of Madonna's music, but she was intrigued by the offer and she accepted it. She wrote a song initially named "Let's Get Unconscious", with the opening lyrics "Today is the last day, That I'm using words"—the lines being born out of Björk's own criticism of Madonna's aesthetic. The singer clarified, "When I was offered to write a song for [Madonna], I couldn't really picture me doing a song that would suit her... But on second thought, I decided to do this to write the things I have always wanted to hear her say that she's never said."[5]

Once the song demo had been finished, De Vries and Hooper rearranged the track and the final version was called "Bedtime Story". The song was eventually released as the third single from the parent album, Bedtime Stories. Björk later confessed that Madonna had got few of the lyrics wrong, like instead of the original "learning logic and reason" Madonna included it as "leaving logic and reason".[6] The original demo was later re-worked and released as "Sweet Intuition", which appeared as a B-side on Björk's "Army of Me" single and remixed on the "It's Oh So Quiet" single.[7]

Recording and composition[edit]

"Bedtime Story" is an electronic song, a notable departure from the other tracks on its parent album, which are more R&B and new jack swing-driven.[8] Unlike Madonna's more up-tempo, melodic work, the song is slower and has less melody but complex rhythmic structure.[9] It has an ambient-influenced tone, with a "pulsating" and a "deep, bubbling" house beat.[3][10] There are stylistic comparisons to acid house music,[11] with its "skeletal" synth arrangement, influences of minimal trance,[10] as well as techno. The song's instrumentation is synthesized, consisting of drum machine loops, organs, strings, gurgles, handclaps, as well as a digitally-altered "homophonic" choir.[9] According to sheet music published by Musicnotes.com, "Bedtime Story" is written in the key of G minor and has a moderate tempo of 108 beats per minute. Madonna's vocals span from the nodes of A3 to G5 and follos a basic sequence of Gm9–Dm–E–A–G as its chord progression.[12]

Madonna sings lyrics for "Bedtime Story", accompanied by house beats, ambient and new age-inspired melodies. The sample also illustrates usage of drum machines, synths, organs as well as an intricate rhythmic structure. The electronic style contrasted Madonna's pop and R&B-based songs of the early 1990s.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The song is linked to the ending of the previous album track, "Sanctuary", and starts with its chords.[11] After this, the skeletal synth arrangement begins, over which the singer can be heard groaning. This is followed by sound of the drum machine and machine handclap. Madonna sings the song in a subdued, speak-sing manner, with the line "Today is the last day I am using words". In the song, Madonna sings certain lines in a hypnotic style.[10] The ending of the track has a pulsating beat and a mix of the lead synth, with Madonna's voice whimpering and uttering "Ha-ha-aahs". It ends abruptly saying "And all that you've ever learned, try to forget, I'll never explain again" making the listener believe that it was all the part of a dream.[11]

According to Victor Amaro Vicente in his book The aesthetics of motion in musics for the Mevlana Celal ed-Din Rumi, the song's music bears many resemblances to new age-era music and different forms of Sufi music.[9] Its slow atmospheric qualities have drawn comparison to "Mevlevi-Sufi Relaxation" and the song's intricate, "steady and continuous" rhythmic structure has also drawn comparison to the zikr ceremony.[9] Björk, one of the song's writers, has been credited for giving the song its particular style and according to De Vries, the track's architecture is "distinctly Björkian" and she "has such a particular and idiosyncratic approach to the construction of lyrics and phrasing".[13] In a chapter of Music and Technoculture written by Charity Marsh and Melissa West, it is stated that one can hear the influence of Björk in Madonna's vocals during the song.[14]

Rikky Rooksby, author of The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, noted that the lyrics of "Bedtime Story" are a hymn to the joys of unconsciousness and a rejection of the supposed constraints of reason and language, hence the line "Words are useless, especially sentences, They don't stand for anything, How could they explain how I feel?"[11] Lyrically, despite being a song about a trip to the unconscious, scholars have noticed subtexts within the song's meaning. Vicente noted that postmodernism and new age themes are prevalent within the lyrics, especially with regards to their incapability of articulating the concept of the truth, as well as the song's theme of meditation and relax. Islamic mystic and sexual themes have also been noted within the song's lyrics.[9] Vicente further noted the clichés references to "honey", "longing" and "yearning", and the sexual connotations of being "wet on the inside" does not relate to "secular" love, but to "ecstatic" Sufi poetry. The lyrical themes are a contrast from Madonna's previous work, which was overtly sexual. They allude to concepts of movement which are "central" to Sufi philosophy: "It indicates achieving fana through sema (getting 'lost' and 'leaving logic and reason to the arms of unconsciousness')".[9]

Critical reception[edit]

Icelandic singer-songwriter Björk, one of the song's writers, has been noted as the influence for the song.

"Bedtime Story" has received positive reviews from music critics. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic, in a review for the album as a whole, wrote that, along with other tracks, it was among the "best songs on the album" and that they "slowly work their melodies into the subconscious as the bass pulses".[15] Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine praised the song, claiming that the song had unfulfilled potential and that it "could have been the next 'Vogue'".[16] In a review for her GHV2 album, he also described the song as a "trippy follow-up to the mainstream hit 'Take a Bow'" and gave it an "A" rating.[10] Larry Flick from Billboard noted that "It is easily among her boldest and most experimental pop singles to date", also noting its "trippy and cutting-edge trance dance rhythms". He finished his review praising its "ingratiating" hook and "it is an affecting plea for unconscious bliss and escape, voiced with underplayed angst and resolve".[17] Peter Galvin from The Advocate noted that the song "calls to mind the Ecstasy anthem 'Rescue Me'".[18]

O'Brien wrote that "'Bedtime Story' was a vivid track that foreshadowed Madonna's move towards electronica". She also asserted that although De Vries claimed that the song was a "brave decision", yet "Madonna captured the atmosphere of it beautifully".[13] Victor Amaro Vicente in his book The Aesthetics of Motion in Musics for the Mevlana Celal Ed-Din Rumi wrote that the song's "complex rhythmic texture" made it a "dance hall favorite in the mid-1990s".[9] Rikky Rooksby, in his book The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, wrote that the song was similar to the music of English alternative/electronic pop band Everything but the Girl, and claimed that "in contrast to most other songs of the album, this is one track that could have been longer and more trippy than it is".[11] Writing for Idolator, Bianca Gracie was of the opinion: "The ending of 'Sanctuary' blends seamlessly into what may be the highlight of the album — 'Bedtime Story'... It sucks you in with its quivering drum patterns taken directly from trance music, which creates an ethereal ambiance. Gracie commended the influence of UK dance music and Madonna's provocative vocals, finding the song to be a direct inspiration for singer Britney Spears' 2003 track, "Breathe on Me", from her fourth studio album In the Zone.[19]

Matthew Rettenmund wrote in his Encyclopedia Madonnica that the song was a "total curveball" because of its inclusion of the album, and its release as a follow-up single to the commercially successful "Take a Bow" diminished its own potential.[6] However, Rettenmund praised it as one of Madonna's most "uncharacteristic" songs, describing as a "hypnotic, almost hallucinogenic, ride through an idealized state of mind."[20] This was echoed by author Chris Wade, who wrote in the book The Music of Madonna that although written by Björk, Madonna made the song her own by "adding a druggy, sleepiness [to it] that makes it one of her most unusual, quirky and challenging tracks."[21]

Commercial performance[edit]

In the United States, the song debuted at number 72 on the US Billboard Hot 100, on the issue dated April 22, 1995.[22] One week later, the song peaked at number 42, becoming the first Madonna single since "Burning Up" (1983) not to reach the top 40.[23] Had she reached the top 40, she would at the time have become the third woman in the "rock era" with the most top 40 hits, behind Aretha Franklin and Connie Francis. It would have given her a consecutive string of 33 top 40 hits, starting from her single "Holiday" (1983). Nonetheless, the song's "loss" of radio airplay and sales prevented it from peaking within the US top 40.[24] The song spent seven weeks on the Billboard Hot 100.[25] However, it was successful on the US Hot Dance Club Songs chart, where it peaked at number one and spent 16 weeks on the charts.[26] Furthermore, it also charted on various Billboard genre charts, including the Rhythmic Top 40 at number 40,[27] and the Top 40 Mainstream at number 38.[28] On the Canadian RPM Top Singles chart it reached a peak of number 46.[29]

In the United Kingdom, the song entered the charts at its peak of number four on the week of February 25, 1995. It left the top 20 two weeks later, eventually spending nine weeks on the charts.[30] In other European countries, the song also found some success. It peaked at number 38 in the Belgian territory on April 8, 1995, with a total run of only one week.[31] On the Dutch Single Top 100 chart, it entered and peaked at number 46 on April 15, 1995, and stayed on the same position the next week, with a total run of two weeks.[32] "Bedtime Story" debuted at number nine in Finland, and peaked at number four the next week.[33][34] In Australia, the song debuted and peaked at number five on April 9, 1995, where it stayed in that position for three weeks. It fell out of the top ten in the fifth week, and eventually exited the charts after a total run of nine weeks, falling to 44 on its last week in the charts.[35] In New Zealand, it debuted at number 40 on May 7, 1995, moving up two positions to 38 which was its peak, and leaving the charts the next week.[36]

Music video[edit]

Background and development[edit]

Director Mark Romanek was inspired by surrealism for creating the different visuals in "Bedtime Story"

The music video for "Bedtime Story" was directed by Mark Romanek over a course of six days at Universal Studios, Universal City, California.[37] Madonna had first approached Romanek to direct the music video of her Erotica single, "Bad Girl" (1993). The singer brought with her a dark, disturbing paining for inspiration which surprised the director. He recalled in his DVD, The Work of Director Mark Romanek, that "Bad Girl" was ultimately directed by David Fincher, but he was later approached for "Bedtime Story". After listening to the track Romanek accepted to direct it, finding it to be a vehicle to show off his "painterly surrealism".[38] Romanek then contacted storyboard artist Grant Shaffer to create the storyboards for the video. He met with Romanek the next day at Spot Welders, a film editing company in Venice, Los Angeles, where Romanek was finishing the editing for the video to the song "Closer", by rock band Nine Inch Nails. Romanek played "Bedtime Story" for Shaffer and also showed him some photographs of Madonna, which were at that time decided to be used as the album cover. The surrealism inspired images portrayed a mystical looking Madonna, with white hair billowing behind her. Romanek wanted to have the music video capture the same look for the singer. He described to Shaffer in great detail every shot that he and Madonna had come up with; Madonna called from Florida and explained about how much budget the video had as well as her own concepts behind it. For the next few days, Shaffer would sketch the storyboards and fax them to Romanek, who would add revisions to it. About 20 days later Shaffer dropped the final sketches at Propaganda Films, who were producing the video.[39]

For the following three months, Shaffer waited as Bedtime Stories was released, and the videos for the first two singles, "Secret" and "Take a Bow", were in heavy rotation on music channels. Production for the video for "Bedtime Story" started from December 5, 1994, at Universal.[39] When Shaffer arrived there, he was stunned by the grandiose of the sets and the futuristic look of it. His storyboards were glued on a giant blackboard along with the schedule of each shot. Shaffer observed that many of his storyboard ideas had evolved, but they retained the core concepts. Madonna arrived afterwards and proceeded with the shots of herself in the water. Filming stopped for few hours when a minor earthquake shook the film studio. The pre-shooting alignments on the props, position as well as camera angles used a Madonna body double.[39] Few complications were encountered during the filming, like Madonna getting dyed in blue color from sitting in a water tank with skulls, as well as technical difficulties leading to cancellation of a storyboard showing the singer opening her chest cavity. One shot involving Madonna laying the lap of a skeleton had to be postponed since the skeleton was too small for the singer, and had to be rebuilt from scratch. The last scene filmed was the one involving the laboratory where Madonna was shown sleeping in a futuristic dress.[39]

At a reputed cost of $5 million ($7.76 million in 2016 dollars[1]), it is one of the most expensive music videos of all time, and the most expensive at the time, with the music video for one of her earlier singles, "Express Yourself" (1989), which was also reported to have cost $5 million.[40][41][42] Shot by cinematographer Harris Savides, the video was made on 35 mm film lens. Furthermore, Tom Foden was the video's production designer. Due to the vast number of digital effects required for the video, post-production lasted for weeks.[37] In an interview with Aperture magazine, Madonna revealed the inspiration for the music video:

My "Bedtime Story" video was completely inspired by all the female surrealist painters like Leonora Carrington and Remedios Varo. There's that one shot where my hands are up in the air and stars are spinning around me. And me flying through the hallway with my hair trailing behind me, the birds flying out of my open robe – all of those images were an homage to female surrealist painters; there's a little bit of Frida Kahlo in there, too.[43]

Release and synopsis[edit]

Madonna giving birth to a flock of doves in the "Bedtime Story" music video; this scene was compared with Mexican surrealist artist Frida Kahlo's 1932 painting My Birth.[44]

On March 10, 1995, the video was given a cinematic release at three different Odeon Cineplex film theaters; in Santa Monica, California at the Broadway Cinemas, in Manhattan, New York at the Chelsea Theater, and in Chicago, Illinois at the Biograph Theater. In order to promote the video, Madonna did a special known as Madonna's Pajama Party on March 18, 1995. where the singer could be seen reading a bedtime story in Webster Hall in New York City.[37] At the event, "cutting-edge" tribal and trance remixes, made by disc jockey and producer Junior Vasquez, were also played.[45] Unlike most of Madonna's videos which debuted on either MTV or VH1 television channels, "Bedtime Story" was first put into circulation on radio station Z100 following the singer's "pajama party" on March 18.[37] According to Maverick GM Abbey Konowitch, they first aligned with Odeon Cineplex so that they could assure that the music video would be viewed in an innovative way. However, Konowitch and his team were aware that such an event could not be organized for every release because it would cause problems with investments. Odeon VP Freeman Fisher explained that since it was a slow theatrical season, allowing the video's release enabled them to sell more tickets, "for four minutes the audience sees astounding cinematic images in a first class featurelike production. It's not just another artist lip-synching to a track."[37]

The music video starts off with a blue monitor screen with an eye showing the inscription "Welcome".[46] The video progresses inside a blue space ship-style room with Madonna lying prostrate in what seems to be a scientific experiment. The imagery cast in this section of the video have drawn comparisons to hermeticism.[46] The video progresses into a sequence of dreams, containing varied surrealistic, mystic, new age, Sufi and Egyptian imagery and symbolism. Such include a scene in which Madonna lies on a rotating sunflower, and images of a woman with long hair, an alchemist-type man holding a cube with Madonna's face on each side as well as rotating Sufi dancers. The dream sequence progresses with surreal and unusual clips, including Madonna in a pool with half-shown skulls. A scene in which Madonna, dressed in a light dressing gown, gives birth to doves, can also be seen; the image has been compared to the work of René Magritte and Kahlo's 1932 painting My Birth.[44] Suddenly, she floats down a corridor in a white gown, until she appears in a black-and-white projection in a cinema-like room. As the music gets more dramatic, the dream grows intense, with images of skulls and scars appearing, and the singer can be seen wading through space. A scene in which Madonna's eyes are replaced with her mouth and her mouth with an eye precedes the ending, influenced by the work of Kahlo; the final shots show Madonna waking up and looking out.

Reception and analysis[edit]

Museum of Modern Art in New York City, where the video is kept permanently on display

The music video for "Bedtime Story" has received generally positive reviews from critics ever since its release. It was exhibited and permanently kept in different art galleries and museums, including the Museum of Modern Art as well the School of Visual Arts in New York City.[47][48] O'Brien praised the video, calling it "one of her most experimental" music videos and a "Dali-esque epic", causing it to enter "the portals of high art".[49] In a 1995 edition of Billboard, the video was called an "elaborate clip".[45] MTV, while writing an article on the pop culture references of Britney Spears' "Hold It Against Me" music video (2011), claimed that "Bedtime Story" was an ultra artistic video, while finding it to be a direct influence of Spears' video.[50] "Bedtime Story" has been noted for its surrealistic references. Corinna Herr wrote that "Visual references to surreal paintings seem to be a key to Madonna's world of images" and listed "Bedtime Story" as one of these videos. In the same book, it has been written by authors Santiago Fouz-Hernández and Freya Jarman-Ivens that Corinna Herr considers videos including "Bedtime Story" to be in relation to alchemical and hermeticist traditions, investigating in particular the concepts of androgyny and masquerade.[51] She has also written regarding the video's new age influences and concept of an idealised world, one "which she is not necessarily a part, but to which she nevertheless seems to be attracted".[44] Rettenmund commented that the video was rife with mystical and Sufi traditions, and described it as a "singular creation in Madonna's oeuvre".[6]

The music video has also drawn comparisons to Tarsem Singh's films The Fall (2006) and The Cell, in the sense that they both incorporate elements of Islamic mystic imagery, such as in the scene where the Sufi swirling dance is executed, as well as the floating cube. Writer Brad Brevet, who observed the similarities, wondered: "it makes me wonder, is Tarsem as interested in this video as I am?" He deduced that both the video and the films deal with tapping into the subconscious of the human mind and hence the resulting strange visuals were directly an influence from "Bedtime Story".[40] James Steffen, author of The Cinema of Sergei Parajanov, found that some of the imagery in the video were directly lifted from the 1969 Soviet film, The Color of Pomegranates, including the scenes showing a bare foot crushing grapes over a slab inscribed with Arabic, and a scene showing a bishop's croziers falling into hand. Steffen also noted that Romanek's influences for the video included the works of Russian film director Andrei Tarkovsky, including Stalker (1979) and Nostalghia (1983).[52] Jake Hall from Dazed declared "Bedtime story" as the blueprint for "90s brand of futurism", adding that the video "eschews the obvious and instead relies on undulating CGI".[53]

Live performances and legacy[edit]

A Junior Vasquez remix of the song was performed at the 1995 Brit Awards, Madonna wore a white Versace dress and long hair extensions, an image similar to the Versace advertisement campaign she was promoting. She even invited Björk to feature in the performance; hovever, the singer turned it down, saying "I was supposed to get [Madonna's] personal number and call her up, but it just didn't feel right. I'd love to meet her accidentally, really drunk in a bar. It's just all that formality that confuses me".[5] This performance was ranked number four on Marie Claire's "30 Best Brit Award Moments" list. It was described by the magazine as the "best opening performance" from the awards, and commented that "the star pulled out all the stops, treating the audience to a light show and trio of satin-clad male dancers".[54]

Madonna has only featured the song on one of her concert tours, the 2004 Re-Invention World Tour, using elements from the Orbital remix and shown as a video interlude. During it, three acrobatic dancers dropped from the ceiling on swings, while the screens showed scenes of Madonna wearing a white costume while singing in front of a mirror and lying down on a big scanner. A white horse can be seen with her during the video riding on a white desert and running through white sheets. As the interlude ended, Madonna appeared on stage again to sing "Nothing Fails".[55]

"Bedtime Story" has frequently been cited as one of the songs with the most unfulfilled potential in Madonna's career,[16] nonetheless, the song did enjoy some success, being a club "favorite" in the mid-1990s.[9] It has also been described as the record that foreshadowed Madonna's usage of electronic music in her following work. According to Victor Amaro Vicente in his book The aesthetics of motion in musics for the Mevlana Celal ed-Din Rumi, the song was influential and left a legacy on Madonna's work, especially on her album Ray of Light, which, according to him, owes "its contemplative and electronic techno rave character to 'Bedtime Story'".[9] O'Brien wrote in Madonna: Like an Icon, that the song "foreshadowed her move towards electronica" and labelled it an "embryonic moment that went a lot further on the next few albums". De Vries recalled that tackling the song "seemed to set something free in Madonna. She was straining at the leash a littel bit, to find some other languages to speak, and 'Bedtime Story' was an embryonic moment that went a lot further on to the next few albums."[13] In a review for the Bedtime Stories album on a whole, Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine wrote that the song was "the germ that would later inspire Madonna to seek out and conquer electronica with the likes of William Orbit and Mirwais".[16]

Track listings and formats[edit]

Credits and personnel[edit]

  • Madonna – lead vocals, producer
  • Björk – songwriter
  • Marius De Vries – producer
  • Nellee Hooper – songwriter, producer
  • Frederick Jorio – mixing
  • P. Dennis Mitchell – mixing
  • Robert Kiss – assistant engineer
  • Joey Moskowitz – programming
  • Paolo Riversi – cover art photographer, designer
  • Michael Penn – designer

Credits and personnel adapted from Bedtime Stories album liner notes.[62]

Charts[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved November 10, 2015. 
  2. ^ Servin, James (November 20, 2013). "Flashback Friday: Dancer in the Dark". Nylon. Retrieved May 13, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b O'Brien 2008, pp. 291–292
  4. ^ Taraborrelli 2008, p. 102
  5. ^ a b Pytlik 2003, pp. 82–83
  6. ^ a b c Rettenmund 2016, p. 51
  7. ^ Pytlik 2003, p. 194
  8. ^ Farber, Jim (October 28, 1994). "Album Review: 'Bedtime Stories' (1994)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Amaro Vicente 2007, pp. 253
  10. ^ a b c d "Madonna: GHV2". Slant Magazine. November 9, 2001. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Rooksby 2004, pp. 49–50
  12. ^ Ciccone, Madonna (1994). "Madonna 'Bedtime Story' Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing. Retrieved May 13, 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c O'Brien 2008, p. 293
  14. ^ T. A. Lysloff 2003, pp. 182
  15. ^ Thomas Erlewine, Stephen (October 25, 1994). "Bedtime Stories: Madonna". AllMusic. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c Cinquemani, Sal (March 9, 2003). "Madonna: Bedtime Stories". Slant Magazine. Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  17. ^ Flick, Larry (March 18, 1995). "Madonna: Bedtime Story". Billboard 107 (11): 59. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  18. ^ Galvin, Peter (November 15, 1994). "Madonna, Bedtime Stories". The Advocate 107 (11): 83. ISSN 0001-8996. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  19. ^ Gracie, Bianca (October 24, 2014). "Madonna's 'Bedtime Stories” Turns 20: Backtracking". Idolator. Retrieved June 9, 2016. 
  20. ^ Rettenmund 2016, p. 50
  21. ^ Wade 2016, pp. 79–80
  22. ^ "Hot 100 Singles". Billboard 107 (16): 98. April 22, 1995. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Hot 100 Singles". Billboard 107 (17): 100. April 29, 1995. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  24. ^ Bronson, Fred (May 6, 1995). "Boyz II Men, Adams Jockey For No. 1". Billboard 107 (18): 94. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  25. ^ a b "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Hot 100 for Madonna. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  26. ^ a b "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs for Madonna. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  27. ^ a b "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Rhythmic Songs for Madonna. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  28. ^ a b "Madonna – Chart history" Billboard Pop Songs for Madonna. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  29. ^ a b "Top RPM Singles: Issue 9041." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  30. ^ a b "Madonna: Artist Chart History" Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  31. ^ a b "Ultratop.be – Madonna – Bedtime Story" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  32. ^ a b "Dutchcharts.nl – Madonna – Bedtime Story" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  33. ^ "Hits of the World Continued". Billboard. March 18, 1995. p. 49. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  34. ^ a b c "Hits of the World Continued". Billboard. April 1, 1995. p. 49. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
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References[edit]

External links[edit]


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