digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Battle of Mutina
Date April 21, 43 BC
Location Northern Italy
Result Tactical Republican victory, Strategic Mark Antony victory (Antony prevents encirclement of his forces, the enemy consul was killed), Octavian and the Republic sign a treaty with Antony
Belligerents
Roman Republic Mark Antony's forces
Commanders and leaders
Aulus Hirtius
Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Octavianus
Marcus Antonius
Strength
45,000 20,000
Casualties and losses
8,000 6,000

The Battle of Mutina was fought on April 21, 43 BC between the forces of Mark Antony and the forces of Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and Aulus Hirtius, who were providing aid to Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus.

Prelude[edit]

Around one year after Julius Caesar's murder, negotiations between the Roman Senate and Antony broke off. Antony was unhappy with the province he was due to govern, Macedonia, after his year as Consul of Rome. Macedonia was too far away if trouble were to threaten him in the capital, Rome. So he exchanged the post for a five-year term in Cisalpine Gaul. From that vantage point he could overawe the capital, and if need be intervene directly, as Caesar did in 49 B.C. It did not matter that a governor had been selected who was already in possession of the province. This was Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, a distant relative of Marcus Junius Brutus and a onetime follower of Julius Caesar. He had lost confidence in the Dictator and taken part in his assassination on the Ides of March. Antony planned to transfer his legions in Macedonia to Italy, lead them northward and unseat Decimus Brutus.

Mark Antony had Decimus Brutus confined around Mutina (modern Modena), just south of the Padus (Po) River on the Via Aemilia. Pansa, one of the current Consuls, was sent north from Rome to link with his co-Consul, Hirtius and Octavian in order to provide Brutus with aid. Octavian, Julius Caesar's great-nephew, adopted son and primary heir, had no love for Decimus Brutus, one of Caesar's assassins. However, his position would be legitimized by the Senate if he used his legions, veterans of Caesar's vast army, against Antony. Therefore, after being appointed a Propraetor by the Senate, he joined his forces with those of Hirtius against Antony. On April 14, Antony marched with his praetorian cohort, the II and the XXXV legions, light-armed troops and a strong body of cavalry to cut off Pansa before he could reach the senatorial armies. Antony assumed Pansa had only four legions of recruits, but the previous night Hirtius had dispatched the Martian legion and Octavian's praetorian cohort to assist Pansa. Antony's legions collided with those of Pansa, in the village of Forum Gallorum. In the ensuing Battle of Forum Gallorum, Pansa's troops were routed and the general mortally wounded. However, instead of gaining a decisive victory, Antony was forced to withdraw when reinforcements under Hirtius crashed into his own exhausted ranks.

The battle[edit]

Six days after Forum Gallorum, the two armies met again in the vicinity of Mutina. Octavian's forces were now present and fought on the side of the remaining consul Hirtius. Although Antony was defeated, Hirtius himself was killed in the attack on Antony's camp, leaving the army and republic leaderless. Octavian recovered his body and according to Suetonius, "in the thick of the fight, when the eagle-bearer of his legion was sorely wounded, he shouldered the eagle and carried it for some time." And now with his pro-praetorian imperium, he gained control of the deceased consul's legions. When the Senate ordered that the legions be handed over to Decimus Brutus, Octavian refused and took permanent command of them himself with the result that he now controlled eight legions, loyal to him rather than to the Republic. He explained, with plausibility, that the established legions would refuse to fight under the command of one of Julius Caesar's assassins. Octavian refused to cooperate or further assist Decimus Brutus whose legions at Mutina began deserting him, many deserting to Octavian. His position deteriorating by the day, Decimus Brutus fled Italy, abandoning his remaining legions. He attempted to reach Macedonia, where fellow assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus were stationed but was executed en route by a Gallic chief loyal to Mark Antony, becoming the first of Caesar's assassins to be killed.

Consequences[edit]

Mutina is essentially where Octavian turns from an inferior young man to an equal of Antony. After retreating over the Alps with the remains of his army, Antony soon recrossed the Alps having gathered an army of 17 legions and 10,000 cavalry (in addition to six legions left behind with Varius, according to Plutarch). However, soon after the battle, a truce was formed between fellow Caesarians Antony and Octavian at Bologna. A Commission of Three for the Ordering of the State was to be officially established for five years, known as the Second Triumvirate, with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Octavian and Mark Antony as the commissioners or Triumvirs. They would set aside their differences and turn on the Senators involved in Caesar's assassination while assuming a 3-way dictatorship. Eventually in the ensuing power struggles many years later, Octavian would defeat Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC and usher in the Principate, but Mutina was the milestone where Octavian first established himself as a force to be reckoned with. Without this victory, Octavian might never have achieved the prestige necessary to be looked upon as Caesar's successor, and the stability of the Empire might never have been established in the lasting manner which Octavian had decided for it.

Bibliography[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mutina — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
268 videos foundNext > 

Augustus Caesar 10 min. Film

Biography Project for English. Augustus Caesar. Narrated by myself. There is no way for me to fully describe Augustus Caesar in the ten minutes or so that I ...

MUTINA | Patricia Urquiola - iSaloni 2014

MUTINA | Jay Osgerby - iSaloni 2014

MUTINA | Emanuele Marcato - iSaloni 2014

Mutina Boica 2012 - LA BATTAGLIA DI TALAMONE

Ricostruzione della battaglia di Talamone del 225 a.C. MVTINA BOICA - Celti e Romani tra i due fiumi Parco Enzo Ferrari, Modena, quarta edizione, 7-8-9 sette...

Mutina Boica 2013 - INTRO BATTAGLIA

Mutina Boica - Celti e Romani tra i due Fiumi Introduzione teatrale della battaglia "Il Tramonto dei Rasenna". Interpretazione di Tony Contartese, direttore ...

Rome - Mark Antony Is Not Defeated

Rome - Mark Antony Is Not Defeated - Episode S02E04 - "Testudo et Lepus (The Tortoise and the Hare)"

History Channel Decisive Battles E04 Marathon

I Cavalieri della Fenice - Mutina Boica 2013

I Cavalieri della Fenice a "Mutina Boica". "Il Tramonto dei Rasenna", Battaglia tra celti ed etruschi di IV secolo a.C. 5,6,7,8 settembre 2013, Modena. I Cav...

Mutina Boica 2011 - LA BATTAGLIA PART 1

Battaglia campale tra celti, romani e cartaginesi! MVTINA BOICA - Celti e Romani tra i due fiumi Parco Enzo Ferrari, Modena, terza edizione (2011) Organizzaz...

268 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Battle of Mutina" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Battle of Mutina

You can talk about Battle of Mutina with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!