digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For the Reconquista battle, see Battle of Granada.
Battle of Grenada
Part of the American War of Independence
Battle of Grenada mg 9372.jpg
Battle of Grenada, by Jean-François Hue
Date 6 July 1779
Location Off Grenada, West Indies
Result French victory[1]
Belligerents
 Great Britain  France
Commanders and leaders
John Byron Comte D'Estaing
Strength
21 ships of the line
  • 1,516 guns
25 ships of the line
  • 1,468 guns
Casualties and losses
1,055 dead or wounded,[1]
4 ships heavily damaged
176 dead,
773 wounded[1]

The Battle of Grenada took place on 6 July 1779 during the American War of Independence in the West Indies between the British Royal Navy and the French Navy, just off the coast of Grenada. The British fleet of Admiral John Byron, the grandfather of Lord Byron, had sailed in an attempt to relieve Grenada, which the French forces of the Comte D'Estaing had just captured.

Incorrectly believing he had numerical superiority, Byron ordered a general chase to attack the French as they left their anchorage at Grenada. Because of the disorganized attack and the French superiority, the British fleet was badly mauled in the encounter, although no ships were lost. Naval historian Alfred Thayer Mahan described the British loss as "the most disastrous ... that the British Navy had encountered since Beachy Head, in 1690."[2] Despite the French victory, d'Estaing did not follow up with further attacks, squandering any tactical advantage the battle gave him.

Background[edit]

Following the entry of France into the American War of Independence as an American ally in early 1778, French Admiral the Comte D'Estaing arrived in the West Indies in early December 1778 in command of a fleet consisting of 12 ships of the line and a number of smaller vessels.[3] At about the same time a British fleet under Admiral William Hotham also arrived, augmenting the fleet of Admiral Samuel Barrington.[4] The British then captured French-held St. Lucia, despite d'Estaing's attempt at relief. The British used St. Lucia to monitor the major French base at Martinique, where d'Estaing was headquartered.[5]

The British fleet was further reinforced in January 1779 by ten ships of the line under Admiral John Byron, who assumed command of the British Leeward Islands station.[6] Throughout the first half of 1779 both fleets received further reinforcements, after which the French fleet was slightly superior to that of the British.[7] Furthermore, Byron departed St. Lucia on June 6 in order to provide escort services to British merchant ships gathering at St. Kitts for a convoy to Europe, leaving d'Estaing free to act. D'Estaing and Governor the marquis de Bouillé seized the opportunity to begin a series of operations against nearby British possessions.[8]

Their first target, the isle of Saint Vincent, fell on 18 June, and d'Estaing turned his attention to other islands. He had hoped to capture the key British possession, Barbados, but after making no progress against the prevailing easterly trade winds, he turned his attention instead to Grenada.[9] The French fleet arrived off Grenada on 2 July, and stormed its main defences beginning late on 3 July. Terms of capitulation were agreed on the 4th.[10]

Admiral Byron had been alerted to the French action at Saint Vincent, and was sailing with a force to recapture it. When news arrived that the French were at Grenada, he immediately changed course to meet them.[10] The British fleet consisted of 21 ships of the line and 1 frigate. Because he was escorting troop transports and was short of frigates, three ships of the line were assigned duty to escort the transports. Admiral d'Estaing was warned on 5 July of Byron's approach, and promptly reembarked most of his troops. His fleet consisted of 25 ships of the line and a large number of frigates and smaller vessels.[11] Admiral Byron was unaware of d'Estaing's full strength, since during his absence d'Estaing had been reinforced by a squadron from Europe under Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte.[8]

Battle[edit]

The capture of the island of Grenada by the troops of D'Estaing

The French were anchored off St. George's Town on the southwest of the island, and the British approached during the night. D'Estaing weighed anchor at 4:00 am when the British fleet was spotted, ordering his ships to form a line of battle in order of speed (that is, without regard to the usual sailing order), heading roughly northward.[12] This masked the true strength of the French fleet as each ship left the cluster at the anchorage. Believing his force to be superior, Byron gave the order for general chase, approaching the anchorage from the northeast.[13]

When Byron finally became aware of the full French strength, he attempted to reform a battle line. As a result, the British attack was disordered and confused. Fame, Lion and two other ships got separated from the main body, and were very badly mauled. Lion was forced to run downwind to Jamaica to avoid capture. The French lost no ships and eventually hauled off. The British lost 183 killed and 346 wounded. Fame had four killed and nine wounded. The French lost 190 killed and 759 wounded.

Aftermath[edit]

D'Estaing returned to Grenada to make repairs, while Byron made for St. Kitts to do the same. The French admiral failed to capitalise on his superior strength to launch further attacks in the West Indies. Byron returned home in August. D'Estaing, after co-operating unsuccessfully with the Americans in an attack on Savannah in September also returned to Europe.

Order of battle[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Castex (2004), pp. 196-99
  2. ^ Mahan, pp. 438–439
  3. ^ Mahan, pp. 429–431
  4. ^ Mahan, p. 429
  5. ^ Mahan, pp. 429–432
  6. ^ Colomb, p. 388
  7. ^ Colomb, pp. 388–389
  8. ^ a b Colomb, p. 389
  9. ^ Colomb, p. 390
  10. ^ a b Colomb, p. 391
  11. ^ Mahan, pp. 434–435
  12. ^ Mahan, p. 435
  13. ^ Mahan, pp. 435, 437

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 12°03′N 61°45′W / 12.05°N 61.75°W / 12.05; -61.75


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Grenada — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
50587 videos foundNext > 

Operation Urgent Fury (documentary)- Invasion of Grenada

In 1983 the United States invaded the island of Grenada and Overthrew the communist government in favor of a pro-Western one in a span of less than two month...

1492 Fall of Granada

Fall of Granada in 1492 marking the end of the Reconquista. Enjoy. English translation Emir Muhammad XII Gentlemen,let us proceed. Lay down your weapons! Gra...

[NEW SPICEMAS 2014] Sparky - Battle Field - Grenada Soca 2014

BRAND NEW SOCA MUSIC RELEASED FOR SPICEMAS, GRENADA CARNIVAL 2014 THIS ONE IS BY: SPARKY PRODUCED BY: ISLAND JAMMERS (((PROMO USE ONLY))) ANY ARTISTS WHO ...

GRENADA BATTLE OF THE ISLAND DRAG WARS 2

Grenada's Best-Wendell Vs Shawn(Online Battle)PROMO VIDEO

This is an online battle between me (Wendell) and Shawn to see who's best from Grenada.

KILLER T - GUN BATTLE BLOCK - SMOOTH WATER RIDDIM - GRENADA DANCEHALL 2013

BRAND NEW DANCEHALL RIDDIM THE SMOOTH WATER RIDDIM, OUT OF GRENADA 2013 PRODUCE BY KONVICT MIXED AND MASTERED BY KILLER T THIS ONE IS BY: KILLER T (((PROMO ...

BOSS FM GRENADA (BATTLE OF THE BEATS AD)

BOSS 104.1 / 9 FM GRENADA BATTLE OF THE BEATS AD..... Video Edited by: Chevon Francis.

Subaru Imprezas battle at Pearls Raceway Grenada May 18th, 2010

Preparing for GMC Drag Fest, see the link below http://www.partygrenada.com/gmc/dragfest.htm.

REMMYSTONE VS RICHES ROUNND 1 FREESTYLE BATTLE -----GRENADA VS (NY) CROWN HEIGHTS

YOU DECIDE WHO WON...WE CAN'T CALL IT.

Empire: Total War-United Provinces: Episode 16 Battle of New Grenada

New series. Don't worry, Star Wars Republic at War will be back soon. This game is amazing. It's war where units will break and run away, which is the goal. ...

50587 videos foundNext > 

4 news items

 
AMERICAblog (blog)
Mon, 07 Oct 2013 07:30:55 -0700

Almost as many medals as a Battle of Grenada veteran! Ninong. Maybe it was wearing all those “hero of the Soviet Union” medals that wore him down? Apparently he is a former multiple-times Olympic diving champion. Here's what I mean by the medals ...
 
WBTV
Wed, 29 Aug 2012 16:42:40 -0700

Through the years, fans have enjoyed a reenactment of the Battle of Grenada; a three-ring circus; numerous world-record automobile stunts; a 5,000-member marching band; and an assemblage of 5,000 firefighters honoring the heroes of Sept. 11, 2001.
 
AMCtv.com (blog)
Thu, 08 Jul 2010 23:24:20 -0700

... thanks to Clint's presence and a fish-out-of-water premise that sends a cowboy into the heart of New York. 4. Heartbreak Ridge (1986) – One of Clint's seminal war pics, this B-movie done right finds Eastwood memorably mixing it up at the Battle of ...
 
ESPN
Wed, 21 May 2008 12:08:35 -0700

He started prerace shows in 1977 that no track promoter has matched, from re-enacting the battle of Grenada to staging a three-ringed circus to creating a huge fire-breathing, car-eating Robosaurus to jumping a school bus over cars. "Humpy was a step ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight