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Bahir Dar
ባሕር ዳር (Amharic)
Bahar Dar
The Bahir Dar city center
The Bahir Dar city center
Bahir Dar is located in Ethiopia
Bahir Dar
Bahir Dar
Location within Ethiopia
Coordinates: 11°36′N 37°23′E / 11.600°N 37.383°E / 11.600; 37.383
Country Ethiopia
Region Amhara
Woreda Bahir Dar
 • Total 28 km2 (11 sq mi)
Elevation 1,800 m (5,900 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 318,429
 • Density 11,000/km2 (29,000/sq mi)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
Area code(s) (+251) 58

Bahir Dar or Bahar Dar (Amharic: ባሕር ዳር?, Baḥər Dar, “sea shore”) is a city in north-western Ethiopia. It is the capital of the Amhara Region (kilil).

Administratively, Bahir Dar is a Special Zone, a designation in between a chartered city (astedader akabibi, a first-tier division, like a kilil) such as Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, and cities like Debre Marqos and Dessie, which are organized as districts (woredas).

Bahir Dar is one of the leading tourist destinations in Ethiopia, with a variety of attractions in the nearby Lake Tana and Blue Nile river. The city is known for its wide avenues lined with palm trees and a variety of colorful flowers. In 2002 it was awarded the UNESCO Cities for Peace Prize for addressing the challenges of rapid urbanization.[1]


Bahir Dar is situated on the southern shore of Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile (or Abay), in what was previously the Gojjam province. The city is located approximately 578 km north-northwest of Addis Ababa, having a latitude and longitude of 11°36′N 37°23′E / 11.600°N 37.383°E / 11.600; 37.383Coordinates: 11°36′N 37°23′E / 11.600°N 37.383°E / 11.600; 37.383 and an elevation of about 1,800 metres (5,906 feet) above sea level.


Murals in a church on Lake Tana, near Bahir Dar

Bahir Dar's origins date to at least the sixteenth or seventeenth century; Pedro Páez is credited with erecting several buildings in this city, one of which is "a solid, two-storey stone structure, with an outside staircase" and can be seen in the compound of the present-day Giyorgis church.[2]

The next mention of Bahir Dar is from the mid-19th century, as the camping spot for the army of Emperor Tewodros II. Here his army suffered from cholera, forcing the Emperor to move his troops to Begemder. Despite the loss of life on the journey, by the time they reached Begemder, the army was free of the illness.[3] Arthur J. Hayes spent a few days in Bahir Dar in early February 1903, which he described as a village surrounded by a marsh of papyrus plants; nearby were "two or three huts" inhabited by the Weyto, an ethnic group which were considered outcasts by the Amhara, yet "proud of their isolation." Hayes also visited the local church, dedicated to Saint George, which was decorated with murals of the saint in combat and returned victoriously.[4]

During the Italian invasion, an Italian column moved from Gondar on 23 April 1937 and, after a rapid march, occupied Bahar Dar. The city was bombed by the Royal Air Force on 21–22 October 1940, and although the action made little damage it was a boost to Arbegnoch morale. After months of skirmishing with the British advance, the Italian garrison under the command of Colonel Torelli was recalled to Gondar by General Guglielmo Nasi, and began to evacuate the city on 27 April 1941.[3] One of Emperor Haile Selassie's palaces was located near the city, and the Emperor considered moving the national capital to the town.

On 15 June 1961 the Emperor inaugurated the new 226 meter-long highway bridge over the Abay, situated at about 3 km from Bahir Dar.[3]

A Polytechnic Institute, built by the Soviet Union at a cost of Ethiopian Birr 2.9 million, opened in 1963, with courses in agricultural mechanics, industrial chemistry, electrical technology, wood-working and processing technology, textile technology, and metal technology. Designed to accommodate 1,000 students, at the start in September the school had 21 Ethiopian teachers and 250 students of 8th grade level; by 1968 had 619 students in four grades, with 51 teachers of whom 23 were expatriates.[3]

Resort hotel in Bahir Dar

During the Ethiopian Civil War, May 1988 the 603rd corp of the Third Revolutionary Army (TLA) made its headquarters at Bahir Dar. On 3–4 March 1990, the TLA abandoned Bahir Dar in disarray, blowing up the nearby bridge with several hundred soldiers which stopped the TPLF/EPRDF forces from occupying the city. However, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) claimed they had too few effectives in the area to capture the town at that time, and the Derg army reoccupied Bahir Dar a few days later.[3] The EPRDF gained permanent control of the city around 1810 hours on 23 February 1991, as one of the objectives of Operation Tewodros.[5]

The city, in honor of the Millennium celebrations, hosted a National Investment Bazaar and Trade Fair on 6–9 January 2007. Mulat Gezahegn, head of the Trade, Industry and Investment Promotion Coordination Office, told journalists that more than 150 local and foreign companies participated.[6]


Map of the regions and zones of Ethiopia.

Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), Bahir Dar Special Zone has a total population of 221,991, of whom 108,456 are men and 113,535 women; 180,174 or 81.16% are urban inhabitants, the rest of population are living at rural kebeles around Bahir Dar. At the town of Bahir Dar there are 155,428 inhabitants; the rest of urban population is living at Meshenti, Tis Abay and Zege towns which are part of Bahir Dar Special Zone. As Philip Briggs notes, Bahir Dar "is not only one of the largest towns in Ethiopia, but also one of the fastest growing -- the western outskirts have visibly expanded since the first edition of this guide was published in 1994."[7] The three largest ethnic groups reported in Bahir Dar Special Zone were the Amhara (96.23%), the Tigrayan (1.11%), and the Oromo (1.1%); all other ethnic groups made up 1.56% of the population. Amharic was spoken as a first language by 96.78%, and 1.01% spoke Oromiffa; the remaining 2.21% spoke all other primary languages reported. 89.72% of the population said they practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 8.47% were Muslim, and 1.62% were Protestants.[8]

The 1994 national census reported a total population for Bahir Dar of 96,140 in 20,857 households, of whom 45,436 were men and 50,704 women. The three largest ethnic groups reported in the city were the Amhara (93.21%), the Tigrayan (3.98%), and the Oromo (0.7%); all other ethnic groups made up 2.11% of the population. Amharic was spoken as a first language by 95.52%, and 2.93% spoke Tigrinya; the remaining 1.55% spoke all other primary languages reported. 87.53% practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and 11.47% of the population said they were Muslim.[9]

People and culture[edit]

The Blue Nile Falls as they looked before a dam was constructed

The city offers a small daily market and a very extensive weekly market. There are some music clubs in the city. The city is home to Bahir Dar University, which projects an enrollment of over 40,000 students in the academic year beginning in October 2012.[10]

The Blue Nile Falls (Tis Issat) are located about 30 km to the south. Nowadays the amount of water running through the falls is being reduced and regulated, since the construction of a hydroelectric power dam. Nevertheless, the Blue Nile Falls are still one of the main tourist attractions of Bahir Dar, especially during the rainy season when the water level rises and the falls become greater.


The Rispins International School opened a branch in Bahir Dar in September 2012. It had 125 pupils in its first year with students from 12 nationalities. In September 2013 it will have a second campus and will operate from Kg to Grade 7.


Front entrance to the Bahir Dar Ginbot Haya Airport.

Air transportation in Bahir Dar is served by the Bahir Dar Airport (ICAO code HABD and IATA BJR). Also known as the Ginbot Haya Airport, it has paved runways. Ethiopian Airlines operates daily flights through the facility, linking Bahir Dar and the capital, as well as with Gondar to the northwest. In December 2014 a new domestic airline TNA started flights to Bahir Dar but only on Mondays and Fridays.

Additionally, the city is also connected through roads (and buslines) to these cities. The most common and convenient way of traveling in Bahir Dar is cycling. Auto rickshaws and share taxis also provide transportation in the city. Intercity bus service is provided by the Selam Bus Line Share Company and Sky Bus Transport System which operates daily to and from the capital.

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Bahir Dar is twinned with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ UNESCO Cities for Peace Prize, 2002
  2. ^ Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopians (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), p. 103
  3. ^ a b c d e "Local History in Ethiopia" The Nordic Africa Institute website (accessed 12 February 2008)
  4. ^ Hayes, The Source of the Blue Nile (London, 1905), pp. 142-144, 153. A photo Hayes took of the interior during his stay is published facing p. 154.
  5. ^ Gebru Tareke, The Ethiopian Revolution: War in the Horn of Africa (New Haven: Yale University, 2009), p. 302
  6. ^ "Bahirdar City to host trade fair marking Millennium celebrations" WIC (last accessed 30 November 2006)
  7. ^ Philip Briggs, Guide to Ethiopia, third edition (Old Saybrook: Globe Pequot Press, 2003), p. 181. ISBN 1-84162-035-1
  8. ^ Census 2007 Tables: Amhara Region, Tables 2.1, 2.4, 2.5, 3.1, 3.2 and 3.4.
  9. ^ 1994 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Results for Amhara Region, Vol. 1, part 1, Tables 2.1, 2.11, 2.14, 2.17 (accessed 6 April 2009)
  10. ^ "Bahir Dar University to enroll 40,000 students in regular, continuing and distance education." Capitalethiopia (capitalethiopia.com)
  11. ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahir_Dar — Please support Wikipedia.
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1948 news items

Vatican Radio

Vatican Radio
Mon, 19 Jan 2015 07:16:53 -0800

The new diocese in Ethiopia has joined together the two districts of Bahir Dar and Dessie. The new diocese or eparchy will have as its new Bishop, Lisane-Christos Matheos. Until his appointment today, Bishop Matheos has been the Auxiliary Bishop of ...
Wed, 21 Jan 2015 05:08:52 -0800

Bahir Dar — Pope Francis has erected a new Diocese in Ethiopia which will be known as the Diocese of Bahir Dar - Dessie. The new diocese in Ethiopia has joined together the two districts of Bahir Dar and Dessie. The new diocese or eparchy will have as ...


Fri, 26 Dec 2014 06:03:45 -0800

The British national, who has not been named, was accidentally killed by a local in the north western Ethiopian city of Bahir Dar. The tourist - believed to be a 47-year-old man - was walking through the streets when he was hit by a stray bullet. Local ...


Wed, 21 Jan 2015 02:18:45 -0800

During a recent visit to EMTI in Bahir Dar, the US Ambassador to Ethiopia, Patricia M Haslach, said, “The US has an old and cherished maritime heritage, and we are pleased and excited to help foster a maritime tradition in Ethiopia as well.” She added ...

Radio Tamazuj

Radio Tamazuj
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 05:59:00 -0700

The venue of the South Sudanese peace negotiations under the auspices of the regional organization IGAD will be transferred to Bahir Dar, the capital of the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Negotiators at the talks this morning were informed of the change of ...
Tue, 20 Jan 2015 22:09:26 -0800

Sheikh Fahad Al Thani told the president that he had visited various investment sites in Ethiopia and had plans to launch 4 investment projects worth some US$500 million. He plans to open a cement factory in Dire Dawa, a sugar factory in Bahir Dar town ...
The Reporter
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 00:33:28 -0700

Bahir Dar University (BDU) is set to hire local and international firms for designing what it calls a Conceptual Campus Masterplan Design for the central clusters of its campuses in the Bahir Dar town, the seat of the Amhara Regional State. The ...
The Reporter
Sun, 11 Jan 2015 20:48:37 -0800

TNA launched scheduled flight service to Bahir Dar, Gondar and Humera last November. Terefe said that his company undertaken a feasibility study before commencing domestic scheduled service and identified the gaps in the domestic flight market. "So we ...

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