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Baarin (Mongolian ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ Baγarin, Chinese 巴林 Bālín) is a dialect of Mongolian spoken mainly in Inner Mongolia.

Location and classification[edit]

Baarin is spoken in the Baarin Right Banner, Baarin Left Banner, Ar Khorchin Banner and Ongniud Banner of Ulanhad and in the Jirin Banner of Tongliao in Inner Mongolia.[1] It has been grouped together with Khorchin and Kharchin[2] or as an intermediate variant between these two on the one hand and Chakhar, Khalkha and Ordos on the other hand.[3] On the other hand, it is part of Southern Mongolian as far as its Standard language is concerned and has therefore been grouped into such a variety as well.[4]


Baarin has the short vowel phonemes /ɑ, ə, i, ɔ, ʊ, o, u, ɛ, œ, ʏ, y/ and the corresponding long vowels.[5] The consonant phonemes are /m, n, ŋ, p, pʰ, t, tʰ, tʃ, tʃʰ, x, k, s, ʃ, l, j, r, w/.[6] That is, as in Khalkha and Khorchin, the basic phonation contrast in plosives and affricates is based on aspiration, not on voicedness. This even includes /k/. In contrast to Khalkha and akin to Khorchin, palatalized consonants have already lost their phoneme status and conveyed it to the new vowel phonemes /ɛ, œ, ʏ, y/.


The accusative takes the form /i/, e.g. /xəli/ 'language-Acc'.[7] The genitive, on the other hand, tends to contain one /n/, but it is still based on /i/.[8] Due to this, homophony with the accusative can occur in a few cases, e.g. ternə (accusative and genitive of the distal demonstrative), but not əni (proximal accusative) vs. ənni (proximal genitive).[9] There is no allative and no cognate of the old sociative case, but an additional case in -tar < dotura 'inside' with fairly narrow meaning has been assumed.[10]


  1. ^ Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005: 293
  2. ^ Janhunen 2003
  3. ^ Luvsanvandan 1959
  4. ^ e.g. Sečenbaγatur et al. 2005
  5. ^ Bayarmendü 1997: 7
  6. ^ Bayarmendü 1997: 53-54
  7. ^ Bayarmendü 1997: 87-89
  8. ^ Bayarmendü 1997: 81-85
  9. ^ Bayarmendü 1997: 144; note that this article follows Svantesson et al. 2005: 22-25 in assuming that vowel length in any but the first syllable is non-phonemic as such vowels only "contrast" with non-phonemic vowels inserted to avoid prohibited consonant sequencies.
  10. ^ Bayarmendü 1997: 94-95


  • Bayarmendü, Borǰigin (1997): Baγarin aman ayalγun-u sudulul. Kökeqota: Öbür mongγul-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriy-a.
  • Janhunen, Juha (2003): Mongol dialects. In: Juha Janhunen (ed.): The Mongolic languages. London: Routledge: 177–191.
  • Luvsanvandan, Š. (1959): Mongol hel ajalguuny učir. In: Mongolyn sudlal 1.
  • Sečenbaγatur et al. (2005): Mongγul kelen-ü nutuγ-un ayalγun-u sinǰilel-ün uduridqal. Kökeqota: Öbür mongγul-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriy-a.
  • Svantesson, Jan-Olof, Anna Tsendina, Anastasia Karlsson, Vivan Franzén (2005): The Phonology of Mongolian. New York: Oxford University Press.

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