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B. B. Lal
Born Braj Basi Lal
(1921-05-02) 2 May 1921 (age 94)
Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh
Nationality Indian
Occupation Archaeologist, Director-General Archaeological Survey of India (1968 - 1972)
Known for Work on Indus Valley Civilization sites, Mahabharat sites, Kalibangan

Braj Basi Lal (born 2 May 1921[1]), better known as B. B. Lal, is an Indian archaeologist. He was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) from 1968 to 1972 and has served as Director of the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla. Lal also served on various UNESCO committees.[2]

He received the Padma Bhushan Award by the Government of India in 2000.[2]

Early life and background[edit]

Born in Jhansi, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, India,[1] Lal obtained his master's degree in Sanskrit, including the Vedas, with a First class degree from Allahabad University, India.[3][4]


After his studies, Lal developed interest in archaeology and in 1943, became a trainee in excavation under a veteran British archaeologist, Mortimer Wheeler, starting with Taxila,[4] and later at sites such as Harappa and Sisupalgarh in Odisha.[5] Lal went on to work as an archaeologist for more than fifty years.

In 1968, he was appointed the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India where he would remain until 1972. Thereafter, Lal served as Director of the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla.[2]

Archaeological work[edit]

The Archaeological Survey of India had performed conservation and restoration of Buddhas of Bamiyan, Khwaj Parsa’s Mosque at Balkh and the shrine of Khwaja Abu Naser under R. Sen Gupta and Lal in Afghanistan.[6]

During 1950-52 he worked on archaeology of Mahabharata sites, including Hastinapura, the capital city of The Kurus. He made discoveries of many Painted Grey Ware (PGW) sites in the Indo‑Gangetic Divide and upper YamunaGanga doab.[5]

In Nubia, the Archaeological Survey of India, Lal and his team discovered Middle and Late Stone Age tools in the terraces of the river Nile near Afyeh. The team excavated a few sites at Afyeh and cemetery of C-group people, where 109 graves would be located.[6][7] Lal worked on Mesolithic site of Birbhanpur (West Bengal), Chalcolithic site of Gilund (Rajasthan) and Harappan site of Kalibangan (Rajasthan).

In 1975-76, Lal worked on the "Archaeology of Ramayana Sites" project funded by the ASI, which excavated five sites mention in the Ramayana- Ayodhya, Bharadwaj Ashram, Nandigram, Chitrakoot and Shringaverapur. In the seven-page preliminary report submitted to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Lal reveals the discovery by the team of "pillar bases", immediately south of the Babri mosque structure in Ayodhya.[5][8]

Prof B. B. Lal has published several books and over 150 research papers and articles in national and international scientific journals.[2][5] In his 2002 book, The Saraswati Flows On, Lal refutes the earlier Aryan invasion/migration theory, arguing that the Rig Vedic description of the Sarasvati River (which dried up by 2000 BCE) as "overflowing" contradicts the claim made by certain previous historians that the Indo-Aryan migration occurred 300 years after they contend the Sarasvati River dried up (in 1500 BC) and which they also contended had led to the end of the Indus Valley Civilization.[4]

Ayodhya dispute[edit]

In Lal's 2008 book, Rāma, His Historicity, Mandir and Setu: Evidence of Literature, Archaeology and Other Sciences, he writes (that):

"Attached to the piers of the Babri Masjid, there were twelve stone pillars, which carried not only typical Hindu motifs and mouldings, but also figures of Hindu deities. It was self-evident that these pillars were not an integral part of the Masjid, but were foreign to it."[9]


The B. B. Lal Chair at Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (IIT, Kanpur) has been established in his honour.[10]

The British archaeologists Stuart Piggott and D.H. Gordon describe Copper Hoards of the Gangetic Basin and the Hastinapura Excavation Report, two of Lal's works published in the Journal of the Archaeological Survey of India, as models of research and excavation reporting.[5]


Personal life[edit]

Lal continues to live in Delhi.[4] His son Vrajesh Lal is a businessman based in the United States.[2]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b B. B. Lal
  2. ^ a b c d e f B. B. Lal Chair at IIT Kanpur, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur website.
  3. ^ 'Let not the 19th century paradigms continue to haunt us!', Inaugural Address delivered at the 19th International Conference on South Asian Archaeology at University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy on 2–6 July 2007, online link, archaeologyonline.net
  4. ^ a b c d "Archaeologist B.B. Lal talks about his book 'The Saraswati Flows On' : Books". India Today. 12 November 2001. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Book review by Dr. V. N. Misra, Book review of The Saraswati Flows on: the Continuity of Indian Culture, by Chairman of Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies journal Man and Environment; (vol. XXVI, No. 2, July–December 2001)
  6. ^ a b Archaeological endeavours abroad, Archaeological Survey of India Official website.
  7. ^ a b Abstract, A comparison of Fulani and Nadar HLA, ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  8. ^ "I found pillar bases back in mid-seventies: Prof Lal". Indian Express. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  9. ^ "Ayodhya: High Court relies on ASI's 2003 report". Economic Times. Oct 1, 2010. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  10. ^ "Faculty Chairs". IIT Kanpur. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  11. ^ "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2009)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. 
  12. ^ a b Memoirs, On Excavations, Indus Seals, Art, Structural and Chemical Conservation of Monumets, Archaeological Survey of India Official website.


External links[edit]

Preceded by
Amalananda Ghosh
Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India
1968 - 1972
Succeeded by
M. N. Deshpande

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._B._Lal — Please support Wikipedia.
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138 news items

Zee News
Mon, 04 Apr 2016 23:42:09 -0700

... OF HINDU TEMPLE BELOW DEMOLISHED BABARI MASJID. OPINION OF RENOWNED ARCHEOLOGIST, B. B. LAL IN THE BOOK MENTIONED BELOW: “Rama, His Historicity, Mandir and Setu: Evidence of Literature, Archaeology and Other Stories” . 1.

The Hindu

The Hindu
Tue, 11 Mar 2014 23:24:00 -0700

B. B. Lal. The former ASI Director General launched the first excavation at the Purana Quila site in 1954-55 in which he found structures ascribable to the Gupta, Kushana and Sunga periods. “The trial excavation was alongside the passage leading down ...

Daily News & Analysis

Daily News & Analysis
Sat, 25 Apr 2015 16:59:11 -0700

At nearly 95, archaeologist BB Lal could well be the brand ambassador for productive old age. The star speaker at an international seminar on the Indus-Saraswati civilisation held in New Delhi recently, Lal was sharp, succinct and cogent as he read out ...


Wed, 20 Jan 2016 18:08:39 -0800

... an Indian) in Malayalam also claim that remains of a Hindu temple were found during the excavation made by a team of archaeologists headed by Professor BB Lal, then director general of the Archaeological Survey of India during 1976-77, in which he ...

The New Indian Express

The New Indian Express
Sat, 23 Jan 2016 08:30:00 -0800

She interviews Devaraha Hans Baba, associated with the temple movement; VHP's sants; Congress ally Shankaracharya Swaroopanand Saraswati; a Nirmohi Akhada mahant and Ayodhya historian; Hashim Ansari, oldest Muslim litigant; B B Lal and K N ...

The Indian Express

The Hindu
Tue, 17 Nov 2015 08:46:22 -0800

Michel Danino , guest professor, IIT Gandhinagar; member, ICHR. 7. Prof. B.B. Lal , former Director General, Archaeological Survey of India. 8. Dr. R.S. Bisht , former Joint Director General, Archaeological Survey of India. 9. Dr. R. Nagaswamy , former ...

Zee News

Zee News
Wed, 27 Jan 2016 04:00:36 -0800

... Director(North) of Archaeological Survey of India KK Muhammad has alleged that an excavation done by a team headed by Professor BB Lal, then director general of the ASI during 1976-77, found the remnants of a Hindu temple at the Babri Masjid site.

Times of India

Times of India
Fri, 22 Jan 2016 05:39:07 -0800

He was part of BB Lal's excavation team to Ayodhya in 1978 when remains of 14 pillars of a temple were found at the Babri Masjid site. "But do note that I have said that it was an 11th-12th-century temple, not a more ancient one," he told this ...

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